What Is The Study Of Weather Called?

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What Is The Study Of Weather Called
Meteorology. noun. study of weather and atmosphere.
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What is climatology and meteorology?

Antarctic Ice Core – A core is extracted from the ice sheet to learn what the area’s (near McMurdo Station, Antarctica) climate was like in the past. Photograph by David Boyer What Is The Study Of Weather Called Climatology is the study of the atmosphere and weather patterns over time. This field of science focuses on recording and analyzing weather patterns throughout the world and understanding the atmospheric conditions that cause them. It is sometimes confused with meteorology, which is the study of weather and weather forecasting.

However, climatology is mainly focused on the natural and artificial forces that influence long-term weather patterns. Scientists who specialize in this field are called climatologists, The first studies of climate can be traced back to ancient Greece, but climate science as it is now known did not emerge until the advent of the industrial age in the nineteenth century.

The science of climatology grew as scientists became interested in understanding weather patterns. In recent times, climatologists have increasingly focused their research on the changes in Earth’s climate that have occurred since the industrial age. Earth has been growing warmer and warmer as human industry has expanded and released more carbon into the atmosphere.

  • This effect, called global warming, is a particularly important object of study for climatologists.
  • By studying global warming, climatologists can better understand and predict the long-term impact of human-caused climate change,
  • Climatologists seek to understand three main aspects of climate.
  • The first aspect is the weather patterns that govern normal conditions in different regions throughout the world.

Secondly, climate scientists try to understand the relationship between different aspects of weather such as temperature and sunlight. The third aspect of climate that climatologists investigate is the way that weather changes over time. Results from this type of research have shown that human activities are affecting Earth’s overall climate, such as with increased global temperatures.

As a result, climatologists also study human causes of climate change; they are particularly interested in activities that release greenhouse gases and their link to global warming. Additionally, climatologists look at natural changes in air and ocean currents like El Niño and La Niña, which are phases in a fluctuating cycle of air and ocean temperature over the Pacific Ocean.

The oscillation between the warm El Niño and the cold La Niña phases affect climates around the world. These ocean current patterns result in changes in the normal difference between atmospheric and ocean temperatures. Scientists also consider the effects that solar activity and variations in solar energy have on climate over time.

Some natural events can contribute to global warming, such as volcanic eruptions, which release large amounts of ash and other substances into the atmosphere. Although these events shade Earth from solar radiation by releasing large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, those same greenhouse gases contribute to global warming.

However, much of the climate change that climatologists study is tied to human activity, particularly humans’ use of fossil fuels, which are the main contributor to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere today. Studying the impact of these gases allows scientists to understand not only how Earth’s climate has changed as a result of human activity, but also how it might continue to change if humans continue to release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
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Is physics the study of weather?

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Atmospheric physics is a vital part of a weather forecast model and is often referred to as the physical parametrization. Our research focuses on how to represent unresolved physical processes in the atmosphere, such as radiation, clouds and subgrid turbulent motions. The physical processes associated with radiative transfer, convection, clouds, surface exchange, turbulent mixing, subgrid-scale orographic drag and non-orographic gravity wave drag have a strong impact on the large-scale flow of the atmosphere. However, these mechanisms are often active at scales smaller than the resolved scales of the model grid.

  • Parametrization schemes are then necessary in order to properly describe the impact of these subgrid-scale mechanisms on the large-scale flow of the atmosphere.
  • In other words the ensemble effect of the subgrid-scale processes has to be formulated in terms of the resolved gridscale variables.
  • Furthermore, forecast weather parameters, such as two-metre temperature, precipitation and cloud cover, are computed by the physical parametrization part of the model.

The radiation scheme ecRad (Hogan and Bozzo, 2018) performs computations of the short-wave and long-wave radiative fluxes using the predicted values of temperature, humidity, cloud, and monthly-mean climatologies for aerosols and the main trace gases (CO 2, O 3, CH 4, N 2 O, CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 ).

The gas optics part of the code uses the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model for General Circulation Models (RRTMG, Mlawer et al., 1997; Iacono et al., 2008). Cloud-radiation interactions are taken into account in detail by using the values of cloud fraction and liquid, ice and snow water contents from the cloud scheme using the Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation (McICA).

The solution of the radiative transfer equations to obtain the fluxes is computationally expensive, so depending on the model configuration, full radiation calculations are performed on a reduced (coarser) radiation grid and only every hour. The fluxes are then interpolated back to the original grid.

