What Is The Study Of Muscles Called?
Increasing awareness of Myology: it’s time for its recognition as an independent discipline within the Medical Sciences In 1891, Charcot and Bouchard – two eminent French scientists – published a famous textbook of Internal Medicine (), which included large chapters dedicated to all branches of Medicine and Neurology.
The medical specialties, as we know them today, are all derived from the Internal Medicine during the 19 th century.J.M. Charcot, who first argued the need for a specialist to direct the Chair of Mental Disorders at the Salpetrière Hospital in Paris, performed all necessary steps – scientific, institutional and political – to claim and obtain for himself the creation of the first Chair of Nervous and Mental Diseases of the Old Continent in 1882 (, ).
The same fate befell during the 20 th century in other disciplines, such as Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Pulmonology etc. just to mention the most important, and, more recently, Microbiology, Hygien, Genetics,, and Myology. Myology (from latin myos “muscle” and logia, “logy”) is the science that studies muscles, their physical structure, type of fibers, specific function, and the connections between different muscle groups.
- Interest of myology are also muscle disorders.
- For most of the 20 th century, Myology was considered as a little part of Neurology, while currently it is recognized as an autonomous discipline both at the research and the medical level.
- From a research point of view, we have witnessed the birth and flourishing of new scientific societies, such as the European Society for Muscle Research (1970), the Mediterranean Society of Myology (1993), the World Muscle Society (1995), the Institute of Myology (1996), the Italian Association of Myology (2000), the British Myology Society (2009), the French Society of Myology (2011), and numerous conferences concerning muscular disorders In particular the annual meetings of the World Muscle Society and Italian Association of Myology have been this year at their 20 th and 15 th edition, respectively, while the biannual meeting of the Mediterranean Society of Myology will see its 12 th edition in Naples.
Similarly, the number of papers focusing on the different aspects of myology and of scientific journals specifically dedicated to myology is in a continuous and constant increase. A search in PubMed, under the heading “muscle ” reported, at the date of 13 April 2015, 912119 papers and under the heading “muscle disorders” 168,931 papers, in a similar fashion the first scientific journals Muscle & Nerve, edited by Bradley in the USA in 1964, Acta Myologica edited in Naples by Giovanni Nigro and Lucia Ines Comi in 1982, and Neuromuscular Disorders, edited by V.
Dubowitz in London in 1990, were rapidly followed in the last few years by the creation of Skeletal Muscles, edited by K. Campbell in 2011, European Journal of Translational Myology-BAM edited in Padua by U. Carraro in 2014, and the Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases, edited by Bonnemann and Lochmuller both in 2014.
Furthermore the textbook “Myology” edited by Andrew Engel (that is) considered the “bible” for lovers of Myology, has reached its third edition. In the meantime the attention to the care needs of people living with muscle diseases increased so that many Clinical Centers of Myology were created, achievive international fame.
- To be mentioned among others the Center of Cardiomyology and Medical Genetics, at the Second University of Naples, founded by Giovanni Nigro in 1976, the Institute of Myology initiated in Paris, in 1996, and the Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre (DNC) in London.
- All these Centres provide clinical assessment, diagnostic services, advice on treatment and rehabilitation, and are involved in clinical trials and in basic research focused on understanding the cause of neuromuscular diseases, and identifying novel therapeutic intervention.
They became a point of reference for patients, families and doctors, as sites where specialized consultations, fundamental and clinical research teams and teaching on muscle and muscle diseases are grouped together in public hospitals. The major development reached by Myology in Italy, in Europe and in the States, has been efficiently described by C.
- Angelini in a paper published in Acta Myologica in 2011 ().
- In spite of this intense and fascinating process, Myology is still considered the “Cinderella” of the medical disciplines and the researchers who are involved in the field as “isolated people”.
- Furthermore the scientific journals publishing on the topic are listed among journals of internal medicine and/or neurological sciences, at the bottom of the rankings.
We are convinced that it is time for Myology to be declared a separate discipline among the branches of Medicine and solicit the help of Myologists worldwide to make this dream possible. Giovanni Nigro, President of Mediterranean Society of Myology. Luisa Politano, Cardiomyology and Medical Genetics Second Naples University.1.
