What Is The Study Of Criminal Justice?


What Is The Study Of Criminal Justice
Advantages of earning a criminal justice degree – A criminal justice degree offers several advantages, including the variety of subjects you study and new skills you’re able to learn. Coursework typically includes fascinating subjects like information technology, law, and psychology that apply to multiple disciplines and help you gain a deeper understanding of the way the world works.

Analytical skills Attention to detail Communication Critical thinking Observation Problem-solving Researching ability

You may choose the direct route and apply these skills to jobs within the criminal justice system. However, you’re not limited to working in law enforcement or the court system. The knowledge and skills you can acquire through criminal justice coursework can be useful in other areas.
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What is the field of criminal justice?

The field of criminal justice affords students an opportunity to learn about some of the nation’s most pressing problems: crime, justice, and social control. Criminal justice majors study law enforcement, courts, law and corrections, as well as agencies dealing with juvenile offenders.
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What degree is best for criminal justice?

Which Criminal Justice Degree Should You Pursue? – The criminal justice degree you should pursue largely depends on your professional goals. Those interested in qualifying for entry-level positions in the field may prefer to pursue a certificate, an associate or a bachelor’s in criminal justice.

  • Individuals who want to advance their studies and develop specialized knowledge may benefit from a master’s degree in criminal justice.
  • This degree can help expand job opportunities, prepare individuals for leadership and management positions and lead to careers in policy-making.
  • Pursuing a doctoral degree in criminal justice may suit professionals who want to work in academia, research and policy-making.

A doctoral degree in criminal justice can provide students with the knowledge, skills and credentials to qualify for some of the highest-level positions in the field, including leadership and management roles.
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What is the study of justice?

Justice Studies Major Overview What Is The Study Of Criminal Justice April 10, 2023 JMU Justice Studies majors have a deep understanding of connections. Justice Studies is an interdisciplinary major that uses justice as a framework to sustain and promote the growth and development of individuals and communities: politically, economically and socially. What Is The Study Of Criminal Justice The major is a part of the, an academic unit within the Justice studies is an interdisciplinary area of inquiry that brings together insights from the social sciences and humanities to explore questions of justice. Through the rigorous empirical and normative analyses of justice and injustice it seeks to help students develop a personal definition of justice, a fuller understanding of the nature of the world in which they live, and identify careers and strategies for action.

Degrees Offered:

B.A. in Justice Studies B.S. in Justice Studies


Track A: Crime and Criminology Track B: Global Justice and Policy Track C: Social Justice


Criminal Justice Youth Justice

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Is criminology crime and criminality?



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What are the 4 types of justice?