Hogan, R.J., and A. Bozzo, 2018: A flexible and efficient radiation scheme for the ECMWF model,J. Adv. Modeling Earth Sys., 10, 1990- 2008. Iacono, M., Delamere, J., Mlawer, E., Shephard, M., Clough, S. and Collins, W. (2008). Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models.J. Geophys. Res., 113D, 13103. Mlawer, E.J., Taubman, S.J., Brown, P.D., Iacono, M.J. and Clough, S.A. (1997). Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave.J. Geophys. Res., 102D, 16663-16682,

The moist convection scheme is based on the mass-flux approach and represents deep (including congestus), shallow and mid-level (elevated moist layers) convection. The distinction between deep and shallow convection is made on the basis of the cloud depth (< 200 hPa for shallow). For deep convection the mass-flux is determined by assuming that convection removes Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) over a given time scale. The intensity of shallow convection is based on the budget of the moist static energy, i.e. the convective flux at cloud base equals the contribution of all other physical processes when integrated over the subcloud layer. Finally, mid-level convection can occur for elevated moist layers, and its mass flux is set according to the large-scale vertical velocity. The scheme, originally described in Tiedtke (1989), has evolved over time and amongst many changes includes a modified entrainment formulation leading to an improved representation of tropical variability of convection (Bechtold et al., 2008), and a modified CAPE closure leading to a significantly improved diurnal cycle of convection (Bechtold et al., 2014) and an additional closure dependence on total moisture convergence that improves mesoscale organisation (Becker et al., 2021). References:

Becker, T., Bechtold, P. and Sandu, I. (2021). Characteristics of convective precipitation over tropical Africa in storm-resolving global simulations.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. Bechtold, P., Koehler, M., Jung, T., Leutbecher, M., Rodwell, M., Vitart, F. and Balsamo, G. (2008). Advances in predicting atmospheric variability with the ECMWF model: From synoptic to decadal time-scales.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 134, 1337-1351. Bechtold, P., N. Semane, P. Lopez, J.-P. Chaboureau, A. Beljaars, and N. Bormann (2014). Representing equilibrium and non-equilibrium convection in large-scale models.J. Atmos. Sci., 134, 1337-1351 Tiedtke, M. (1989). A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parametrization in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1779-1800.

Clouds and large-scale precipitation are parametrized with a number of prognostic equations for cloud liquid, cloud ice, rain and snow water contents and a sub-grid fractional cloud cover. The cloud scheme represents the sources and sinks of cloud and precipitation due to the major generation and destruction processes, including cloud formation by detrainment from cumulus convection, condensation, deposition, evaporation, collection, melting and freezing.

  • The scheme is based on (Tiedtke, 1993) but with an enhanced representation of mixed-phase clouds and prognostic precipitation (Forbes and Tompkins 2011; Forbes et al., 2011).
  • Supersaturation with respect to ice is commonly observed in the upper troposphere and is also represented in the parametrization (Tompkins et al., 2007).

References:

Forbes, R.M. and Tompkins, A.M. (2011). An improved representation of cloud and precipitation. ECMWF Newsletter No.129, pp.13-18. Forbes, R.M., Tompkins, A.M. and Untch, A. (2011). A new prognostic bulk microphysics scheme for the IFS. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No.649. Tiedtke, M. (1993). Representation of clouds in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 3040-3061. Tompkins, A.M., Gierens, K. and Radel, G. (2007). Ice supersaturation in the ECMWF integrated forecast system.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 133, 53-63.

The surface parametrization scheme represents the surface fluxes of energy and water and corresponding sub-surface quantities. The scheme is based on a tiled approach (TESSEL) representing different sub-grid surface types for vegetation, bare soil, snow and open water.

  • Each tile has its own properties defining separate heat and water fluxes used in an energy balance equation which is solved for the tile skin temperature.
  • Four soil layers are represented as well as snow mass and density.
  • The evaporative fluxes consider separately the fractional contributions from snow cover, wet and dry vegetation and bare soil.

An interception layer collects water from precipitation and dew fall, and infiltration and run-off are represented depending on soil texture and subgrid orography (HTESSEL, Balsamo et al., 2009). A carbon cycle is included and land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide are parametrized to respond to diurnal and synoptic variations in the water and energy cycles (CHTESSEL, Boussetta et al., 2012).