Charcot JM, Bouchard C, Brissaud E, et al. Traité de Médecine. Paris: G. Masson Ed; 1891.2. Goetz G, Bonduelle M, Charcot GT. Constructing Neurology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.3. Signoret JL. La création de la chaire de Charcot. Revue Neurologique.1982; 138 :887–892.4. Gelfand T. Comment Charcot a obtenu sa chaire.
Histoire Des Sciences Médicales.1994; 1 :307–312.5. Angelini C. History of Myology in Italy and its international connections. Acta Myol.2011; 30 :151–151. : Increasing awareness of Myology: it’s time for its recognition as an independent discipline within the Medical Sciences
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- 1 Who studies the muscular system?
- 2 Is Physiology the study of muscles?
- 3 What is the strongest muscle in the human body?
- 4 What is muscle therapy?
- 5 What is muscle in psychology?
- 6 What is the best way to study muscles?
- 7 Is kinesiology the same as anatomy?
Who studies the muscular system?
Orthopedists specialize in the musculoskeletal system.
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What is muscle anatomy called?
Different types of muscle – The three main types of muscle include:
Skeletal muscle – the specialised tissue that is attached to bones and allows movement. Together, skeletal muscles and bones are called the musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system). Generally speaking, skeletal muscle is grouped into opposing pairs such as the biceps and triceps on the front and back of the upper arm. Skeletal muscles are under our conscious control, which is why they are also known as voluntary muscles. Another term is striated muscles, since the tissue looks striped when viewed under a microscope. Smooth muscle – located in various internal structures including the digestive tract, uterus and blood vessels such as arteries. Smooth muscle is arranged in layered sheets that contract in waves along the length of the structure. Another common term is involuntary muscle, since the motion of smooth muscle happens without our conscious awareness. Cardiac muscle – the muscle specific to the heart. The heart contracts and relaxes without our conscious awareness.
What does myologist do?
Science Mary McMahon Last Modified Date: April 05, 2023 Mary McMahon Last Modified Date: April 05, 2023 Myology is the study of muscles. A number of medical practitioners integrate some myology into their training, because understanding the musculoskeletal system is key to addressing many health issues, and myology is also a topic of interest for massage therapists, personal trainers, and physical therapists who work with the muscles on a daily basis.
For people with a casual interest in the muscular structure, a number of bookstores carry books which have overviews of the muscles and their functions. When discussing the study of human muscles, people usually just say “human myology.” For other types of living organisms, a qualifier is inserted, as in avian myology, the study of bird musculature.
The muscle structure in different animals is radically different, reflecting different skeletal structures, lifestyles, habits, and functions. For example, both cats and humans have a trapezius muscle, but the muscle looks radically different in these different animal species. Some students learn about myology through dissection. A myologist looks at the physical structure of muscles, studying the different kinds of muscle fibers, the shape of healthy muscles, the nerves which innervate various muscles, the functions of specific muscles, and the connections between different muscle groups. Myology will be a topic of interest for massage therapists. Biopsy samples taken from muscles which appear to be weak or disordered may also be of interest to a myologist. These samples can be examined under a microscope to look at the cells, determine which types of muscle fiber are present, and find out whether or not abnormalities are present in the muscle. Mary McMahon Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllTheScience researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors. Mary McMahon Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllTheScience researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.
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Is Physiology the study of muscles?
Muscle physiology is a branch of physiology that studies the mechanism behind muscle contraction. Muscle contraction is shortening of the muscle fibers initiated by action potentials in motor neurons which cause the release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles.
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Does anatomy study muscles?
Abstract. There is a widely variable breadth of coverage of skeletal muscle content across both undergraduate human anatomy and undergraduate anatomy and physiology (A&P) courses.
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What is the study of muscles and movement?
Kinesiology, as it is known in physical education, athletic training, physical therapy, orthopedics, and physical medicine, is the study of human movement from the point of view of the physical sciences.
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What are the 4 muscle types?
In the body, there are three types of muscle : skeletal (striated), smooth, and cardiac,
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What are the 3 types of muscles?
Overview – The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striped (striated), and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs (such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines), except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control.
Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. They are striated in appearance and are under voluntary control. Updated by: Diane M. Horowitz, MD, Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M.
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What is the strongest muscle in the human body?
Answer – There is no one answer for this question since there are different ways to measure strength. There is absolute strength (maximum force), dynamic strength (repeated motions), elastic strength (exert force quickly), and strength endurance (withstand fatigue). Muscles. In De humani corporis fabrica, Andreas Vesalius, 1543. National Library of Medicine Digital Collections. There are three types of muscles in the human body: cardiac, smooth and skeletal. Cardiac muscle makes up the wall of the heart and is responsible for the forceful contraction of the heart.
Smooth muscles make up the walls of the intestine, the uterus, blood vessels, and internal muscles of the eye. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones and in some areas the skin (muscles in our face). Contraction of the skeletal muscles helps limbs and other body parts move. Most sources state that there are over 650 named skeletal muscles in the human body, although some figures go up to as many as 840.
The dissension comes from those that count the muscles within a complex muscle. For example the biceps brachii is a complex muscle that has two heads and two different origins however, they insert on the radial tuberosity. Do you count this as one muscle or two? A volunteer tests his muscle strength on the hand dynameter.G.V. Hecht, photographer. National Library of Medicine Digital Collections. Although most individuals have the same general set of muscles, there is some variability from one person to another.
Generally, smooth muscles are not included with this total since most of these muscles are at cellular level and number in the billions. In terms of a cardiac muscle, we only have one of those- the heart. Muscles are given Latin names according to location, relative size, shape, action, origin/insertion, and/or number of origins.
For example the flexor hallicis longus muscle is the long muscle that bends the big toe:
Flexor = A muscle that flexes a joint Hallicis = great toe Longus = Long
Gymnastics – Medical: Patient Gymnasticon, or machine for exercising the joints and muscles of the human body. National Library of Medicine Digital Collections The following are muscles that have been deemed the strongest based on various definitions of strength (listed in alphabetical order): External Muscles of the Eye The muscles of the eye are constantly moving to readjust the positions of the eye.
When the head is in motion, the external muscles are constantly adjusting the position of the eye to maintain a steady fixation point. However, the external muscles of the eye are subject to fatigue. In an hour of reading a book the eyes make nearly 10,000 coordinated movements. Gluteus Maximus The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the human body.
It is large and powerful because it has the job of keeping the trunk of the body in an erect posture. It is the chief antigravity muscle that aids in walking up stairs. Heart The hardest working muscle is the heart. It pumps out 2 ounces (71 grams) of blood at every heartbeat.
Daily the heart pumps at least 2,500 gallons (9,450 liters) of blood. The heart has the ability to beat over 3 billion times in a person’s life. Masseter The strongest muscle based on its weight is the masseter. With all muscles of the jaw working together it can close the teeth with a force as great as 55 pounds (25 kilograms) on the incisors or 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms) on the molars.
Muscles of the Uterus The uterus sits in the lower pelvic region. Its muscles are deemed strong because they contract to push a baby through the birth canal. The pituitary gland secretes the hormone oxytocin, which stimulates the contractions. Soleus The muscle that can pull with the greatest force is the soleus.
- It is found below the gastrocnemius (calf muscle).
- The soleus is very important for walking, running, and dancing.
- It is considered a very powerful muscle along with calf muscles because it pulls against the force of gravity to keep the body upright.
- Tongue The tongue is a tough worker.
- It is made up of groups of muscles and like the heart it is always working.
It helps in the mixing process of foods. It binds and contorts itself to form letters. The tongue contains linguinal tonsils that filter out germs. Even when a person sleeps, the tongue is constantly pushing saliva down the throat. The muscles. In Atlas of human anatomy and physiology, Sir Wm. Turner and John Goodsir, Edinburgh, 1857. National Library of Medicine Digital Collections Published: 11/19/2019. Author: Science Reference Section, Library of Congress
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What is muscle therapy?
What is Muscle Therapy and How Does it Help | Panther Functional Medicine & Chiropractic Muscle therapy is used to treat muscle issues such as aches and pains. It typically utilizes practices such as deep tissue massage, trigger point therapy, and corrective exercise in order to ensure that your body is operating at peak performance.
