What Is The Study Of Cells?

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What Is The Study Of Cells
What Is The Study Of Cells Cell biology is the study of cell structure and function, and it revolves around the concept that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. All living things, including humans, animals, and plants, are made of cells. Focusing on the cell permits a detailed understanding of the tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms that cells compose. What Is The Study Of Cells Cell biology can be divided into many subtopics, including the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, and cell composition. Research in cell biology is interconnected to other fields such as genetics, biochemistry, neurobiology, plant biology, molecular biology, microbiology, and immunology. Research on cells can lead to enhanced diagnoses, treatments, and cures of diseases. What Is The Study Of Cells Careers for cell biologists include: research scientist; staff scientist; imaging specialist; researcher in biotechnology, medical technology, or pharmacology; teaching at the advanced high school, collegiate, or university level; science communications; science policy; and science diplomacy.
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What is cytology the study of?

Cytology Last Update: October 29, 2003,

Definition The study of cells, their origin, structure, function and pathology. Discussion

Cytology is the branch of biology dealing with the morphology, structure, ultrastructure, life cycle, and pathology of cells. Historically cytology has referred to the study of the microscopic appearance of cells and cell structures, especially for the diagnosis of abnormalities and malignancies.
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What is the study of cell biology?

Cell biology aims to understand the structure and physiological function of individual cells, how they interact with their environment, and how large numbers of cells coordinate with each other to form tissues and organisms. As such, cell biology is at the heart of all biological sciences and key to understanding the development and progression of human diseases.

Projects in our department are directed toward exploring and defining key physiological, cellular and molecular pathways that drive cell proliferation and differentiation, signaling, migration, metabolism and autophagy, and more – and a major focus of our studies is on understanding the underlying cause of wide-spread human disease including diabetes, cancer, inflammation and fibrosis.

We use different model systems for our studies, ranging from cell lines and organotypic cultures to various animal models and combine diverse experimental approaches including a wide variety of cell-based assays, microscopy, molecular biology, genetics and genomics, biochemistry, genome engineering and in vivo studies.
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Is the study of cells called cytology?

What Is The Study Of Cells organelles of eukaryotic cells cytology, the study of cells as fundamental units of living things. The earliest phase of cytology began with the English scientist Robert Hooke ‘s microscopic investigations of cork in 1665. He observed dead cork cells and introduced the term “cell” to describe them.

In the 19th century two Germans, the botanist Matthias Schleiden (in 1838) and the biologist Theodor Schwann (in 1839), were among the first to clearly state that cells are the fundamental particles of both plants and animals. This pronouncement—the cell theory—was amply confirmed and elaborated by a series of discoveries and interpretations.

In 1892 the German embryologist and anatomist Oscar Hertwig suggested that organismic processes are reflections of cellular processes; he thus established cytology as a separate branch of biology, Research into the activities of chromosomes led to the founding of cytogenetics, in 1902–04, when the American geneticist Walter Sutton and the German zoologist Theodor Boveri demonstrated the connection between cell division and heredity,
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What is histology vs cytology?

What is the difference between cytology and histology? – Cytology and histology are different branches of pathology. Cytology generally involves looking at individual cells or clusters of cells. Histology involves examining an entire section of tissue, which contains many types of cells.
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What is study of tissue called?

The study of tissues is called histology.
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What is cell science called?

Research – Cell biology (or cytology) is the scientific study of cells. Robert Hooke was named as the first to discover cells, in 1665. Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann were the ones who first formulated the, in 1839. Try to answer the quiz below to check what you have learned so far about cells.
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Who studies cells?

How do scientists study cells? – Cell biologists rely on an array of tools to peer into the body and examine cells. Imaging techniques magnify organelles and track cells as they divide, grow, interact, and carry out other vital tasks. Biochemical or genetic tests allow researchers to study how cells respond to environmental stressors, such as rising temperatures or toxins.
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What is the difference between cytology and cell biology?