Current Implications – The word “justice” is being used a lot in the summer, usually in the phrase “Justice for George Floyd” or “Justice for Breonna Taylor” or “racial justice.” But few people seem to be unpacking what the term “justice” means. It is hard to understand how defunding the police would bring justice to George Floyd or Breonna Taylor, although, some might argue it would mean their deaths were not in vain. But let’s unpack the notion of justice in the context of this summer’s events. This article points out that there are four different types of justice: distributive (determining who gets what), procedural (determining how fairly people are treated), retributive (based on punishment for wrong-doing) and restorative (which tries to restore relationships to “rightness.”) All four of these are relevant to the events of summer 2020, and more broadly to race relations in the United States and elsewhere. Most of the focus, it seems, is on procedural justice. George Floyd and Breonna Taylor and many, many other Black people were treated much more harshly by the police (indeed, in these two cases infinitely more harshly as they were killed) than are typical whites when they encounter the police. While it is true that unarmed White people have also been shot, statistics show that such outcomes befall Blacks in grossly disproportionate ways compared to Whites. Similarly (though this is being talked about less), Blacks do worse throughout the entire justice process. They are apprehended more, they are put in jail more, kept there longer (being unable to make bail as easily as most Whites can) and they are convicted and receive longer sentences than do Whites. This is the very essence of procedural injustice, and it should be the focus of attention just as much as the narrower question of police shootings. The focus, to a lesser extent, is on retributive justice, particularly whether and how the police officers that killed Floyd, Taylor, or others will be held accountable. Historically, police are seldom held accountable for excessive use of force. This is sometimes due to the notion of “qualified immunity” which holds that public officials cannot be held responsible for professional misconduct unless they violated “clearly established law.” While one would think that shooting an unarmed civilian would be a violation of “clearly established law,” in principle, in the past that has been very difficult to uphold in court, and most police have thus not been tried at all, or were acquitted when they were tried. (That said, there is an argument to be made that some accommodation ought to be made for law enforcement officers who are repeatedly sent into dangerous situations with almost no information about what, exactly, is happening and where they may be called upon to instantly decide how best to respond to potentially deadly threats. In the case of George Floyd, however, it seems very clear that the officer who killed Floyd was not being personally threatened, nor did he have to make an instantaneous decision. On the other hand, as I discussed in the paragraph about procedural justice, retributive justice is alive and well when it comes to sentencing Blacks. They are much less likely than Whites to get off with easy plea bargains, and are likely to get harsher sentences with less opportunity for parole. So this, too is an issue that needs to be looked at and likely remedied. The notion of distributive justice isn’t being discussed as much this summer, but it certainly is a big part of the story of race in this country, and it is beginning to be talked about more. We just published a new case study on Beyond Intractability that looked at how reconciliation between Blacks and Whites was sabotaged during the post-Civil War “Reconstruction Era.” The way released slaves were treated just after the war set them and our country as a whole on a course of distributive injustice no matter how you define it: equity, equality, or need. There is no way to make things right with generations that have passed, but we certainly should look now at how we can start to make things right after 150 years. However, it is probably unrealistic to expect that current generations of Whites will be willing or even able to compensate for 150 years’ worth of loses. Nor, I would argue, is it reasonable to expect them to do so. But it is reasonable to ask Whites and Blacks (and others who have suffered a history of discrimination to sit down together and to jointly develop an image of what distributive justice would look like for everyone now—and into the future. The only way such a discussion could possibly succeed, and indeed, the only way policy changes to come out of such discussions could possibly succeed, is if everyone really means everyone. They would need to come to an agreement about how distributive justice should be defined, and how we can get there from where we are now. Both agreements would need to be sufficiently inclusive that people of all races would “buy in” to these ideas and agree to start working toward them. If any one group tries to impose its own narrow and self-serving image of justice on the others, it will not have sufficient support to be attainable over the short or long terms. The final type of justice is restorative, and while this one should have a lot of relevance in this summer’s discussion, I have heard hardly a mention of it. Restorative justice seeks to restore relationships to “rightness.” Now, it could be argued that it is impossible to restore relationships to rightness when they never were “right,” but if one modified the notion of restorative justice to mean justice to create healthy relationships where they were absent before, you would have a very powerful tool for social justice, it seems to me. Restorative justice seeks to repair what is broken, compensate victims for harms done, and reconcile relationships between individual people so that they can live together peacefully in the future. True, George Floyd and Breonna Taylor cannot live peacefully with anybody. But police can engage in restorative justice with the communities Floyd and Taylor lived in; indeed, police in all U.S. cities could engage in restorative justice with their citizens to good effect. Blacks and Whites—and other peoples—could engage in restorative justice circles all around the country to try to understand each other better, and to try to develop an image of what a racially “just” society would look like, and what we can do to move in that direction. Such an exploration should, of course, also explore law enforcement’s side of the story. There are lots of big, society-wide problems that the larger society has failed and, in many ways, not even tried, to address—drug abuse, alcoholism, inadequate care for the mentally ill, homelessness, lack of employment opportunities, poor schools, etc. Police are, in essence, being told to use their law enforcement toolkit to keep these problems from threatening the security of more fortunate segments of the society. We all need to own our part of the problem. Until we unpack, understand, and pursue all four of these types of justice, racial justice and racial peace will remain an elusive goal. – Heidi Burgess. July, 2020. More for information on justice, see: Morton Deutsch, “Justice and Conflict,” in The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Morton Deutsch, Peter T. Coleman, Eric C. Marcus, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, 2011). http://books.google.com/books?id=rw61VDID7U4C >. See the chapter “Retributive Justice and the Limits of Forgiveness in Argentina,” in Mark R. Amstutz, The Healing of Nations: The Promise and Limits of Political Forgiveness, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005). http://books.google.com/books?id=gTFnh2GuD8EC >. For further clarification of the different forms of justice, including retributive, restorative, and procedural, see Jeffrey A. Jenkins’s discussion on “Types of Justice,” in The American Courts: A Procedural Approach, (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011). http://books.google.com/books?id=yvT5SVwbakUC >. Use the following to cite this article: Maiese, Michelle. “Types of Justice.” Beyond Intractability, Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: July 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/types-of-justice >.
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What are a three 3 types of justice?

What are the three main types of justice? – Justice can be boiled down into three types: distributive, retributive, and restorative.
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Is criminology a science or not?

Contemporary criminology self-identifies as a science. Its emphasis is on empirical research and scientific methodology. However, in its early development in the mid-eighteenth century, criminology was not grounded in science but rather in social philosophy.
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Is criminology a theory?