- Muscle therapy acknowledges that the body operates as an entire unit, with each part operating for a certain individual good, but together nonetheless.
- This idea translates into practice by recognizing that injuries or pains are not always directly caused by the area the pain is felt in.
- Meaning that issues in one part of the body often produce repercussions throughout other, usually nearby muscular systems.
Injuries and nagging pains are usually a buildup of a number of things, muscular therapy takes this into account and excellent practitioners of muscular therapy take their time to ensure a thorough diagnosis of the problem at hand. In other words, they work to find the root cause of the problem instead of treating individual symptoms, which is increasingly common in traditional medicine today.
The treatment of symptoms rather than their cause leads to numerous doctor trips and a frustrating cycle of recurring aches and pains. Muscular therapy stands to treat what actually needs to be treated. Professionals are trained to look beyond the symptoms you may be presenting to find what is causing them.
Here at Panther Functional Medicine and Chiropractic, this is one of our specialties. We take great pride in our work addressing the fibrotic/scar tissue in every patient, and ensuring that everyone receives above adequate attention during each visit.
Whether it is working with ultrasound, cold laser, or manual therapy with our two specialized massage therapists, we can deliver the absolute best treatment available to our patients. This kind of holistic functional therapy offers a thorough method of treatment which has the patient in mind, not the profits of the practice administering treatment.
Patients of muscular therapy often see much greater results in treating both chronic and acute pains than from traditional medicine. These root causes, or trigger points are often addressed through massage, a highly effective hands on approach which can greatly alleviate pain you never thought would go away.
The various aspects of muscular therapy work together to help push you towards your peak performance level. Whether it is on a sports field, or in the backyard, this therapy addresses problems where they need to be addressed so that you can live a life without muscle pain. It is of great importance that you choose the right provider of muscular therapy to ensure the best possible outcomes.
Panther Functional Medicine and Chiropractic will ensure that you are literally in the best of hands while treating your aches and pains through our various forms of highly effective, and highly personalized muscle therapy treatment. : What is Muscle Therapy and How Does it Help | Panther Functional Medicine & Chiropractic
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What is muscle therapy used for?
When can I expect results from using muscle shock therapies, and how often should I get treatments to see results – Most people will start to feel benefits from muscle shock therapy after 2-3 sessions. You can also begin to see improvements in your symptoms before the end of the treatment.
However, how many treatments you’ll need depends on your condition and what you’re hoping to achieve by using this form of therapy. Generally, patients with chronic conditions like fibromyalgia and spinal injuries require more treatments than those who need relief from acute pain or want to recover faster from an injury.
Also, those who have a condition that limits their movement won’t see as many benefits from electrostimulation as they’ll still have to go through physical rehabilitation even if the pain is gone. How often you need to use electrostimulation depends on your doctor’s recommendations.
- In most cases, people can get treatments once a week for up to an hour.
- Conclusion Muscle shock therapy is a form of electro-stimulation that’s used to help with pain relief, recovery from injuries, and chronic conditions like fibromyalgia.
- It was first introduced in the 1950s but has since undergone significant improvements.
Muscle shock therapy can be performed at home or by doctors depending on your condition. As long as you follow your doctor’s advice, electric shock muscle therapy should have no negative side effects for most people – just some tingling sensations or skin reddening while receiving it.
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What is myology also called?
‘Myo’ refers to ‘Muscles’. Myology is the study of the muscular system, including the study of the structure, function, and diseases of muscle. So, the correct answer is ‘Muscles’
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Does kinesiology study muscles?
Summary. Kinesiology is a form of therapy that uses muscle monitoring (biofeedback) to look at imbalances that may be causing disease in the body. Kinesiology aims to detect and correct imbalances that may relate to stress, nutrition or minor injuries.
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What is muscle in psychology?
N. contractile tissue that generates force and moves parts of the body.
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Are muscles part of biology?
Learning Outcomes –
Identify the structure and function of the muscular system
The muscular system is the biological system of humans that produces movement. The muscular system, in vertebrates, is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles, like cardiac muscle, can be completely autonomous. Muscle is contractile tissue and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Figure 1. Muscle structure Muscle is composed of muscle cells (sometimes known as “muscle fibers”). Within the cells are myofibrils; myofibrils contain sarcomeres which are composed of actin and myosin. Individual muscle cells are lined with endomysium.