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Balsamo, G., Viterbo, P., Beljaars, A., van den Hurk, B., Hirschi, M., Betts, A.K. and Scipal, K. (2009). A revised hydrology for the ECMWF model: Verification from field site to terrestrial water storage and impact in the Integrated Forecast System.J. Hydrometeorol., 10, 623-643. Boussetta, S., Balsamo, G., Beljaars, A., Agusti-Panareda, A., Calvet, J., Jacobs, C., van den Hurk, B., Viterbo, P., Lafont, S., Dutra, E., Jarlan, L., Balzarolo, M., Papale, D. and van der Werf, G. (2012). Natural land carbon dioxide exchanges in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System: Implementation and offline validation. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No.675.

The turbulent diffusion scheme represents the vertical exchange of heat, momentum and moisture through sub-grid scale turbulence. The vertical turbulent transport is treated differently in the surface layer and above. In the surface layer, the turbulence fluxes are computed using a first order K-diffusion closure based on the Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory.

  • Above the surface layer a K-diffusion turbulence closure is used everywhere, except for unstable boundary layers where an Eddy-Diffusivity Mass-Flux (EDMF) framework is applied, to represent the non-local boundary layer eddy fluxes (Koehler et al., 2011).
  • The scheme is written in moist conserved variables (liquid static energy and total water).

Convective clouds are treated separately by the shallow convection scheme. References:

Koehler, M., Ahlgrimm, M. and Beljaars, A. (2011). Unified treatment of dry convective and stratocumulus-topped boundary layers in the ECMWF model.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 43-57.

The effects of unresolved orography on the atmospheric flow are parametrized as a sink of momentum (drag). The turbulent diffusion scheme includes a parametrization in the lower atmosphere to represent the turbulent orographic form drag induced by small scale (< 5 km) orography (Beljaars et al., 2004). In addition, in stably stratified flow, the orographic drag parametrization represents the effects of low-level blocking due to unresolved orography (blocked flow drag) and the absorption and/or reflection of vertically propagating gravity waves (gravity wave drag) on the momentum budget (Lott and Miller, 1997). References:

Beljaars, A.C.M., Brown, A.R. and Wood, N. (2004). A new parametrization of turbulent orographic form drag.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 1327-1347. Lott, F. and Miller, M.J. (1997). A new subgrid-scale orographic drag parametrization: Its formulation and testing.Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 101-127.

The non-orographic gravity wave drag parametrization accounts for the effects of unresolved non-orographic gravity waves. These waves are generated in nature by processes like deep convection, frontal disturbances, and shear zones. Propagating upward from the troposphere the waves break in the middle atmosphere, comprising the stratosphere and the mesosphere, where they exert a strong drag on the flow.

The parametrization uses a globally uniform wave spectrum, and propagates it vertically through changing horizontal winds and air density, thereby representing the wave breaking effects due to critical level filtering and non-linear dissipation. A description of the scheme and its effects on the middle atmosphere circulation can be found in Orr et al.

(2010). References:

Orr, A., Bechtold, P., Scinocca, J.F., Ern, M. and Janiskova, M. (2010). Improved middle atmosphere climate and forecasts in the ECMWF model through a non-orographic gravity wave drag parametrization.J. Climate, 23, 5905-5926.

There is a parametrization of the upper-stratospheric moisture source due to methane oxidation. A parametrization representing photolysis of vapour in the mesosphere is also included.
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Is climatology the study of weather?

Antarctic Ice Core – A core is extracted from the ice sheet to learn what the area’s (near McMurdo Station, Antarctica) climate was like in the past. Photograph by David Boyer What Is The Study Of Weather Called Climatology is the study of the atmosphere and weather patterns over time. This field of science focuses on recording and analyzing weather patterns throughout the world and understanding the atmospheric conditions that cause them. It is sometimes confused with meteorology, which is the study of weather and weather forecasting.

  • However, climatology is mainly focused on the natural and artificial forces that influence long-term weather patterns.
  • Scientists who specialize in this field are called climatologists,
  • The first studies of climate can be traced back to ancient Greece, but climate science as it is now known did not emerge until the advent of the industrial age in the nineteenth century.

The science of climatology grew as scientists became interested in understanding weather patterns. In recent times, climatologists have increasingly focused their research on the changes in Earth’s climate that have occurred since the industrial age. Earth has been growing warmer and warmer as human industry has expanded and released more carbon into the atmosphere.

