What Is Tier 3 In Education?

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What Is Tier 3 In Education
Tier 3: Intensive interventions – When kids are struggling and Tier 1 and 2 support don’t seem to help, they are put into Tier 3. This is the most intense level of RTI. Tier 3 can mean small group work, or it can mean individual lessons. Most kids who get this support still spend a lot of their day in a general education classroom.

  1. Yet they may spend bigger parts of the day in a resource room.
  2. Because kids in Tier 3 are the most at-risk students, schools keep a close eye on them.
  3. Teachers check their progress a lot, with the goal that the students will improve enough to leave Tier 3.
  4. In schools that use RTI, students can still get,

The difference is that to get special education, a child must be, which can take time. To get RTI, a child only needs to be at risk of falling behind.
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What does Tier 3 mean?

What is a “Tier”? A Tier is a level in which a Sex Offender is categorized based on his/her sex offense. What is Tier 1 and Offenses Related? 5.3.1 TIER 1 OFFENSES.A. Sex Offenses. A “Tier 1” offense includes any sex offense for which a person has been convicted, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense, that is not a “Tier 2” or “Tier 3” offense.B. Offenses Involving Minors. A “Tier 1” offense also includes any offense for which a person has been convicted by any jurisdiction, local government, or qualifying foreign country pursuant to Section 2.02(C) that involves the false imprisonment of a minor, video voyeurism of a minor, or possession or receipt of child pornography. More in Hopi Sex Offender Registration Code. What is Tier 2 and Offenses Related? A. Recidivism and Felonies. Unless otherwise covered by Section 5.3.3, any sex offense that is not the first sex offense for which a person has been convicted and that is punishable by more than one year in jail is considered a “Tier 2” offense.B. Offenses Involving Minors. A “Tier 2” offense includes any sex offense against a minor for which a person has been convicted, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense, that involves: 1. The use of minors in prostitution, including solicitations, 2. Enticing a minor to engage in criminal sexual activity, HOPI SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 21 3. A non-forcible Sexual Act with a minor 16 or 17 years old, 4. Sexual contact with a minor 13 years of age or older, whether directly or indirectly through the clothing, that involves the intimate parts of the body, 5. The use of a minor in a sexual performance, or 6. The production or distribution of child pornography. READ MORE IN HOPI SEX OFFENDER CODE What is Tier 3 and Offenses Related? 5.3.3 TIER 3 OFFENSES.A. Recidivism and Felonies. Any sex offense that is punishable by more than one year in jail where the offender has at least one prior conviction for a Tier 2 sex offense, or has previously become a Tier 2 sex offender, is a “Tier 3” offense.B. General Offenses. A “Tier 3” offense includes any sex offense for which a person has been convicted, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense, that involves: 1. Non-parental kidnapping of a minor, 2. A sexual act with another by force or threat, 3. A sexual act with another who has been rendered unconscious or involuntarily drugged, or who is otherwise incapable of appraising the nature of the conduct or declining to participate, or 4. Sexual contact with a minor 12 years of age or younger, including offenses that cover sexual touching of or contact with the intimate parts of the body, either directly or through the clothing. READ HOPI SEX OFFENDER CODE FOR MORE INFORMATION. How often must a registered sex offender appear in person to update his or her registration information? A sex offender must appear in person, allow the jurisdiction to take a current photograph, and verify the information in each registry in which that sex offender is required to be registered not less frequently than: Annually for a tier I sex offender, Every six months for a tier II sex offender, and Every three months for a tier III sex offender. Sex offenders must carry out this schedule of personal appearances in all jurisdictions where they reside, are employed and attend school. What are the requirements for keeping registry information current? A sex offender must, not later than three business days after each change of name, residence, employment, or student status, appear in person in at least one jurisdiction in which the sex offender is required to register and inform that jurisdiction of all changes in the information required for that sex offender in the sex offender registry. This information must immediately be provided to all other jurisdictions in which the sex offender is required to register. Jurisdictions must also require a sex offender to provide notice if he or she is leaving the jurisdiction prior to the move; the sex offender must provide information about the jurisdiction to which he or she is going. What is the minimum required duration of registration? SORNA specifies the minimum required duration of sex offender registration for tier I sex offenders to be 15 years, for tier II sex offenders to be 25 years, and for tier III sex offenders to register for life. The registration period begins to run upon release from custody for a sex offender sentenced to incarceration for the registration offense, or in the case of non-incarcerated sex offenders, at the time of sentencing for the sex offense. Are certain classes of sex offenders allowed to reduce the time of their registration requirement? SORNA allows jurisdictions to reduce the registration period for a tier I sex offender by 5 years after the sex offender maintains a clean record for 10 years and to terminate registration for a sex offenders who is required to register under SORNA based on juvenile delinquency adjudication after the sex offender maintains a clean record for 25 years. Achieving a clean record means the sex offender must fulfill the following requirements: Not be convicted of any offense for which imprisonment for more than one year may be imposed, Not be convicted of any sex offense regardless of the penalty, Successfully complete any periods of supervised release, probation, and parole, and Successfully complete an appropriate sex offender treatment program certified by a jurisdiction or by the Attorney General. What is the federal penalty for failure to register? Under 18 U.S.C. §2250, the federal failure-to-register offense, a federal criminal penalty of up to 10 years of imprisonment exists for sex offenders required to register under SORNA who knowingly fail to register or update a registration as required where circumstances supporting federal jurisdiction exist, such as interstate or international travel or travel on or off an Indian reservation by a sex offender, or conviction of a federal sex offense for which registration is required. Can a non-federally convicted sex offender be prosecuted in the federal system for failure to register? Yes. If a sex offender convicted or adjudicated delinquent in a jurisdiction’s court is required to register under SORNA, and knowingly fails to register or update a registration as required, and the sex offender engages in interstate or international travel or enter or leaves or resides in Indian country, then the offender can be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. §2250, the federal failure-to-register offense. How do I sign up to receive e-mail notifications when a sex offender registers a new address that is near me? To register for e-mail notifications, first go to the “Community Notifications” tab. Next, enter your e-mail address and the appropriate information about the address in the Register for Community Notifications section of the page. Next, select whether you would like to be notified about sex offender addresses within a 1-, 2-, or 3-mile radius of your address or within the same zip code. Next, check the “I Agree” box to agree to the terms and conditions of the community notification system. Next, click the “Register” button. You should then receive a validation e-mail message that requires you to click the link in the message to complete your registration. How do I search for sex offenders who are registered by different registration jurisdictions? The Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website (NSOPW) provides the ability to search for registered sex offenders nationwide. To access the Website, go to www.nsopw.gov. How do I search for a particular registered sex offender if I do not know how to spell his or her name? The Name Search feature of the Website uses “begins with” search logic that returns all registered sex offenders with a first and/or last name or an alias that begins with the criteria you are searching. For example, if you conduct a search for first name “Jo” and last name “Sm”, the search results will include registered sex offenders that have the first name John, Jordan, Joseph, etc. with a last name like Smith, Smalls, Smart, etc. To ensure that you get the most accurate results, conduct a name search with the first two or three letters in the first and/or last name and then narrow your search by adding more letters if the search results are too numerous. How do I search for registered sex offenders who live, work, or attend school near an address of interest to me? This Website provides you with a way to search for registered sex offenders by a geographic radius around a particular address, by city, by zip code, and by county. To perform one of these searches, go to the “Geographical Search” tab, enter the information that is appropriate for the type of search you want to perform, select the search type, and click the “Search” button. How do I contact the registry if I have a question or if I have information that may be helpful? The registry staff can be contacted two different ways. The first is to click the “Contact Us” tab, fill out the form, and click the “Submit” button. The second is to click the “Submit a Tip” link while viewing a registered sex offender’s details. When a tip is submitted, information about the offender will automatically be included in the message so the registry staff knows which offender corresponds with the tip.