- Muscle cells are bound together by perimysium into bundles called fascicles.
- These bundles are then grouped together to form muscle, and is lined by epimysium.
- Muscle spindles are distributed throughout the muscles, and provide sensory feedback information to the central nervous system.
- Skeletal muscle, which involves muscles from the skeletal tissue, is arranged in discrete groups (Figure 1).
An example is the biceps brachii. It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton. In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every organ, from the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair) to the blood vessels and digestive tract (in which it controls the caliber of a lumen and peristalsis, respectively).
There are approximately 640 skeletal muscles in the human body. Contrary to popular belief, the number of muscle fibers cannot be increased through exercise; instead the muscle cells simply get bigger. It is however believed that myofibrils have a limited capacity for growth through hypertrophy and will split if subject to increased demand.
There are three basic types of muscles in the body: smooth, cardiac, and skeletal (see Figure 2). While they differ in many regards, they all use actin sliding against myosin to create muscle contraction and relaxation. In skeletal muscle, contraction is stimulated at each cell by nervous impulses that releases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, creating action potentials along the cell membrane.
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What is the best way to study muscles?
How to Study Anatomy Studying human anatomy can be fascinating and challenging. There are many detailed aspects of anatomy and it can be difficult to discern what level of understanding is needed for the exam and for practical application as an exercise professional.
Exam candidates often ask how to study anatomy and if it is imperative to memorize everything, This blog covers what you need to know, how to approach your studies, and ideas for applying what you are learning. It is important to understand what you need to know and what is nice to know. While it will not be imperative to identify the location of every muscle that makes up the human body on an anatomical figure, for example, you should have a basic understanding of how the major muscle groups work as a whole.
Knowing the names of muscle groups, where they are located, how they make the body move, and what exercises target each group is central to both preparing for the exam and the successful application of exercise program design and implementation. The following blog articles help to identify those components:
One way to learn and apply this information is to focus on the muscles and movements of one muscle group each week. Use your own body to learn muscle locations, how they make the limbs and body parts move, and which exercises target each group – get up, move, and create actions for your own muscles.
Understand How You Learn Best
There are different ways to learn new information and it is important to make your preferred learning style a priority. Maybe you’re a visual learner, maybe you learn best by practicing, or maybe you prefer making flashcards and taking notes. If you don’t know how you learn best – experiment! Play around with different learning styles and see what works for you.
Taking It to the Next Step
Once you’ve identified what you need to know about human anatomy and how you can learn it, think about between memorization and practical application. This includes examining anatomical and regional terms describing locations of muscles and bones and how making observations during assessments indicates both functional and dysfunctional muscle actions.
Also, if knowing the origin and insertion points helps you to understand muscle actions and joint movements to comprehend anatomy better, then take the time to learn it. Lastly, apply what you are learning. You can incorporate anatomical terminology and information into your everyday activities without even studying.
For example, while reaching for your coffee mug, shutting the car door, exercising at the gym, or bending down to pick up a book, feel the action, and then picture the muscles associated with that movement. Then try to name the muscles used. Understanding and applying anatomy is important not only for the exam but it is foundational knowledge that all exercise professionals need to critically observe client movements, successfully create and implement exercise programs, and to confidently interact within the allied healthcare continuum.
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Is kinesiology an anatomy?
What is kinesiology?
Put your future in motion
Kinesiology is the study of movement. With a kinesiology degree, you’ll gain a scientific foundation in chemistry, anatomy and physiology, as well as nutrition and public health. Kinesiology professionals help individuals get back to the movement they love, and help others with disabilities from infants through adulthood.
At Oregon State, we focus on exercise science and physical activity and its effect on human health, disease prevention and quality of life. With a degree in kinesiology, you could become a personal trainer, physical education teacher, nurse, physical therapy aide, wellness/prevention program coordinator and more. Yulin Hu, ’21 Currently attending the University of Southern California’s doctor of physical therapy program “Studying kinesiology helped me learn human movement science and injury properties. My career goal is to be a health care professional and help others get back to their daily functions.” : What is kinesiology?