This effect, called global warming, is a particularly important object of study for climatologists. By studying global warming, climatologists can better understand and predict the long-term impact of human-caused climate change, Climatologists seek to understand three main aspects of climate. The first aspect is the weather patterns that govern normal conditions in different regions throughout the world.

Secondly, climate scientists try to understand the relationship between different aspects of weather such as temperature and sunlight. The third aspect of climate that climatologists investigate is the way that weather changes over time. Results from this type of research have shown that human activities are affecting Earth’s overall climate, such as with increased global temperatures.

  1. As a result, climatologists also study human causes of climate change; they are particularly interested in activities that release greenhouse gases and their link to global warming.
  2. Additionally, climatologists look at natural changes in air and ocean currents like El Niño and La Niña, which are phases in a fluctuating cycle of air and ocean temperature over the Pacific Ocean.

The oscillation between the warm El Niño and the cold La Niña phases affect climates around the world. These ocean current patterns result in changes in the normal difference between atmospheric and ocean temperatures. Scientists also consider the effects that solar activity and variations in solar energy have on climate over time.

Some natural events can contribute to global warming, such as volcanic eruptions, which release large amounts of ash and other substances into the atmosphere. Although these events shade Earth from solar radiation by releasing large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, those same greenhouse gases contribute to global warming.

However, much of the climate change that climatologists study is tied to human activity, particularly humans’ use of fossil fuels, which are the main contributor to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere today. Studying the impact of these gases allows scientists to understand not only how Earth’s climate has changed as a result of human activity, but also how it might continue to change if humans continue to release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
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What is the difference between meteorology and metrology?

It’s ‘Metrology’, NOT Meteorology: And Why It’s Nothing to Fear From seasonal hurricanes and tornados, to blockbuster winter storms, meteorology can pack a punch. In fact, a recent study on just one thunderstorm over India estimated it contained volts.

It’s a shocking statistic that for many underscores a natural fear of the weather and even the words associated with it. After all, meteorology contains the word meteor – as in de-orbiting giant rock. But there’s another word in the English language that sounds a lot like meteorology that also sends shivers down peoples’ spines but it shouldn’t: metrology.

While they share most letters in common, meteorology is the science of weather and climate while metrology is the science of measurement and weights. And it is the science of measurement (and the tools associated with its applications) that small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) should be paying particular attention to – regardless of the weather.

  1. In fact, metrology need not be scary at all.
  2. Nor should SMBs assume they require special skills or a mathematical degree to master the technology.
  3. Today, thanks to advanced and easy-to-use 3D measurement hardware (such as portable measurement arms) and software, metrology has become an easy and straightforward applied science.

Especially when compared to accuracy-challenged hand tools, bulky fixed coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and similar products, operators can measure anytime, anywhere, including while the part is still on the machine producing it. Not only that, but businesses that adopt such metrology solutions (and their clients) will benefit by having a permanent digital record of the inspection report.

  • Transparency and efficiency at its finest.
  • A Sunny Forecast for Portable 3D Measurement Arms So, what is meant when referencing the metrology tools of today? For the purposes of this article, they are the portable, digital tools intended for product build and verification.
  • The small and medium-sized industries where metrology comes into play are diverse and include: machine shops, casting, forging, fabrication, tooling, and mold & die, manufacturing/machine assembly.

Tools like the FaroArm ® is an excellent example of what transportable, digital measurement is all about. The new FARO ® Quantum Max ScanArm, for instance, allows for confident 3D measurements across a wide range of machine shop and industrial applications as it combines the measurement capabilities of a Quantum Max portable coordinate measuring machine (CMM) with the non-contact functionality of a laser line probe.

The Quantum Max also offers three laser line probes that optimize accuracy, speed or a blend of both, depending on project need. Like its predecessors, it is ideal for small size, high-accuracy tasks, and vastly improves upon and replaces multiple hand tools like micrometers, calipers, and height gauges thanks to its convenience, speed, and ease of use.

With a product like Quantum Max, inspection bottlenecks are all but eliminated, along with operator variability – a factor that can make the difference between small business profitability or loss. In the case of Quantum Max, the collected data is stored directly on a computer and compared against the original CAD data.

CAD Data? Sure – your computer numeric control machines (CNC) machines are driven by CAD data, so why not verify and measure using the same nominal data that is used for machining? No CAD data, No worries? As long as you have a referenceable nominal measurement spec such as a blueprint, you can still use these tools.