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What is Tier 3 learning?

RTI Tier 3 –

Tier 3 consists of highly targeted individualized and intensive interventions, and typically consists of between 1% and 5% of students.At some schools, Tier 3 is simply a more intensive tier, in which those students are being considered for special education, but nothing formal has been initiated.At other schools, Tier 3 is for special education and therefore in order for a child/student to be considered, the formal special education initial eligibility process must either begin or be complete.

Regardless of how a school or district interprets or uses Tier 3, children/students at this tier are those who have not responded as expected to the interventions that have been tried. Either the child/student’s growth was minimal, or the growth was not steady or consistent.
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What is Tier 1 tier 2 and Tier 3?

Tier 1 = Universal or core instruction. Tier 2 = Targeted or strategic instruction/intervention. Tier 3 = Intensive instruction/intervention.
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What is the difference between tier 2 and Tier 3?

What are tier 2 and tier 3 cities? According to the government, cities with a population in the range of 50,000 to 100,000 are classified as tier 2 cities, while those with a population of 20,000 to 50,000 are classified as tier 3 cities.
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What are examples of Tier 3 interventions?

Intensive Individualized Interventions – What is Tier 3 of school-wide PBIS? When Tier 1 and Tier 2 of school-wide PBIS are fundamentally in place, the foundation for implementing Tier 3 supports is established. Tier 3 of the triangle model focuses on the individual needs of students who exhibit ongoing patterns of problem behavior and typically require intensive intervention.

  • Tier 3 supports are layered on top of Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports.
  • Students receiving Tier 3 supports also need the foundation and structure provided by Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports.
  • Tier 3 interventions are developed following a comprehensive and collaborative assessment of the problem behavior by people who know the student best.

Interventions and supports are then developed based on this information and are tailored to the student’s specific needs and circumstances. The goal of Tier 3 interventions is not only to diminish the problem behavior but to also increase the student’s adaptive skills and opportunities for an enhanced quality of life.

Chronic/frequent. Dangerous. Highly disruptive. Impeding learning. Resulting in social or educational exclusion.

Wellness Support Team Retreat
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What percent of students should be in Tier 3?

Page 3: Qualities of Tier 3 Intervention – Although most students respond to Tier 1 or Tier 2 instruction, a small percentage (i.e., 5%) will not and may require Tier 3 intervention (i.e., special education services). In a three-tiered model, a special education teacher provides the intervention, which is guided by data, individualized, and recursive, Lynn Fuchs, PhD Nicholas Hobbs Endowed Chair in Special Education and Human Development Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN /wp-content/uploads/module_media/rti05_tier3_media/audio/rti_tier3_audio_03_lynn.mp3 View Transcript Transcript: Lynn Fuchs, PhD I think that when the Tier 2 program is a validated protocol, it is a standard form of instruction that we know most children can be expected to respond to.

And when a child doesn’t respond to that, what that tells us is that the child needs an individualized program, a non-standard form of instruction that’s tailored to that child. And that seems to me to be by definition a special education. If you have a really good standard protocol for Tier 2, we know that some small proportion of kids will not respond to that.

They need an individualized program, and that’s what special education teachers need to be doing. Tier 3 instruction differs from that provided in Tiers 1 or 2 in these ways:

Increased intensity –– more instructional time, smaller group size Increased explicitness –– more focus on teaching specific skills

Another way to increase the intensity of Tier 3 intervention is to group students according to their instructional needs. For example, three students who have difficulty with reading comprehension could receive instruction together in a small group. Additional characteristics of Tier 3 intervention, some of which are shared by Tiers 1 and 2, include:

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High-quality instruction

Use research-validated practices Cover the five core reading components Continue to provide 90 minutes of Tier 1 instruction daily in addition to 40–60 minutes of Tier 3 intervention (up to five days per week)

Five Core Reading Components Phonemic awareness: the ability to listen to, identify, and manipulate phonemes—the smallest units of sounds that are combined to create words. Phonics and word study: phonics instruction teaches students about the relationship between sounds and written letters (known as the alphabetic principle) so that they learn how to decode and read words. In word study instruction, students learn to use complex elements of reading to decode more advanced words (e.g., students learn how to decode words based on associated word meanings and by learning how to identify word parts, such as affixes and root words). The combination of phonics and word study helps students to improve their word recognition, reading, and spelling. Reading comprehension: the ability to understand written text. Vocabulary: the knowledge of words and what they mean. Reading fluency: the ability to read text with accuracy, speed, and intonation.
Frequent progress monitoring

Collect progress monitoring data at least once per week

Data-based decision making

Use progress monitoring data to guide instruction

Low student-teacher ratio

Teach in small groups containing no more than three students

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Who is a Tier 3 student?