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Is kinesiology the same as anatomy?
Lesson 9: An Introduction to Anatomy and Kinesiology Somatic based spiritual practice requires an understanding of soma, the embodied expression of spirit. We will start with the obvious for a yoga student, the muscles/bones/connective tissue structures we feel in our asana practice. like the carp or lizards; and rotation, the fundamental power move of the human. Now we will examine the basic action of the feet, ankles and knees that integrate with the hip joints to allow coordinated movements and to relieve unnecessary stress on spine. Tom Myers’ “Anatomy Trains” will be our our integration guide foucusing specifically on the deep front line. Originally written for body workers, Anatomy Trains allows all somatic explorers to have maps that outline pathways of integrated action based on the connective tissue system. As we feel these connections and begin to use them, our practice will become more and more effortless.
- Patanjali describes this progression of asana in sutra Ii-47; ‘ prayatna shaithilyaananta samaapattibhyam’.
- With the relaxation of effort and absorption into the deep support of the cosmos (asana is mastered).
- But before jump into the modern view, yoga students should also have a sense of the Vedic view of anatomy.
What is meant by ‘body’ from a yogic perspective? In the Vedic tradition, human ‘anatomy’ consists of three nested bodies: 1. The gross body (Sanskrit: sthula sharira ) is the body of mass and weight. It is tangible, and includes all structures from muscles and bones to cells, water and more. 2. The subtle or energy body (Sanskrit: sukshma sharira) includes the energies of the body such as heat, electricity, motility and motion, including the physiological and psychological processes of aliveness. It can be directly felt, but is not ‘tangible’ like the gross body.
- Neither is it separate from the gross body, as matter, as Mr.
- Einstein points out, is just a very dense form of energy.
- The key words here are flow and fluidity, or sukha, sukham in Sanskrit and new students are introduced to this level through feeling the breathing.3.
- The causal body (Sanskrit: karana sharira), seed of all seeds: There is no perfect English translation but rainbow light body or the body of limitlessness can be useful.
Another way to consider this ‘body’ is as the organizing intelligence of the cosmos, manifesting as fields: gravity, electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear. The key words here are space, spaciousness and light. For a yogi, kinesiology, the study of movement, is more important than anatomy, because it explores relationships and energy flow.
Anatomy is usually studied as collection of separate pieces and, although this can be helpful for memorizing, it can create a powerful confusion in the mind. There are no separate parts. Life, the body, and the cosmos are an unbroken whole, with a multiplicity of possibilities continuously emerging, transforming and dissolving.
When we feel movement, we can find the wholeness. The main principle of kinesiology describes what is required for elegant, effortless movement and is known as joint congruence. Any joint, whether still or in motion, is most stable and safe when the center of one of the bones remains exactly centered on the opposite bone.
This is where alignment in yoga meets kinesiology. If my hip joint is aligned properly, the center of the femur head will remain exactly centered on the mid-point of the acetabulum of the pelvis throughout any healthy movement. This implies that all the muscles and muscle groups in the region are in balance throughout movement.
An unhealthy movement will disturb the alignment by contracting one or more muscles asymmetrically and pulling the femur slightly off center. This will be felt as having a ‘tight hip’. As we build perception and begin to feel our way through the sensations, we can start to use simple movements to re-align the hip joints.
Here the energy body and gross body work as one and we will start by moving in and out of the basic yoga poses. See Notes from St. John for details on working in the poses. For our anatomical inquiry into the gross body structures, we will approach the muscles and bones from a holistic perspective, using as our primary reference “Anatomy Trains” by Tom Myers.
Anatomy tends to be taught by learning/memorizing the body as a series of parts: muscles, bones, organs, nerves, etc. This approach totally misrepresents the reality of the human body which is a living, dynamic, integrated presence. We will use Tom’s work as a map to begin to see and feel the fascial continuities that link and integrate the layers and levels of the body in action and perception. DFL, which allows us to connect the myofascia of the muscles with the visceral fascia of the gut body, as it includes the diaphragm and pericardium. This line integrates the core of the body from head to feet and is the root of tadasana, our primary standing pose.1.