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Doctor Answer is medically reviewed by SecondMedic medical review team. Answered by Seconmedic Expert Cell biology is the study of the structure and function of cells. This includes the study of the organelles within cells, as well as how cells interact with each other and their environment.

Cytology is the study of individual cells, including their morphology (shape) and physiology (function). Cytology is often used to diagnose diseases by examining cell samples under a microscope. Looking for expert medical advice and care can be a daunting task, especially when you need it urgently. But with Second Medic, you can connect with the best doctors in just a few minutes and have a private care conversation with them, all for free! Our platform is designed to make it easy for you to get the medical advice and care you need without any hassle.

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What are the two types of cytology?

Respiratory/exfoliative cytology, which includes bronchial washing, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushing cytology. Those are commonly used to detect pulmonary infections and malignancies. Urinary cytology: Urine cytology, bladder washing, and brushing cytology.
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What is a cell in biochemistry?

(sel) In biology, the smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body. A cell has three main parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm.
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What are 2 commonly used methods to study cells?

Electron Microscopes – In contrast to light microscopes, electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light. Not only does this allow for higher magnification and, thus, more detail (Figure 3.4), it also provides higher resolving power.

Preparation of a specimen for viewing under an electron microscope will kill it; therefore, live cells cannot be viewed using this type of microscopy. In addition, the electron beam moves best in a vacuum, making it impossible to view living materials. In a scanning electron microscope, a beam of electrons moves back and forth across a cell’s surface, rendering the details of cell surface characteristics by reflection.

Cells and other structures are usually coated with a metal like gold. In a transmission electron microscope, the electron beam is transmitted through the cell and provides details of a cell’s internal structures. As you might imagine, electron microscopes are significantly more bulky and expensive than are light microscopes. What Is The Study Of Cells Figure 3.3 Salmonella bacteria are viewed with a light microscope. What Is The Study Of Cells Figure 3.4 This scanning electron micrograph shows Salmonella bacteria (in red) invading human cells. Cytotechnologist: Have you ever heard of a medical test called a Pap smear? In this test, a doctor takes a small sample of cells from the uterine cervix of a patient and sends it to a medical lab where a cytotechnologist stains the cells and examines them for any changes that could indicate cervical cancer or a microbial infection.

Cytotechnologists ( cyto – = cell) are professionals who study cells through microscopic examinations and other laboratory tests. They are trained to determine which cellular changes are within normal limits or are abnormal. Their focus is not limited to cervical cells; they study cellular specimens that come from all organs.

When they notice abnormalities, they consult a pathologist, who is a medical doctor who can make a clinical diagnosis. Cytotechnologists play vital roles in saving people’s lives. When abnormalities are discovered early, a patient’s treatment can begin sooner, which usually increases the chances of successful treatment. Figure 3.5 These uterine cervix cells, viewed through a light microscope, were obtained from a Pap smear. Normal cells are on the left. The cells on the right are infected with human papillomavirus. The microscopes we use today are far more complex than those used in the 1600s by Antony van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch shopkeeper who had great skill in crafting lenses.

Despite the limitations of his now-ancient lenses, van Leeuwenhoek observed the movements of protists (a type of single-celled organism) and sperm, which he collectively termed “animalcules.” In a 1665 publication called Micrographia, experimental scientist Robert Hooke coined the term “cell” (from the Latin cella, meaning “small room”) for the box-like structures he observed when viewing cork tissue through a lens.

In the 1670s, van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria and protozoa. Later advances in lenses and microscope construction enabled other scientists to see different components inside cells. By the late 1830s, botanist Matthias Schleiden and zoologist Theodor Schwann were studying tissues and proposed the unified cell theory, which states that all living things are composed of one or more cells, that the cell is the basic unit of life, and that all new cells arise from existing cells.

  • These principles still stand today.
  • A cell is the smallest unit of life.
  • Most cells are so small that they cannot be viewed with the naked eye.
  • Therefore, scientists must use microscopes to study cells.
  • Electron microscopes provide higher magnification, higher resolution, and more detail than light microscopes.
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The unified cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and new cells arise from existing cells. microscope : the instrument that magnifies an object unified cell theory : the biological concept that states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, and new cells arise from existing cells
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Is cytology same as smear?