Criminological theories attempt to explain what is often inexplicable and to examine what is often the cruelty, oppression, or even evil some visit on others. They are sci- entific examinations of a particular social phenomenon.
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What is an example of justice?

Justice and Fairness Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, S.J., and Michael J. Meyer Many public policy arguments focus on fairness. Is affirmative action fair? Are congressional districts drawn to be fair? Is our tax policy fair? Is our method for funding schools fair? Arguments about justice or fairness have a long tradition in Western civilization.

  1. In fact, no idea in Western civilization has been more consistently linked to ethics and morality than the idea of justice.
  2. From the Republic, written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, to A Theory of Justice, written by the late Harvard philosopher John Rawls, every major work on ethics has held that justice is part of the central core of morality.

Justice means giving each person what he or she deserves or, in more traditional terms, giving each person his or her due. Justice and fairness are closely related terms that are often today used interchangeably. There have, however, also been more distinct understandings of the two terms.

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While justice usually has been used with reference to a standard of rightness, fairness often has been used with regard to an ability to judge without reference to one’s feelings or interests; fairness has also been used to refer to the ability to make judgments that are not overly general but that are concrete and specific to a particular case.

In any case, a notion of being treated as one deserves is crucial to both justice and fairness. When people differ over what they believe should be given, or when decisions have to be made about how benefits and burdens should be distributed among a group of people, questions of justice or fairness inevitably arise.

  1. In fact, most ethicists today hold the view that there would be no point of talking about justice or fairness if it were not for the conflicts of interest that are created when goods and services are scarce and people differ over who should get what.
  2. When such conflicts arise in our society, we need principles of justice that we can all accept as reasonable and fair standards for determining what people deserve.

But saying that justice is giving each person what he or she deserves does not take us very far. How do we determine what people deserve? What criteria and what principles should we use to determine what is due to this or that person? Principles of Justice The most fundamental principle of justice—one that has been widely accepted since it was first defined by Aristotle more than two thousand years ago—is the principle that “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.” In its contemporary form, this principle is sometimes expressed as follows: “Individuals should be treated the same, unless they differ in ways that are relevant to the situation in which they are involved.” For example, if Jack and Jill both do the same work, and there are no relevant differences between them or the work they are doing, then in justice they should be paid the same wages.

And if Jack is paid more than Jill simply because he is a man, or because he is white, then we have an injustice—a form of discrimination—because race and sex are not relevant to normal work situations. There are, however, many differences that we deem as justifiable criteria for treating people differently.

For example, we think it is fair and just when a parent gives his own children more attention and care in his private affairs than he gives the children of others; we think it is fair when the person who is first in a line at a theater is given first choice of theater tickets; we think it is just when the government gives benefits to the needy that it does not provide to more affluent citizens; we think it is just when some who have done wrong are given punishments that are not meted out to others who have done nothing wrong; and we think it is fair when those who exert more efforts or who make a greater contribution to a project receive more benefits from the project than others.

  • These criteria—need, desert, contribution, and effort—we acknowledge as justifying differential treatment, then, are numerous.
  • On the other hand, there are also criteria that we believe are not justifiable grounds for giving people different treatment.
  • In the world of work, for example, we generally hold that it is unjust to give individuals special treatment on the basis of age, sex, race, or their religious preferences.

If the judge’s nephew receives a suspended sentence for armed robbery when another offender unrelated to the judge goes to jail for the same crime, or the brother of the Director of Public Works gets the million dollar contract to install sprinklers on the municipal golf course despite lower bids from other contractors, we say that it’s unfair.

  1. We also believe it isn’t fair when a person is punished for something over which he or she had no control, or isn’t compensated for a harm he or she suffered.
  2. Different Kinds of Justice There are different kinds of justice.
  3. Distributive justice refers to the extent to which society’s institutions ensure that benefits and burdens are distributed among society’s members in ways that are fair and just.

When the institutions of a society distribute benefits or burdens in unjust ways, there is a strong presumption that those institutions should be changed. For example, the American institution of slavery in the pre-civil war South was condemned as unjust because it was a glaring case of treating people differently on the basis of race.

A second important kind of justice is retributive or corrective justice. Retributive justice refers to the extent to which punishments are fair and just. In general, punishments are held to be just to the extent that they take into account relevant criteria such as the seriousness of the crime and the intent of the criminal, and discount irrelevant criteria such as race.

It would be barbarously unjust, for example, to chop off a person’s hand for stealing a dime, or to impose the death penalty on a person who by accident and without negligence injured another party. Studies have frequently shown that when blacks murder whites, they are much more likely to receive death sentences than when whites murder whites or blacks murder blacks.