Find the DFL origins in your feet. The heel bone is bypassed, so the gastroc/soleus muscles, which become the achilles tendon where it attaches to the heel, is not part of the action. Overusing these outer muscles is a habit that is difficult for beginner to overcome. Learn to be ‘on your toes’, which actually means to carry your weight on the tarsals and metatarsals with the heels very light.
This allows instant movement in any direction and is the foundation for all skillful movements that begin with the legs. Watch a cat or dog as they move and notice their heels and wrists never touch the ground.2. Feel the inner thighs awakening. We overwork the quads and hamstrings, neither of which are part of the DFL.
The adductors can be taught to be engaged in trikonasana, parsvakonasana and ardha chandrasana. They are the ‘mediators of the legs, the muscles in the middle that bring a balanced energy flow. Find this. Repeat. Again.3. The iliopsoas is a major player in the DFL’s healthy functioning, but these muscles tend to be overly contracted and isolated from the legs.
Most lower back issues stem from this dissociation. By learning to slowly move in and out of the standing poses such as uttanasana and trikonasana, without collapsing the upper torso, we can begin to reconnect the psoas muscles with the rest of the DFL in the legs.
- Ida Rolf, pioneer somatic innovator described the psoas as linking walking and breathing, as the diaphragm is the next section of the DFL to be integrated.
- Moving in and out rather than holding brings the breath more clearly into focus.
- Most beginners ‘hold’ their breath if they are ‘holding’ a yoga pose.
This is an unconscious habit that needs to be transformed asap.4 Diaphragm: He we find a huge muscle dividing abdomen from chest cavity, attaching to ribs, spine, heart. It has opening for the blood vessels and esophagus, but is pretty strong and relatvely unconscious.
Our work in exploring the breath will help differentiate ribs from diaphragm and learn to recognize the pressure cavities that play a major role in the shape they take on. Most important is to feel an upward lift to the lower dome of the diaphragm coming up from the feet. The diaphragm should ride on the aliveness of the feet through the integration of the DFL.
Now Into Skull and Upper Limbs: As the diaphragm receives support from below, the intercostals can awaken and support the ribs from the inside. this then relieves pressure on the scalenes from trying to hold up the front ribs. The shoulders can also relax and the arm connections through the blood vessel highways can now be felt.
- Hands can connect directly to the feet, head to the tail.
- From the awakening and refining of the DFL, we can see the role of some of the other Anatomy Train Lines.
- The Superficial Back Line, or SBL, and the Superficial Front Line, or SFL, work as a pair when integrated with the DFL.
- In a forward bend such as uttanasana, the SBL lengthens if the DFL maintains its core support and low.
In a backbend, the SFL lengthens, again if the DFL is supporting. Notice the SFL breaks at the pelvis. The quads need to lengthen for everyone. They chronically over work. The upper SFL is trickier as the abdominals are often weak and the inner muscles of the chest wall to tight.
There needs to be two differetn action for most beginning students to fully open the SFL. The lateral lines, right and left, are opened in the lateral poses like trikonasan, parsvakonasana and ardha chandrasana, again with support form the DFL. The spiral lines can be explored in standing twists, using the support of a wall for extra clarity.
The Ten Oxherding Pictures A Holiday Gift from the Buddhist World to all of us. The ten Oxherding Pictures from Zen Buddhism represent the stages and path to awakening, integration and enlightenment, with the Ox representing our True Nature and the Oxherder each of us, the embodied being.
It is important to note that the stages are not linear but spiralic and multi-dimensional, as we usually can get glimpses of more advanced levels before we have truly completed and integrated the any or all of the previous ones. Also, we may often be working with several stages at the same time. More subtle awakenings in one level may trigger unconscious and unresolved traumas stored in the earlier levels that then need to be revisited, transformed and integrated.
Then, the energy held in trauma is resolved and free to use for deeper growth. There are many variations on the ten pictures representing the stages, and these are usually accompanied by poetic verses and/or commentary describing the journey. The paintings seen below are traditionally attributed to 天章周文 Tenshō Shūbun (1414-1463), of the Muromachi period in the late fifteenth century and are found at the Shōkokuji temple in Kyoto, Japan.
- These stages can be seen as three sets of three transformations, with the final stage standing alone.