All of this is a way to ensure that the part measured is verified according to the original design specs. And it helps ensure that part rejects and scrap are reduced to a minimum. Quantum Max is but one example of how innovative and affordable 3D metrology tools can help a small or medium-sized business punch above their weight.

  1. Another group of products are laser trackers.
  2. These are best suited for large-scale 3D measurement.
  3. Laser trackers measure angles and distance.
  4. It really is as simple as point and shoot and is ideal for assembly alignment, part and assembly inspection, machine installation and alignment, and reverse engineering.
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For instance, instead of measuring each individual part for a boat assembly by hand, laser trackers can measure entire hulls. As in the case with all digital models, the measured specs can be compared to original design specifications, whether they are CAD or blueprints.

  1. In rounding out the 3D metrology hardware trifecta, there’s also the burgeoning field of virtual templating which uses laser-guided assembly projection.
  2. These devices project a visible laser outline onto 3D surfaces and objects which assemblers use to sequence work and position components.
  3. Think of it like the paint by numbers approach to 3D metrology.

All operators have to do is match the part to the image outline and the assembly is complete. CAD-based virtual templating eliminates the need for physical templates and hard tooling, which like other digital solutions, reduces the risk of human error and costly rework.

With these tools manufacturers can avoid the time and expense associated with using large, heavy templates while significantly improving quality control. Long Range Outlook: Steer Clear of Fear For small and medium-sized businesses that have never worked with products like these, some trepidation is natural.

Many SMBs work with as few as 10 manual measurement tools and making the jump to computer-based 3D measurement can feel daunting. But it shouldn’t. One of the most common concerns is that the technology itself is too precise. That is to say that it generates too much data that the information overload will frustrate staff.

  • Or that it will show alignments so slightly out of tolerance relative to the original design specs that ‘ not worth correcting the error.
  • Which, goes the internal debate, why purchase a measurement tool in the first place if all it does is tell me things I don’t need to know.) But as any seasoned professional knows, ignorance is not bliss; it’s ignorance.3D measurement isn’t about upending your existing processes.

Rather, tools like the Quantum Max, laser trackers and virtual templating, all help identify problems and errors further upstream in the manufacturing process. The sooner an error can be detected the less scrap and re-work and overtime costs are generated.

Rework and scarp Putting additional manufacturing time and costs into parts that are out of tolerance and would not pass final inspection – perhaps the costliest example of scrap and rework. Shipping non-conforming products to customers which is not only costly, but the resulting customer dissatisfaction could lead to lost contracts and revenues.

So is metrology scary? Not anymore. In fact, not embracing 3D metrology at all might be what is really scary. ‘Spring Forward’ with Leadership from the Top To be sure, whether you’re a meteorologist or a metrologist, it helps to gain a little guidance from someone higher up, the proverbial “bigger fish” in the pond.

  • To keep with our weather/natural theme.) In this case, SMBs would be wise to take a page from their larger competitors.
  • Or at the very least, take note of the broader industry trends.
  • Large manufacturer or small, it should be clear by now that 3D measurement technology is a valuable addition not only when it comes to inspecting a final product, but throughout the entire machining process, accelerating time to completion, while simplifying workflows.

In the years ahead, as 3D metrology continues to advance into all aspects of manufacturing a growing number of SMBs, like their big business brothers, will embrace this technology. And increasingly, 3D measurement tools will be integrated into smart factory applications and throughout the machining workflow process, whereby even more data will be collected and acted on and shared.

Portability, “pause-ability” (to identify any potential issues straight away and correct the machine program in less time) and in-process alignment are the key drivers of success today’s machinists, large or small, are eager to embrace. Even now, the of today, as evidenced by the signups for a new 12-week program at The Greater Ozarks Center for Advanced Technology, or GOCAT, in West Plains, Mo., are learning the automation manufacturing skills of tomorrow.

If such educational momentum is building in a small American city sandwiched between the Mark Twain National Forest and the Ozark National Forest, you can bet other institutions of learning are taking note. Thus, adopting these solutions now may be just the competitive differentiator your business has been looking for to stand out from the crowd — not to mention a new “tool” in its talent acquisition armamentarium.
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Is meteorology the same as climatology?