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These studies suggest that injustice still exists in the criminal justice system in the United States. Yet a third important kind of justice is compensatory justice. Compensatory justice refers to the extent to which people are fairly compensated for their injuries by those who have injured them; just compensation is proportional to the loss inflicted on a person.

This is precisely the kind of justice that is at stake in debates over damage to workers’ health in coal mines. Some argue that mine owners should compensate the workers whose health has been ruined. Others argue that workers voluntarily took on this risk when they chose employment in the mines.

  1. The foundations of justice can be traced to the notions of social stability, interdependence, and equal dignity.
  2. As the ethicist John Rawls has pointed out, the stability of a society—or any group, for that matter—depends upon the extent to which the members of that society feel that they are being treated justly.

When some of society’s members come to feel that they are subject to unequal treatment, the foundations have been laid for social unrest, disturbances, and strife. The members of a community, Rawls holds, depend on each other, and they will retain their social unity only to the extent that their institutions are just.

  • Moreover, as the philosopher Immanuel Kant and others have pointed out, human beings are all equal in this respect: they all have the same dignity, and in virtue of this dignity they deserve to be treated as equals.
  • Whenever individuals are treated unequally on the basis of characteristics that are arbitrary and irrelevant, their fundamental human dignity is violated.

Justice, then, is a central part of ethics and should be given due consideration in our moral lives. In evaluating any moral decision, we must ask whether our actions treat all persons equally. If not, we must determine whether the difference in treatment is justified: are the criteria we are using relevant to the situation at hand? But justice is not the only principle to consider in making ethical decisions.

  1. Sometimes principles of justice may need to be overridden in favor of other kinds of moral claims such as rights or society’s welfare.
  2. Nevertheless, justice is an expression of our mutual recognition of each other’s basic dignity, and an acknowledgement that if we are to live together in an interdependent community we must treat each other as equals.

This article appeared originally in Issues in Ethics V3 N2 (Spring 1990). It was updated in August 2018. The views expressed do not necessarily represent the position of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. We welcome your comments, suggestions, or alternative points of view.
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What is justice philosophy?

justice, In philosophy, the concept of a proper proportion between a person’s deserts (what is merited) and the good and bad things that befall or are allotted to him or her. Aristotle ‘s discussion of the virtue of justice has been the starting point for almost all Western accounts.

For him, the key element of justice is treating like cases alike, an idea that has set later thinkers the task of working out which similarities (need, desert, talent) are relevant. Aristotle distinguishes between justice in the distribution of wealth or other goods (distributive justice) and justice in reparation, as, for example, in punishing someone for a wrong he has done (retributive justice).

The notion of justice is also essential in that of the just state, a central concept in political philosophy, See also law, This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan,
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What is the definition of justice?

: the principle or ideal of just dealing or right action. (2) : conformity to this principle or ideal : righteousness. the justice of their cause. : the quality of conforming to law.
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What is the general definition of justice?

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This shows grade level based on the word’s complexity. / ˈdʒʌs tɪs / This shows grade level based on the word’s complexity. noun the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness: to uphold the justice of a cause. rightfulness or lawfulness, as of a claim or title; justness of ground or reason: to complain with justice.

the moral principle determining just conduct. conformity to this principle, as manifested in conduct; just conduct, dealing, or treatment: Victims of rape and sexual assault have the right to the evidence they need to seek justice. just treatment of all members of society with regard to a specified public issue, including equitable distribution of resources and participation in decision-making (usually used in combination): Environmental justice means that all people, regardless of race or income, have the right to a clean and healthy environment.

A group of moms in the Bridgeton area are advocating for health justice for those living around the landfills. When we speak of climate justice, we demonstrate our sensitivity and resolve to secure the future of poor people from the perils of natural disasters.

the administering of deserved punishment or reward. the maintenance or administration of what is just by law, as by judicial or other proceedings: a court of justice. judgment of persons or causes by judicial process: to administer justice in a community. a judge on a higher court, especially a Supreme Court: the nine justices on the U.S.

Supreme Court. a minor judicial officer or magistrate.
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What is social justice study?

Social justice is an interdisciplinary field of study that permits you to focus on the intersection of gender, ethnicity/race, class and sexual orientation with politics, economics, environment and education. You can study social justice issues in local, national and international arenas, examining movements and change through many perspectives.
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What is the Oxford definition of justice?

Administration of law or equity. Thesaurus » 1. Maintenance of what is just or right by the exercise of authority or power; assignment of deserved reward or punishment; giving of due deserts.
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