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample? – You may be asked to refrain from sexual intercourse for 24-48 hours before the test, avoid using vaginal creams or foams in the 48 hours before the test and book the test appointment 10-14 days after the beginning of your last menstrual period.

Your doctor or health care provider performs a cervical cytology test to look for cervical cells that are abnormal or even potentially cancerous. The cell suspension is processed in the laboratory and placed on a glass slide, stained with a special dye, and viewed under a microscope by a cytologist or pathologist. Also, the fluid is analysed for evidence of HPV infection, which may be used to decide how often the woman should be screened for an abnormality in the future. Abnormal cells can be present without causing any noticeable symptoms. Some women with abnormal cells require treatment whilst others may need to be monitored with repeat cervical cytology tests over a period of time as often mild changes resolve on their own. In England a woman registered with a GP receives her first invitation at the age of 25. There are three-yearly examinations between 25 and 49, and five-yearly examinations between 50 and 65. Currently, a “negative” cervical cytology test means the cells obtained appear normal. In some instances (less than 3 in 100), the sample may be reported as “inadequate” for evaluation. This generally means there are insufficient cells for reliable assessment. Other reported results are:

Borderline changes: Cells are present that may indicate HPV infection or where it is uncertain what the cells are. Most borderline changes return to normal without treatment. Mild dyskaryosis: These low-grade changes are often associated with HPV and return to normal without treatment. Moderate dyskaryosis: This finding indicates that abnormal cells present which may need treatment. Severe dyskaryosis: This result indicates that abnormal cells are present. This indicates that high grade pre-cancer (CIN) is probably present and which is likely to require treatment. Severe dyskaryosis/?Invasive carcinoma: Abnormal cells are present which indicate that high grade pre-cancer (CIN) is probably present and that cancer needs to be excluded. ?Glandular neoplasia: This result means that abnormal glandular cells present. These cells may come from the cervix, the lining of the uterus (womb) or rarely from the ovary.