Tier 3, Intensive Individualised Tier 3 teams support students who require more intensive, individualised support to improve their behavioural and academic outcomes. The team focuses on creating and implementing individualised behaviour support plans that are linked to the universal system.
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What are Tier 2 and Tier 3 students?

Tier 3 – Tier 3 provides intensive supports for individual students with more significant needs or whose needs are not sufficiently met by Tier 2 supports. There are two reasons for a student to be referred to receive Tier 3 supports:

The student is not benefiting sufficiently from Tier 2 interventions The student is demonstrating crisis-level indicators of need at Tier 1; this is called direct Tier 3 referral and is considered the crisis component of a tiered system of supports

The venue through which this support is provided is primarily a Tier 3 meeting of multidisciplinary staff and other stakeholders within a child’s context outside of school. Tier 3 team membership often comprises teacher(s), caregiver(s), a special educator, administration, a mental health provider (if one is part of the school community) and/or a student support staff member, and community stakeholders, based on the child’s context.

  • This collective group reviews data and considers supports attempted prior to the referral.
  • They will then determine appropriate goals and interventions.
  • Interventions at this level may involve both in-school and out-of-school supports.
  • In addition, progress monitoring may occur more frequently.
  • Occasionally, there may be students who, based on the review of their progress, are determined to have needs beyond what the school can provide.

At this point, schools may consider external services and evaluations, including external mental health agencies.
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Is there a Tier 4 in education?

TIER 4 ENCOURAGES INNOVATION and new research on promising practices. A Tier 4 intervention must have a well-specified logic model that is based on rigorous research.
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What are Tier 2 students?

What are tiers? What Is Tier 3 In Education In medicine, mental health, and now in education, there are three generally accepted levels of prevention for various disorders or problems. Each of these levels represents ways that professionals can intervene in order to diminish problems in their clients.

  1. Here we will describe each level without technical jargon, and relate them to our purpose in schools, particularly focusing on student behavior.
  2. Most often these three tiers are graphically represented in a triangle diagram.
  3. However, these tiers may also be represented as concentric circles.
  4. The tiers may help prioritize the type and intensity of interventions for behavior that students receive.

It is possible that any particular intervention can be used at any of these three tiers. What we have done on this website is identify the primary way strategies would be used. What Is Tier 3 In Education What Is Tier 3 In Education Tier 1. The first level of intervention, called primary or universal prevention, is often called Tier 1 intervention in schools. Primary level interventions are delivered to all students, and attempt to undertake modifications in the environment or system which prevent behavior or mental health problems from developing.

All students benefit from Tier 1 interventions in school. When Tier 1 interventions are implemented well, potentially fewer students will need additional services. Character education, a curricula intended to help all students understand and commit to behaviors that align with core ethical values, is an example of a Tier 1 intervention.

Tier 2. The secondary level of interventions in schools (now commonly called Tier 2) focuses on specific students who show initial signs or symptoms of difficulty. Data from these students is then used to provide targeted interventions to those “at-risk” students based on their specific needs and symptoms.

  • Signs may include behavior management problems in class, tardiness, office referrals, absences, etc.
  • In a total school population, it is estimated that 15 percent of students, might develop some form of behavioral difficulty and require Tier 2 supports in addition to all Tier 1 supports.
  • Check-in/Check-out, a strategy used to monitor student progress and provide positive daily contact with an adult in school, is an example of a Tier 2 intervention.

Tier 3. Tertiary level interventions (Tier 3) focus on rehabilitation and minimizing the risk of recurrence of mental health problems or behavioral episodes for students who have already experienced one or more behavioral crises. These supports are the most intensive and resource dependent, and thus are reserved for the approximately 5 percent or less of students who do not respond to Tier 1 and 2 interventions.

Again, students receiving Tier 3 supports must also receive all appropriate Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports. Conducting a functional behavior assessment (FBA) to determine the events preceding and following problem behavior, which is then used to create an individualized behavior plan, is an example of a Tier 3 intervention.

These three tiers of prevention, which inform interventions in schools, represent a useful framework for understanding how we can prevent behavioral crisis and make schools safer. Implementation of effective interventions at each of these three tiers would also prevent or diminish the need for physical restraint and seclusion.
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How many students can be in a Tier 3 group?

Key Components of Tier 3 Intervention any specialist that may provide information to design and implement the individualize plan. Typically provided to individual students, or in groups of 2-3 students.
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What level is Tier 3?

What are Content Tiers in Lost Ark – To put it shortly, the endgame content of Lost Ark is broken up into 3 levels of gearing and progression, which are referred to as Tiers. Tier 1 is all the content from Level 10 up to Level 50 until you reach Tier 2. Tier 2 is the content you unlock at Gear Score 600, up until 1100 Gear Score. There will be more World Quests and Islands, starting in Yorn. These islands and your dailies can very quickly boost you close to 1100 very quickly. You’ll also finish this section in Feiton, giving you a couple of questlines to get materials and from in addition to Islands. Tier 3 is the current end of the game’s content, which covers 1100 Item Level and Higher. As more content is added and new gear becomes available, the peak Item Level will continue to increase, but it will always be a long-term goal. There are no islands to help you here, so you won’t hit the top end of this tier as quickly as Tiers 1 and 2.
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Is Tier 3 higher than Tier 2?

Assessment Factors – Three primary assessment differences between Tier 2 and 3 are (1) the use of individual versus group diagnostic information, (2) the frequency of progress monitoring, and (3) the use of a comprehensive assessment framework at Tier 3.

  1. Individual versus group diagnostic information.
  2. Many of the same types of assessments are used across Tier 2 and Tier 3 (i.e., universal screening to inform initial tier assignment, progress monitoring and mastery assessments to inform student learning, summative assessments to inform intervention effectiveness, and fidelity measures to determine implementation; Hosp, 2008).

However, the level of analysis may differ, depending on the protocol adopted. A protocol guides schools’ thinking about who gets which level of support and when they are assigned and modified (Tilly, 2008). One protocol used by schools is the “combined protocol,” which specifies that standard interventions and group problem-solving are used at Tier 2, and individually designed interventions and individual problem solving are used at Tier 3 (Tilly, 2008).