- The first three are the beginners journey, the second three those of the intermediate student, and the final three the most subtle and refined.
- The tenth transcends all and resolves as the awakened Buddha in the world helping others.
Looking more deeply and ironically, we find that ultimately it is the Ox who is training and leading the Oxherder 1: Seeking the Ox We know something is missing in our lives, but don’t know what it might be, or where to look. Our souls ache, our spirit feels fragile. The spiritual journey begins, but our minds are full of confusion and delusion. Our search is random and we cannot find the Ox anywhere.
- This is Dante at the beginning of The Divine Comedy.2: Seeing Tracks of the Ox Through study and guidance we begin to get glimpses.
- Maybe we discover yoga or meditation, or find spiritual teachers or writings that inspire us.
- But although we see the tracks, the Ox is still unseen, unknown.
- The tracks give us some confidence and we continue seeking, driven by the awakening cosmic impulse to discover/uncover the fullness and truth of our Being.
The Ox is calling us.3: First Glimpsing the Ox There is the Ox. Wow! So magnificent! How did we ever not see! But the Ox remains elusive, disappearing into the forest. How could that be? Our minds are still confused, our seeking still undisciplined. The Ox teases us.
- She is everywhere and then nowhere to be found.
- Our mental habits and beliefs still dominate in spite of the revelation and we struggle to find ground.
- We are still beginners on the journey.4: Catching the Ox We finally catch the ox and grasp the rope to hold her, but she is wild and free, used to cavorting in the fields.
We must hold the rope firmly and steadily. The rope of course is our evolving meditation practice and this is where it gets more serious. We are no longer beginners. We are in the realm of un-abiding awakening and must be ‘all in’ with our practice to stabilize the ground.
Habits and conditioning have many tentacles extending into the unconscious, so our discipline must become stronger. The Ox keeps us on our toes.5: Taming the Ox As our practice becomes stronger, we can hold the rope more loosely as the Ox is relaxing somewhat. It is actually the mind that is relaxing as we begin to realize that the Ox is always steady and it is our minds that are wild and untamed.
By relaxing our efforts, our practices can now include resting in the infinite and we become more comfortable in stillness and mystery. Habits still arise as the unconscious has many layers and levels of confusion and trauma, but we recognize the reality that our thoughts arise and fall from the depths of silence and that our delusion is self created.6: Riding the Ox Back Home The seeking and struggle come to an end and we can let go of the rope as Ox and herder are one, moving effortlessly together though the world.
- Buddha Nature is awake and free and we feel spontaneous joy and happiness.
- The Oxherder plays his flute for the birds and children of the village.
- This joy and delight can be a surprise as the practice has seemed quite serious at times.
- Unseen unconscious traumas may still exist so vigilance is still required.7: Ox Forgotten, Self Alone The Ox is now gone and the Oxherder sits at home alone.
This is ‘Self as ‘I am’ without the need to ‘be something. This is Kaivalya of the Yoga Sutras, Purusha distinct from Prakriti. Up until now, there has remained a subtle sense of duality, of practice and life, of spiritual and not spiritual. This now dissolves.
- There is no longer ‘something to do’.
- Everything is meditation and nothing is special.
- Things are ‘just as they are’.8: Ox and Self Both Forgotten Total Emptiness.
- No concepts, ideas or beliefs, no sense of separateness.
- Even the “I am” is gone. All gone.
- Not even the scent of ‘holiness’ or special-ness remains.
Gate, Gate, Paragate, Parasamgate.9: Return to the Source From the realization of Emptiness emerges the realization that the amazing flow of life always continues on in its own perfection. Seasons come and go. Cherry trees bloom in the spring. Birds sing and the rivers flow.
- Stars are born and others explode into cosmic dust.
- Emptiness is Fullness, Fullness is Emptiness.
- Bodhi svaha! 10: Returning to the Marketplace with Helping Hands The enlightened being joyfully joins the world to aid all beings on their journey.
- Freedom, wisdom and compassion are the roots of action.
- Enlightenment is not passive but celebratory and engaged.
Here are some other perspectives: From Tricycle Magazine https://terebess.hu/english/Kuoan1.html https://terebess.hu/english/oxherd0.html
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