What is the difference between a meteorologist and a climatologist?

by: Posted: Nov 15, 2019 / 03:46 PM CST Updated: Nov 15, 2019 / 03:46 PM CST

This is an archived article and the information in the article may be outdated. Please look at the time stamp on the story to see when it was last updated. Dear Tom, You are a meteorologist but you occasionally refer to others as climatologists. What is the difference between a meteorologist and a climatologist? Clover O’Rourke, Crystal Lake Dear Clover, A meteorologist uses scientific principles to understand, explain, observe or forecast the Earth’s atmospheric phenomena and/or how the atmosphere affects the Earth and life on the planet.

  1. A climatologist studies weather conditions averaged over a long period of time.
  2. Meteorology focuses on short-term weather events lasting up to a few weeks, whereas climatology studies the frequency and trends of those events.
  3. It studies the periodicity of weather events over years or longer.
  4. Climatologists study the nature of climates locally and globally and the natural and human-induced factors that cause climates to change.

Copyright 2023 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. What Is The Study Of Weather Called : What is the difference between a meteorologist and a climatologist?
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Is meteorology the same as weather?

Meteorology is the study of weather, climate, and the forces that cause change in our environment. It uses math and physics to understand the atmosphere, which consist of layers of gases and moisture surrounding the earth. Most weather takes place in the lowest level of the atmosphere, known as the troposphere.
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Is biology the study of weather?

Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere. Chemistry is the study of matter. Biology is the study of life, and physics is the study of energy and how matter and energy interact with one another. Meteorology depends on a knowledge of a number of other disciplines, including chemistry, physics, astronomy, and geology.
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What is the study of clouds called?

The scientific study of clouds, or nephology, is therefore a comparatively new discipline with its roots firmly implanted in the first attempts to classify clouds in the early 1800’s by Jean Lamarck in France and Luke Howard in England; their pioneer work in this important field has been well acknowledged.
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What are the 8 elements of weather?

Ch.14, p.402 # 1-3, 5, 7-11, 14, 15 – 1. Distiguish between weather and climate.A. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere for a short period of time. It is constantly changing. By contrast, climate is a composite of weather based on many years of weather records.

Although they are not the same, both are measured using the same elements below (in #2).2. List the basic elements of weather and climate.A. The elements of weather and climate are those quantities or properties that are measured regularly and include: a) air temperature, b) humidity, c) type and amount of clouds, d)type and amount of precipitation, e) air pressure, and f) wind speed and direction.3.

What are the two major components of clean, dry air? A. Nitrogen (~79%) and oxygen (~21%) 5. What source is responsible for the most pollution? A. It is the burning of fossil fuels (deisel, gasoline) in transportation.7. (a) Why is ozone important to life on Earth? A.

  1. It absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
  2. If ozone were not present, our planet would be uninhabitable for most life as we know it.
  3. B) What is the most serious threat to human health of a decrease in the stratosphere’s ozone? A.
  4. It would probably be an increase in the incidence of skin cancer.8.

The atmosphere is divided vertically into four layers on the basis of temperature. List the names of these layers in order (from lowest to highest) and describe how temperature changes in each layer.A. troposphere: temperatures decreases with altitude stratosphere: temperatures increases with altitude mesosphere: temperatures decreases with altitude thermosphere: temperatures increases with altitude 9.

Why do temperatures increase in the stratosphere? A. Temperatures rise in the stratosphere because ozone, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation, is concentrated in this layer.10. Briefly explain the primary cause of the seasons.A. The seasons are caused by the yeaerly variation in the altitude of the sun and length of daylight due to the inclination of Earth’s axis affecting the amount of solar energy received at Earth’s surface.11.

Briefly explain the primary cause of the seasons.A. The seasons occur because Earth’s axis is inclined and remains parallel with itself during the revolution of Earth about the Sun. The result is that the intensity and duration of sunlight, and hence atmospheric heating, varies throughout the year at any particular place.14.

  • Distinguish between heat and temperature.A.
  • Heat is the total kinetic energy of all the atoms and molecules that make up a substance.
  • Temperature refers to intensity – measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules within a substance.15.
  • Describe the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer.A.

Concduction is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity, whereas convection refers to heat transferred by mass movement within a substance. Radiation, the method of heat transfer between the Sun and Earth, is the transfer of heat through space by electromagnetic waves.
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Is climatology a geology?

This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry.
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What branches of science is climatology?

CONCLUSION: – Climatology is a branch of science that deals with the study of climatic conditions and the various factors affecting them. Basically, climatology focuses on studying the human factors that are affecting long-term climatic conditions. Climatology must not be confused with metrology, which is the study of small-area climatic conditions.
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Who is the father of climatology?