With group problem-solving, the common instructional need is identified among students needing Tier 2 support using brief diagnostic assessments. For example, if oral reading fluency is used as a screening assessment, an assessor can determine a student’s rate (i.e., number of words read correctly in 1 minute) and accuracy (i.e., percentage of words read correctly) when reading connected text.

From there, educators can identify what skills within reading to focus on (e.g., inaccurate and slow readers are provided general reading instruction, whereas accurate and slow readers are provided fluency instruction). As another example, imagine a grade-level team that analyzed the results of a common assessment used in reading for their 2nd graders.

The results revealed that for students who received Tier 2, only 22% of them have mastered r -controlled vowels. Accordingly, a focus of decoding lessons in Tier 2 would include r -controlled vowels. This group level of problem analysis can help schools efficiently group larger numbers of students into appropriate levels of supports by pinpointing a common missing skill (or skills) to target during Tier 2.

As an analogy, imagine a health clinic that wants to identify the most frequent health concern expressed by its patients. Analyzing initial complaints from patients, the clinic discovers that a good portion of their patients frequently experience cold and flu symptoms.

Instead of meeting with each patient separately and developing an individualized plan, the clinic targets those patients’ needs all at once by providing a group-oriented intervention (a Tier 2 intervention). The clinic decides to share brochures on how to prevent spreading germs (e.g., washing hands frequently, covering mouth when coughing), passes out free hand sanitizer to those patients and to community venues (e.g., local grocery stores, coffee shops), and provides an on-call nurse to field questions for those individuals who have cold symptoms.

In this scenario, the clinic analyzed common areas of need at the group level among its patients needing “Tier 2,” without investing resources in analyzing individual patients’ complaints. At Tier 3, the unit of analysis moves from the group to the individual student.

As opposed to group analysis, educators use individualized diagnostic assessments to evaluate the exact skills a student has and does not have rather than the skills a group of students have and do not have. In an RTI process, diagnostic does not refer to diagnosing a disability; it refers to analyzing the instructional situation and student’s skills in order to plan for intervention.

Diagnostic assessments are those that assess discrete skills, such as identifying the specific letter patterns a student can and cannot read well or which multiplication tables a student has mastered (Hosp, 2008). Returning to the health clinic analogy, at Tier 3, the clinic would focus on one particular patient.

  1. Imagine that one patient has a recurring cough and the typical “first line” of treatment (the Tier 2 example described above) did not work.
  2. From there, the clinic may draw blood to pinpoint a more aggressive approach.
  3. The clinic may also conduct an interview with the patient, asking questions about the patient’s day-to-day activities, and observe the patient taking deep breaths.

The results of such an evaluation would inform the doctors about the individualized course of action to take. In our case, the patient with a recurring cough had a bacterial infection. Low and behold, a round of intense antibiotics has gotten this patient back to full health.

With RTI, the goal is similar: to get students back to full educational health. Frequency of progress monitoring. Another assessment difference between Tier 2 and Tier 3 is the frequency with which students are progress monitored. Students receiving Tier 2 support are monitored once per month or twice per month, compared to weekly or twice a week at Tier 3 (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010).

Usually, students at Tier 2 are monitored monthly, but some suggest monitoring every 2 weeks (Kaminski, Cumming, Powell-Smith, & Good, 2008) or weekly monitoring (Johnson, Mellard, Fuchs, & McKnight, 2006). Progress monitoring at Tier 3 is more frequent, but relative to the frequency of monitoring at Tier 2.

If monthly monitoring occurs at Tier 2, then biweekly or weekly monitoring occurs for students in Tier 3 (Harn et al., 2007; Vaughn et al., 2007). The guiding principle is that, as the need of the student increases, so does the attention and responsiveness of the staff. The increase in data collection at Tier 3 reflects the urgency of the student’s educational need and allows the staff to make decisions regarding instruction more frequently (e.g., every 2 months instead of once per quarter) In deciding upon the frequency of progress monitoring, schools have to consider the number of data points needed.

The validity of the slope (i.e., rate of improvement or rate of growth) depends on the number of data points that comprise it (Kennedy, 2005), and anywhere from 8 to 14 data points are needed to make a valid judgment of a student’s growth (Christ, Zopluoglu, Long, & Monaghen, 2012).

Consequently, schools may face a conundrum when the intervention has been implemented for a reasonable amount of time, yet the data is not sufficient to make a valid decision. For example, an intervention may have been implemented for 20 weeks, but monthly monitoring has resulted in only five data points.

In such a scenario, schools have three options:

  1. School staff can obviously increase the amount of progress monitoring to ensure they have at least eight data points in order to make a decision (e.g., collect data at least three more times to obtain at least eight data points).
  2. School staff may wish to administer more than one probe during progress-monitoring occasions. Instead of administering one oral reading fluency probe, for example, educators can administer three probes and record the mean or median. When less than weekly monitoring is used, multiple administrations of probes during a progress-monitoring occasion and using the median score provide for a more valid data point (Christ et al., 2012). This can decrease the rate of monitoring required to have sufficient data for accurate decisions from conducting weekly monitoring for several months to conducting weekly monitoring for 3–9 weeks (Christ et al., 2012).
  3. School staff can consider the data itself. Guidelines for progress monitoring are not hard and fast rules, because the number of data points needed depends in part on the amount of variability within the data. Specifically, the more variability within the data, the greater the number of data points needed to get a valid picture of the student’s growth (Kennedy, 2005). Conversely, lower variability in the data indicates more precision in measurement and, thus, less need for more data points (although it’s usually difficult to argue for fewer data points). When evaluating a student’s growth rate, an educator should be able to look at the graph and judge, with reasonable confidence, where the next data point will land. If one cannot judge that, then more data are needed until the educator can judge where the next data point will fall with reasonable confidence. Schools could easily encounter situations in which fewer than eight data points provide a clear indication that the intervention is not sufficient for the student and, thus, more data are not needed to make a decision (see Figure 1). To summarize, schools will have to consider intervention time, progress-monitoring schedules, variability within the data, and certain decision deadlines (e.g., end of term or school year) to ensure they have sufficient data to make accurate decisions about student progress.
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Figure 1. Illustration of variability within data. Note : For Student 1, the data indicate that the student’s next data point can be predicted with reasonable confidence, whereas for Student 2, more data is needed. Both examples have fewer than eight data points.

  • Assessment framework.
  • A final difference with assessment between Tier 2 and Tier 3 is the use of a framework to structure the intensity and explicitness of decision making that corresponds with Tier 3 (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000).
  • Whereas Tier 2 assessment is largely at the group-level, Tier 3 assessment is at the individual level.

Thus, assessment at Tier 3 requires a much more comprehensive, thorough, and intensive approach. To accomplish this, assessment at Tier 3 is organized within the RIOT/ICEL framework. RIOT and ICEL are acronyms for the type of assessments and instructional domains to analyze, respectively, when making decisions about individual students’ achievement.

  1. ICEL includes instruction (how new skills are taught and reinforced), curriculum (what is being taught), environment (where the instruction takes place), and learner (the recipient of the skills being taught).
  2. RIOT includes review (reviewing existing data, permanent products, attendance records, lessons plans, etc.) that inform the evaluator about the state of affairs, interviews (structured, semi-structured, and unstructured methods of assessment that involve question–answer formats) observations (directly observing the instructional settings and the student’s engagement during learning tasks to examine when and where the problem is most and least likely to occur), and test (the administration of formal and informal tests).

The RIOT methods are used to obtain information about ICEL (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000). RIOT and ICEL are best viewed as an organizing rubric that can guide the specifics of problem analysis (see Table 2). Table 2: Examples of Sources of Information and Assessment Methods Within the RIOT and ICEL Framework to Support Achievement in Tier 3

Review Interview Observe Test
Instruction

Examine permanent product, lesson plans to assess prior strategies and instructional demands

Interview educator(s) for philosophy and perception of student issues

  • Conduct direct observations to document critical elements of practices
  • Identify antecedents and consequences of behavior

Use checklists, scales, etc. to measure effective practices

Curriculum
  • Review lesson plans and learning objectives to determine match with student’s skills
  • Analyze curriculum materials to understand scope and sequence, amount of review, etc.

Interview educator(s) for understanding of curriculum, training received, expectations about pacing, etc.

  • Examine permanent products to determine alignment with objectives
  • Observe clarity of objectives and student’s completion of them

Assess difficulty of materials compared to student’s instructional level

Environment

Review lesson plans on behavioral expectations; school rules and policies to understand climate; and seating charts to determine distractions

  • Interview educator(s) to assess rules and routines
  • Talk with students to describe climate, rules, etc.

Observe school and classroom climate and interactions among staff and students

Compare student’s performance between different settings to assess impact of environment

Learner
  • Review records to assess previous history and learning, attendance
  • Examine permanent products to assess response to previous instruction

Interview student to describe perception of problem, coping methods, etc.

Observe target skills and behavior

Use a variety of tests to assess student’s skill level and behavior

Note: The term educator is used to refer to all relevant personnel who work with the student. Adapted from Christ, 2008 and Howell & Nolet, 2000 to depict Tier 3 implementation of RIOT/ICEL. Depending on the hypothesis to test and the intensity of student need, an evaluation may only involve a few “cells” or several of the cells; the more severe the problem, the more areas to be assessed using the framework.

  1. The purpose of ICEL is to collect information that has high instructional relevance and pertains to controllable factors (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000).
  2. Because the student receiving instruction has not benefited from Tier 1 or Tier 2, much more time is spent analyzing the instructional environment to identify ways to correct the problem compared to students receiving Tier 2.

This is not to say that certain instructional domains or cells in the RIOT/ICEL rubric are ignored at Tier 2, but the comprehensive and individualized assessment within RIOT/ICEL at Tier 3 reflects the increase in need and resources from Tier 2 to Tier 3.
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What is tier 1 vs Tier 3?

Home Blog What is the difference between Tier 1, 2, and 3 suppliers and why do they matter?

Avetta x Sustain.Life Partnership This blog post has been adapted from Sustain.Life’s original, Within a supply chain, there are multiple tiers of suppliers, based on an organization’s closeness to the client organization or the final product. Having various tiers in a supply chain sounds complicated and can be, but it also enables companies to specialize in one area and contract out the rest.

Often, organizations focus on tier 1 suppliers but tend to overlook their tier 2 and 3 suppliers. Although further removed from an organization, tier 2 and 3 suppliers are still connected to the client organization, meaning these suppliers can still bring with them risk and liability which can affect the hiring organization in a variety of ways, from reputation damage to costly litigation.

Although not all organizations create physical materials, we will illustrate the different tiers with a physical product example: Tier 3- raw material: cotton from a cotton plant farm (Tier 3 is not necessarily a raw material every time. We’re just pointing out that this example is a raw material.) Tier 2- cotton fabric mill (The cotton fabric is made from the cotton plants.) Tier 1- final product: a company that creates cotton t-shirts (The t-shirt is made from cotton fabric.) Tier 1 Suppliers: These are direct suppliers of the final product. Tier 2 suppliers: These are suppliers or subcontractors for your tier 1 suppliers.

  • Tier 3 suppliers: These are suppliers or subcontractors for your tier 2 suppliers.
  • These tiers can extend longer than three.
  • The tiers extend as much as needed for hiring companies, depending on how many levels of suppliers or subcontractors are needed in the supply chain to create the product or service.

Why should I know my suppliers? Knowing your suppliers can be useful for a variety of reasons:

Quality control — The further removed a supplier is from your organization, the harder it is to maintain quality if you don’t have the right controls in place. Ethics concerns — Do you know if your suppliers are involved with inhumane working conditions, human trafficking, or other unethical behaviors? Legal ramifications —Did you know you could be held liable for your contractors if they aren’t compliant with current labor laws? Social Responsibility — Are your suppliers sustainable, socially responsible, diverse, and inclusive? Do you know their ESG Index? How are your scope 3 emissions? Cybersecurity — Your company could have the strictest of digital security protocols, but if an insecure third party accesses your system, a breach is very possible.