As noted by C.W. Thornthwaite, the most important name in the history of climatology, and to many the father of modern climatology, is Wladimir Peter Köppen ( Thornthwaite, 1943 ). Köppen published his first significant paper in 1868 and was researching, writing and publishing at the time of his death.

  1. He was born on 25 September 1846, in St Petersburg, the capital of the Imperial Russian Empire, and died in Graz, Austria, on 22 June 1940.
  2. Raised in an intellectual academic environment of German, French, and Russian scholars, Köppen developed a deep sense of environmental perception, a wonder for the varied vegetal zones of Imperial Russia, and an appreciation of the effects that climate has upon life on Earth.

His grandfather was a German medical doctor invited to Imperial Russia by Empress Catherine the Great. He became a personal physician to the royal family. His father, Peter von Köppen, was a geographer who served on the faculty at the Imperial Academy of Science.
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What is metrology in simple words?

Subfields – Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) as “the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology”.

  1. It establishes a common understanding of units, crucial to human activity.
  2. Metrology is a wide reaching field, but can be summarized through three basic activities: the definition of internationally accepted units of measurement, the realisation of these units of measurement in practice, and the application of chains of traceability (linking measurements to reference standards).

These concepts apply in different degrees to metrology’s three main fields: scientific metrology; applied, technical or industrial metrology, and legal metrology.
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What are the three branches of metrology?

Metrology can be divided into three subfields: scientific metrology, applied metrology, and legal metrology.
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Is metrology the study of climate?

Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and its phenomena, including both weather and climate.
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What are climate scientists called?

A climatologist studies weather patterns over a period of time. Their work is similar to that of meteorologists but focuses on a much longer timescale, studying trends over months, years or even centuries. Typical work activities

Studying and interpreting data, maps reports, photographs and charts to predict long and short scale patterns Using computer models to predict patterns Preparing forecasts and briefings for industrial, commercial and governmental clients Gathering data from weather stations, satellites or radar stations and providing this information to the media Preparing and making scientific presentations Appling your knowledge to problems such as global warming, agriculture and natural disasters Conducting research into the processes behind weather events Analysing historical climate information to help predict future trends Dealing with information and media requests

Climatologists also contribute to international discussions on the world and climate change, through bodies such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Some climatologists work as private consultants, others for government research bodies.
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What do climatologists study?

Climatologists study climate change, climate variability, and the effects of climate on the biosphere. They use computers to predict the effect of weather or climate on the growth and development of agricultural crops, water resources, energy, etc.
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What is the basic of climatology?

Climatology is the study of atmospheric conditions over a longer period of time. It includes the study of different kinds of weather that occur at a place. Dynamic change in the atmosphere brings about variation and occasionally great extremes that must be treated on the long term as well as the short term basis.
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What are the 4 types of earth science?

The four basic areas of Earth Science study are: geology, meteorology, oceanography and astronomy. Geology is the primary Earth science. The word means ‘study of the Earth’.
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What is a synonym for meteorology?

Synonyms of meteorology | Thesaurus.com Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group. On this page you’ll find 3 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to meteorology, such as: weather forecasting, aerology, and climatology.

  1. See how your sentence looks with different synonyms.
  2. Word Of The Day Quiz: Inspiration For Bibliogony! Sally was denouncing meteorology as imposture when the returning bather produced the effect recorded.
  3. WILLIAM DE MORGAN He had developed what I regarded as an innocent intellectual recreation which he called stock-market meteorology,H.G.

WELLS For astronomy in those days seems to have ranked as a minor science, like mineralogy or meteorology now. OLIVER LODGE © 2023 Dictionary.com, LLC : Synonyms of meteorology | Thesaurus.com
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Why is it called meteorology?

Breakdown: Meteorologists don’t study meteors, so why the name? MEMPHIS, Tenn. (WMC) – The study of weather and the Earth’s atmosphere is called Meteorology. But where does the meteor-part stem from? The term Meteorology has quite the history deriving from the Greek word meteoron, which more or less meant “something in the sky.” Around 340 BC, the famous philosopher Aristotle wrote a treatise called, a work covering the totality of that era’s knowledge of weather and climate.

In Aristotle’s time, anything that was suspended in or fell from the sky was called a “meteor,” including rain, snow, hail, rainbows and meteoroids. Therefore, meteorology technically does study “meteors.” Meteorologists study many phenomena that include the word meteor, although these terms are not typically used in common speech.