At Avetta, we know how complicated it can be to manage a supply chain. With our supply chain management software, you can enjoy the peace of mind of greater compliance and decreased liability and risk. We can pinpoint ways to improve your suppliers’ compliance (or help you find better ones) through our prequalification process, training, audits, and real-time insights.
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Is Tier 3 good or bad?

Tier 3 – These are still good schools, but are not as competitive for admissions, as they have more spaces offered, and fewer applicants overall. The most qualified students will be able to treat these as safety schools, while less competitive candidates should treat them as targets.
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What is tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 and Tier 4?

Data center tiers are a classification system, ascending 1, 2, 3, and 4 – with some operators even pushing for 5 – that are used to evaluate data center facilities, in a consistent way, regarding their potential site infrastructure availability, also known as uptime,

Specifically, the tier ratings stipulate what a data center is able to offer in terms of redundancy and resiliency, as well as how much potential downtime a customer could experience over the course of a year. As a general rule, the difference between data center tiers is that tier 1 offers no redundancy of any critical system, tier 2 has partial redundancy in their electrical & HVAC systems, tier 3 contains dual redundancy for power & cooling equipment, and tier 4 possesses fully redundant infrastructure.

Data centers are commonly rated by the Uptime Institute, an independent organization, which has issued over 2,500 certifications to data centers in more than 110 countries. The Uptime Institute ranks data centers through four distinct tier certification levels: Tier I, Tier II, Tier III, and Tier IV.
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How do you identify a Tier 2 student?

Page 7: Tier 2 Components – Students who require Tier 2 intervention are those who did not respond adequately to the high-quality instruction provided in the general education classroom (i.e., Tier 1). This tier of RTI usually involves more intensive targeted intervention and frequent monitoring,
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What are Tier 3 strategies?

What is Tier 3 Support? – What Is Tier 3 In Education The PBIS Triangle—The red area represents Tier 3 that supports a few students. Tiers 1 and 2 supports are still used with students engaged in Tier 3 supports. PBIS’ framework doesn’t just work with school-wide and targeted supports. It’s also an effective way to address sometimes dangerous, often highly disruptive behaviors creating barriers to learning and excluding students from social settings.
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How often are Tier 3 interventions?

Frequent Monitoring – Teachers delivering Tier 3 intervention need to continue progress monitoring on a weekly basis. Additionally, they should collaborate with the general education teacher about students’ progress. Adaptations for delivering core instruction should be based on students’ data and their responses to previous instruction.

Tier 3 Intervention Options
Who receives instruction Students who are not making adequate progress with Tier 2 intervention
Amount of daily instruction Instruction may vary, depending on the age of the student, from 40–60 min. per day (+ Tier 1)
When instruction is provided Scheduling options for Tier 3 might include:

Tier 3 intervention twice a day (e.g., 20 minutes in the morning and 20 minutes in the afternoon) Tier 3 intervention at the same time as another teacher provides the Tier 2 intervention to other students

Duration of instruction Varies by individual—may be several semesters or even years
How instruction is implemented Instruction should be implemented with teacher/ student ratios of no more than 1:3.
Frequency of progress monitoring At least one time every 1–2 weeks
Who provides instruction

Reading specialist Special education teacher

Where students are served Generally, outside of the general education classroom. This can, but does not always, include special education.

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What does Tier 3 look like in the classroom?

Tier 3: Intensive interventions – When kids are struggling and Tier 1 and 2 support don’t seem to help, they are put into Tier 3. This is the most intense level of RTI. Tier 3 can mean small group work, or it can mean individual lessons. Most kids who get this support still spend a lot of their day in a general education classroom.

Yet they may spend bigger parts of the day in a resource room. Because kids in Tier 3 are the most at-risk students, schools keep a close eye on them. Teachers check their progress a lot, with the goal that the students will improve enough to leave Tier 3. In schools that use RTI, students can still get,

The difference is that to get special education, a child must be, which can take time. To get RTI, a child only needs to be at risk of falling behind.
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Is Tier 3 the highest or lowest?

Introduction – It is important to note that the United States Military uses no official system to rank their Special Operations units based on effectiveness, missions, capabilities, training, or security level. Furthermore, the use of “Tier” in such a non-existent ranking system is not endorsed by the Department of Defense manual on terms. What Is Tier 3 In Education A soldier from the 82nd Airborne Division takes cover during a controlled detonation. The 82nd Airborne Division is considered a Tier 3 military unit (Photo: Reuters) The Tier system, devised by JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command), categorizes military units within the United States.

Tier 1 is designated for the elite units. Tier 2 is for regular special operations forces units such as Navy SEALs, and Tier 3 is earmarked for large, conventional warfare units. While the origin of the Tier system is tied to funding, with Tier 1 units receiving the most funding and Tier 3 units receiving the least, it has evolved to be associated with unit prestige and skill.

It should be noted that this is not an official classification and does not determine the prestige of a unit. Tier 3 forces are seen as significant and conventional warfare units, with the largest number of personnel and the lowest level of funding compared to the lower Tiers.
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What is Tier 3 gifted?

Tier III – Formal Gifted Identification – Students formally identified as Tier III Gifted and Talented receive an Advanced Learning Plan (ALP) with specific, measurable, and attainable learning goals based on the student’s strength(s) and personal interests. An appropriate level of challenge is created for gifted learners, through ALP goals, with emphases on critical and creative thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making. These goals, contained in the Advanced Learning Plan, are progress monitored by student, teacher, and parent as the year progresses. The determination as to whether a student qualifies for the Colorado Springs School District 11 Advanced Academics Gifted & Talented Program is solely within the discretion of the Gifted Review Team who follow the guidelines of the Colorado Exceptional Children’s Educational Act (ECEA) for gifted identification criteria. Login to subscribe

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Is Tier 3 good or bad?

Tier 3 – These are still good schools, but are not as competitive for admissions, as they have more spaces offered, and fewer applicants overall. The most qualified students will be able to treat these as safety schools, while less competitive candidates should treat them as targets.
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What is Tier 3 and Tier 4?

Data Center Tier Ratings Explained – The four data center tiers certified by the Uptime Institute are:

Tier 1: A data center with a single path for power and cooling, and no backup components. This tier has an expected uptime of 99.671% per year. Tier 2: A data center with a single path for power and cooling, and some redundant and backup components. This tier offers an expected uptime of 99.741% per year. Tier 3: A data center with multiple paths for power and cooling, and redundant systems that allow the staff to work on the setup without taking it offline. This tier has an expected uptime of 99.982% per year. Tier 4: A completely fault-tolerant data center with redundancy for every component. This tier comes with an expected uptime of 99.995% per year.

The four data center tiers are progressive. Data centers can move up and down the ratings, and each level includes the requirements of the lower rankings. While reliability goes up with higher levels, tier 4 is not always a better option than a data center with a lower rating. Each tier fits different business needs, so tiers 3 or 4 (the most expensive options) are often an over-investment.
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Is Tier 3 better than Tier 4?

Data center tiers are a classification system, ascending 1, 2, 3, and 4 – with some operators even pushing for 5 – that are used to evaluate data center facilities, in a consistent way, regarding their potential site infrastructure availability, also known as uptime,

Specifically, the tier ratings stipulate what a data center is able to offer in terms of redundancy and resiliency, as well as how much potential downtime a customer could experience over the course of a year. As a general rule, the difference between data center tiers is that tier 1 offers no redundancy of any critical system, tier 2 has partial redundancy in their electrical & HVAC systems, tier 3 contains dual redundancy for power & cooling equipment, and tier 4 possesses fully redundant infrastructure.

Data centers are commonly rated by the Uptime Institute, an independent organization, which has issued over 2,500 certifications to data centers in more than 110 countries. The Uptime Institute ranks data centers through four distinct tier certification levels: Tier I, Tier II, Tier III, and Tier IV.
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Is Tier 3 higher than Tier 2?

Assessment Factors – Three primary assessment differences between Tier 2 and 3 are (1) the use of individual versus group diagnostic information, (2) the frequency of progress monitoring, and (3) the use of a comprehensive assessment framework at Tier 3.

Individual versus group diagnostic information. Many of the same types of assessments are used across Tier 2 and Tier 3 (i.e., universal screening to inform initial tier assignment, progress monitoring and mastery assessments to inform student learning, summative assessments to inform intervention effectiveness, and fidelity measures to determine implementation; Hosp, 2008).

However, the level of analysis may differ, depending on the protocol adopted. A protocol guides schools’ thinking about who gets which level of support and when they are assigned and modified (Tilly, 2008). One protocol used by schools is the “combined protocol,” which specifies that standard interventions and group problem-solving are used at Tier 2, and individually designed interventions and individual problem solving are used at Tier 3 (Tilly, 2008).

With group problem-solving, the common instructional need is identified among students needing Tier 2 support using brief diagnostic assessments. For example, if oral reading fluency is used as a screening assessment, an assessor can determine a student’s rate (i.e., number of words read correctly in 1 minute) and accuracy (i.e., percentage of words read correctly) when reading connected text.

From there, educators can identify what skills within reading to focus on (e.g., inaccurate and slow readers are provided general reading instruction, whereas accurate and slow readers are provided fluency instruction). As another example, imagine a grade-level team that analyzed the results of a common assessment used in reading for their 2nd graders.

  • The results revealed that for students who received Tier 2, only 22% of them have mastered r -controlled vowels.
  • Accordingly, a focus of decoding lessons in Tier 2 would include r -controlled vowels.
  • This group level of problem analysis can help schools efficiently group larger numbers of students into appropriate levels of supports by pinpointing a common missing skill (or skills) to target during Tier 2.

As an analogy, imagine a health clinic that wants to identify the most frequent health concern expressed by its patients. Analyzing initial complaints from patients, the clinic discovers that a good portion of their patients frequently experience cold and flu symptoms.

  1. Instead of meeting with each patient separately and developing an individualized plan, the clinic targets those patients’ needs all at once by providing a group-oriented intervention (a Tier 2 intervention).
  2. The clinic decides to share brochures on how to prevent spreading germs (e.g., washing hands frequently, covering mouth when coughing), passes out free hand sanitizer to those patients and to community venues (e.g., local grocery stores, coffee shops), and provides an on-call nurse to field questions for those individuals who have cold symptoms.

In this scenario, the clinic analyzed common areas of need at the group level among its patients needing “Tier 2,” without investing resources in analyzing individual patients’ complaints. At Tier 3, the unit of analysis moves from the group to the individual student.

As opposed to group analysis, educators use individualized diagnostic assessments to evaluate the exact skills a student has and does not have rather than the skills a group of students have and do not have. In an RTI process, diagnostic does not refer to diagnosing a disability; it refers to analyzing the instructional situation and student’s skills in order to plan for intervention.

Diagnostic assessments are those that assess discrete skills, such as identifying the specific letter patterns a student can and cannot read well or which multiplication tables a student has mastered (Hosp, 2008). Returning to the health clinic analogy, at Tier 3, the clinic would focus on one particular patient.

Imagine that one patient has a recurring cough and the typical “first line” of treatment (the Tier 2 example described above) did not work. From there, the clinic may draw blood to pinpoint a more aggressive approach. The clinic may also conduct an interview with the patient, asking questions about the patient’s day-to-day activities, and observe the patient taking deep breaths.

The results of such an evaluation would inform the doctors about the individualized course of action to take. In our case, the patient with a recurring cough had a bacterial infection. Low and behold, a round of intense antibiotics has gotten this patient back to full health.

With RTI, the goal is similar: to get students back to full educational health. Frequency of progress monitoring. Another assessment difference between Tier 2 and Tier 3 is the frequency with which students are progress monitored. Students receiving Tier 2 support are monitored once per month or twice per month, compared to weekly or twice a week at Tier 3 (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010).

Usually, students at Tier 2 are monitored monthly, but some suggest monitoring every 2 weeks (Kaminski, Cumming, Powell-Smith, & Good, 2008) or weekly monitoring (Johnson, Mellard, Fuchs, & McKnight, 2006). Progress monitoring at Tier 3 is more frequent, but relative to the frequency of monitoring at Tier 2.

If monthly monitoring occurs at Tier 2, then biweekly or weekly monitoring occurs for students in Tier 3 (Harn et al., 2007; Vaughn et al., 2007). The guiding principle is that, as the need of the student increases, so does the attention and responsiveness of the staff. The increase in data collection at Tier 3 reflects the urgency of the student’s educational need and allows the staff to make decisions regarding instruction more frequently (e.g., every 2 months instead of once per quarter) In deciding upon the frequency of progress monitoring, schools have to consider the number of data points needed.