For example:

Clouds, fog, snow crystals, rain drops and so on are all hydrometeors (literally water in the air). Suspended dust, sand, soil, soot, salt crystals and other dry particulates are known as lithometeors. Lightning is called an electrometeor. Phenomena such as rainbows, halos, glories, mirages, coronae and other such atmospheric displays are photometeors.

So even though we don’t study the one meteor we most commonly know streaking across our skies, the name Meteorology theoretically fits. NOTE: Aristotle’s Meteorologica included shooting stars or “meteors” in his writings which is now separated into astronomy.

A meteor (according to astronomy) is a small body of matter that is actively burning in our atmosphere (shooting star), A meteorite is what is left of a meteor when it hits earth and a meteoroid is a small ‘body’ moving outside of our solar system that hasn’t become a meteor yet. Since the vast majority of Aristotle’s work dealt with weather, over time, the term “meteorology” came to be used when referring to the science of weather and atmospheric studies, and the study of meteoroids became part of astronomy.

Thus, in the context of meteorology’s contemporary definition, a “meteorologist” refers to a scientist who studies weather and the Earth’s atmosphere, not meteors. Copyright 2021 WMC. All rights reserved. : Breakdown: Meteorologists don’t study meteors, so why the name?
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What is meteorology defined as?

What is meteorology? – According to the Met Office’s Meteorological Glossary, meteorology is ” the science of the atmosphere, embracing both weather and climate. It is concerned with the physical, dynamical and chemical state of the earth’s atmosphere (and those of the planets), and with the interactions between the earth’s atmosphere and the underlying surface,” The word is derived from the Greek meteoros meaning ‘lofty’ or ‘in the air’; and logia meaning to discuss, study and explain.
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What are the branches of climatology?

CONCLUSION: – Climatology is a branch of science that deals with the study of climatic conditions and the various factors affecting them. Basically, climatology focuses on studying the human factors that are affecting long-term climatic conditions. Climatology must not be confused with metrology, which is the study of small-area climatic conditions.
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Is climatology a branch of physics?

Dynamic Climatology – Dynamic climatology is the study of climate as a branch of physics. The climate system is a physical system governed by reasonably well-known physical laws (fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative transfer, etc). There are 5 major components of the climate system: atmosphere, hydrosphere (ie, oceans, lakes), land surface, cryosphere (sea ice, permanent ice caps, snow) and biosphere.

  1. The global system is interrelated in many complex ways, and the study of dynamic climatology requires expertise from many branches of science and data from all parts of the globe.
  2. Some major aspects of the climate system may be appreciated by considering simpler, idealized systems.
  3. A nonrotating Earth with no topography or oceans would have a climate far different from that observed.

If the atmosphere were not permitted to move in this idealized case, the resulting climate would not vary with longitude, but only with latitude; eg, temperatures would be high at equatorial latitudes, low at poleward latitudes. The resulting temperature structure at the surface, at various levels in the atmosphere and at various latitudes could be calculated using the equations of thermodynamics and radiative transfer.

If the atmosphere were allowed to move on this nonrotating Earth, the warm air in equatorial regions would rise, flow polewards, cool, sink and flow equatorwards once more, giving rise to a Hadley circulation. The temperature difference from pole to equator provides the driving force for the motions and would be reduced as a consequence of the flow.

If the planet now began to rotate, the nature of the flow (hence, the climate) would differ remarkably. A simple Hadley circulation would no longer be found but rather a flow from west to east at middle latitudes and a flow from east to west at lower latitudes.

Superimposed on this general flow would be large ripples and eddies. Without the oceans, winter cold and summer warmth would be extreme and the coldest and warmest times of the year would occur at the solstices. If moisture were introduced into the system as oceans and water vapour in the air, the resulting climate would again change dramatically; changes would include the appearance of major east-west asymmetries in the climate.

The oceans have a profound effect on climate through storage and transport of heat. Topography, ice and snow, etc, add further degrees of complexity to the system.
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What is the objective of climatology?

Aug.16, 2017 • 0 likes Be the first to like this • 13,665 views Download to read offline Climatology is the science of studying the average atmospheric conditions of a region in long-term perspective. The primary goal of Climatology is to study the unique characteristics of atmosphere in controlling the global climate, origin, types of climates, causes and processes influencing the climatic variations, elements of weather and the impact of climate on humans or vice-versa.
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