The validity of the slope (i.e., rate of improvement or rate of growth) depends on the number of data points that comprise it (Kennedy, 2005), and anywhere from 8 to 14 data points are needed to make a valid judgment of a student’s growth (Christ, Zopluoglu, Long, & Monaghen, 2012).

Consequently, schools may face a conundrum when the intervention has been implemented for a reasonable amount of time, yet the data is not sufficient to make a valid decision. For example, an intervention may have been implemented for 20 weeks, but monthly monitoring has resulted in only five data points.

In such a scenario, schools have three options:

  1. School staff can obviously increase the amount of progress monitoring to ensure they have at least eight data points in order to make a decision (e.g., collect data at least three more times to obtain at least eight data points).
  2. School staff may wish to administer more than one probe during progress-monitoring occasions. Instead of administering one oral reading fluency probe, for example, educators can administer three probes and record the mean or median. When less than weekly monitoring is used, multiple administrations of probes during a progress-monitoring occasion and using the median score provide for a more valid data point (Christ et al., 2012). This can decrease the rate of monitoring required to have sufficient data for accurate decisions from conducting weekly monitoring for several months to conducting weekly monitoring for 3–9 weeks (Christ et al., 2012).
  3. School staff can consider the data itself. Guidelines for progress monitoring are not hard and fast rules, because the number of data points needed depends in part on the amount of variability within the data. Specifically, the more variability within the data, the greater the number of data points needed to get a valid picture of the student’s growth (Kennedy, 2005). Conversely, lower variability in the data indicates more precision in measurement and, thus, less need for more data points (although it’s usually difficult to argue for fewer data points). When evaluating a student’s growth rate, an educator should be able to look at the graph and judge, with reasonable confidence, where the next data point will land. If one cannot judge that, then more data are needed until the educator can judge where the next data point will fall with reasonable confidence. Schools could easily encounter situations in which fewer than eight data points provide a clear indication that the intervention is not sufficient for the student and, thus, more data are not needed to make a decision (see Figure 1). To summarize, schools will have to consider intervention time, progress-monitoring schedules, variability within the data, and certain decision deadlines (e.g., end of term or school year) to ensure they have sufficient data to make accurate decisions about student progress.

Figure 1. Illustration of variability within data. Note : For Student 1, the data indicate that the student’s next data point can be predicted with reasonable confidence, whereas for Student 2, more data is needed. Both examples have fewer than eight data points.

  • Assessment framework.
  • A final difference with assessment between Tier 2 and Tier 3 is the use of a framework to structure the intensity and explicitness of decision making that corresponds with Tier 3 (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000).
  • Whereas Tier 2 assessment is largely at the group-level, Tier 3 assessment is at the individual level.

Thus, assessment at Tier 3 requires a much more comprehensive, thorough, and intensive approach. To accomplish this, assessment at Tier 3 is organized within the RIOT/ICEL framework. RIOT and ICEL are acronyms for the type of assessments and instructional domains to analyze, respectively, when making decisions about individual students’ achievement.

ICEL includes instruction (how new skills are taught and reinforced), curriculum (what is being taught), environment (where the instruction takes place), and learner (the recipient of the skills being taught). RIOT includes review (reviewing existing data, permanent products, attendance records, lessons plans, etc.) that inform the evaluator about the state of affairs, interviews (structured, semi-structured, and unstructured methods of assessment that involve question–answer formats) observations (directly observing the instructional settings and the student’s engagement during learning tasks to examine when and where the problem is most and least likely to occur), and test (the administration of formal and informal tests).

The RIOT methods are used to obtain information about ICEL (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000). RIOT and ICEL are best viewed as an organizing rubric that can guide the specifics of problem analysis (see Table 2). Table 2: Examples of Sources of Information and Assessment Methods Within the RIOT and ICEL Framework to Support Achievement in Tier 3

Review Interview Observe Test
Instruction

Examine permanent product, lesson plans to assess prior strategies and instructional demands

Interview educator(s) for philosophy and perception of student issues

  • Conduct direct observations to document critical elements of practices
  • Identify antecedents and consequences of behavior

Use checklists, scales, etc. to measure effective practices

Curriculum
  • Review lesson plans and learning objectives to determine match with student’s skills
  • Analyze curriculum materials to understand scope and sequence, amount of review, etc.

Interview educator(s) for understanding of curriculum, training received, expectations about pacing, etc.

  • Examine permanent products to determine alignment with objectives
  • Observe clarity of objectives and student’s completion of them

Assess difficulty of materials compared to student’s instructional level

Environment

Review lesson plans on behavioral expectations; school rules and policies to understand climate; and seating charts to determine distractions

  • Interview educator(s) to assess rules and routines
  • Talk with students to describe climate, rules, etc.

Observe school and classroom climate and interactions among staff and students

Compare student’s performance between different settings to assess impact of environment

Learner
  • Review records to assess previous history and learning, attendance
  • Examine permanent products to assess response to previous instruction

Interview student to describe perception of problem, coping methods, etc.

Observe target skills and behavior

Use a variety of tests to assess student’s skill level and behavior

Note: The term educator is used to refer to all relevant personnel who work with the student. Adapted from Christ, 2008 and Howell & Nolet, 2000 to depict Tier 3 implementation of RIOT/ICEL. Depending on the hypothesis to test and the intensity of student need, an evaluation may only involve a few “cells” or several of the cells; the more severe the problem, the more areas to be assessed using the framework.

  • The purpose of ICEL is to collect information that has high instructional relevance and pertains to controllable factors (Christ, 2008; Howell & Nolet, 2000).
  • Because the student receiving instruction has not benefited from Tier 1 or Tier 2, much more time is spent analyzing the instructional environment to identify ways to correct the problem compared to students receiving Tier 2.

This is not to say that certain instructional domains or cells in the RIOT/ICEL rubric are ignored at Tier 2, but the comprehensive and individualized assessment within RIOT/ICEL at Tier 3 reflects the increase in need and resources from Tier 2 to Tier 3.
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