From mid 2019 onwards, a negative test will also indicate that “high risk” HPV infection has not been identified Cervical cytology is used as a screening test in the well-established national screening programmes. Occasionally, abnormalities may go undetected with a single test. This is why it is important to be screened regularly. The sample represents only some of cells present on the cervix. Even when carried out by a very experienced nurse or doctor, sample collection can occasionally collect too few cells to give a reliable result and a repeat cervical cytology test may be required. This happens in fewer than 3 in 100 tests. Using HPV testing as the first step should decrease the number of inadequate or unreliable results. Cervical cytology was formerly known as the smear test. When performed routinely every 3-5 years, it is a great help in the detection and treatment of cervical abnormalities known as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN). Early detection and treatment of CIN can prevent about 75% of cervical cancers developing. If you have any abnormal bleeding, for example, after sexual intercourse, between periods or after the menopause, it is important that you speak to your general practitioner. Your GP will be able to tell you whether you need to be referred to a gynaecologist for further investigation. Routine cervical cytology is not appropriate in these circumstances. The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with some strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV, which can sometimes be called wart virus infection). High risk strains of HPV are found in 99% of cervical cancers. HPV is a very common sexually transmitted virus which most people contract shortly after becoming sexually active. In 9 out of 10 women, the virus is cleared naturally by the body’s immune system within a year. Vaccines are now available to help prevent infection with the most common high risk types of HPV. In the UK, HPV vaccination is offered to girls aged 12-13 years as part of a national vaccination programme. The vaccine is made available through most schools or general practitioners. It is given in three doses over a period of six months and should ideally be given before a girl becomes sexually active. Even if you have been vaccinated, it is important to continue to accept your invitation for routine screening. This is because HPV infection can occasionally occur in women who have been vaccinated. Some risk factors such as the age at which sexual intercourse begins (the earlier, the higher the risk) and multiple sexual partners, contribute an increased risk of having the virus. Other factors are infrequent cervical screening, a history of abnormal cervical cytology or treatment for cervical abnormalities, using the oral contraceptive pill and cigarette smoking. Women whose immune systems are less active are also at increased risk and women who are HIV positive are recommended to be screened annually. For most women, regular 3-5 yearly screening is enough to prevent them from developing cervical cancer by allowing abnormalities to be detected and treated early if needed. More frequent screening may be recommended for women who have had previous treatment for high-grade cervical abnormalities, No, a single “abnormal” test does not necessarily mean that cancer is present. The tissues of the cervix undergo constant changes and repair. Treatment of abnormalities may be carried out immediately. However, for low-grade disease, treatment may not be necessary immediately as in most cases it returns to normal without any intervention. However, the situation should be monitored closely. This may require repeat testing at regular intervals until the cells return to normal or treatment becomes necessary. Infection with HPV does not indicate that a woman will get cancer, but their risk of developing cancer is increased. Regular screening will be offered to women with high risk HPV infection to detect any abnormal cells at an early stage so treatment can be offered. Progression of cervical abnormalities caused by HPV infection to cervical cancer is slow, and may take many years. This is why regular cervical screening is the best way to prevent cancer from developing. Regular tests allow abnormal precancerous tissue to be found and removed. They also can detect the cancer early if it does develop allowing appropriate treatment to be given quickly. If an abnormal area of the cervix is found, it can be removed in an outpatients clinic using a minimally invasive surgery, also known as LLETZ. This is also the standard treatment for a very early stage cancer. In more advanced cervical cancers, a hysterectomy (removal of the womb) may need to be performed. For young women with cervical cancer, new surgical techniques are being developed that preserve fertility. In some circumstances, where the cancer is more advanced, radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be required and additional surgery may be needed.

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Is a biopsy histology or cytology?

Cytology vs. biopsy: Comparisons of accuracy – VetBloom blog Andrew S. Loar, DVM, DACVIM (Oncology and Internal Medicine) Posted on 2017-09-05 in The evaluation of clinically abnormal tissues submitted for cytological analysis has for decades remained a simple and low cost diagnostic technique.

  1. In contrast to the acquisition of biopsy samples, material obtained for cytology examination generally requires less morbidity, time and planning.
  2. Only a small number of studies have demonstrated the relative value of cytologic, compared to histologic (biopsy), diagnoses in the same patient.
  3. The discussion below as the first part of a multipart article reviews research performed by clinical and anatomic pathologists to assist clinicians who must determine the accuracy of results derived from cytologic specimens.

Diagnostic accuracy is the frequency a test correctly identifies a patient as having, or not having, the disease of interest; a test with high diagnostic accuracy reveals relatively few false positive (highly specific ) and few false negative (highly sensitive ) results.

  • Since an index test is often performed to identify more than one disease process, it is useful to define the assay’s diagnostic accuracy by determining how often the index test agrees, or correlates, with the reference standard.
  • Thus, many studies discuss the frequency of concordancy (correlation) or discordancy.

Other studies indicate the proportion of partial or complete agreement, which reflects the proportion of cases where the cytologic diagnosis matches that of the biopsy. There are several inaccuracies inherent in the performance and evaluation of cytology and histopathology assays.

  • The quality of both tests, and that of these comparative studies, are obviously dependent on the experience of the clinical and anatomic pathologists reading the slides.
  • There can be significant variations in diagnoses between different pathologists evaluating the same tissues.
  • Indeed, similar, if not less dramatic, differences have been identified when the same individual examines the same slides at different times.

Several histopathology studies have reviewed interobserver variation, chiefly representing differences between first and second opinions, in the diagnosis of an amalgam of biopsy submissions. Significant diagnostic disagreements occurred in 10-20% of the cases, with clinically relevant partial (dis)agreement noted in nearly 50%.

Also, variation in the type of specimen obtained for biopsy has been associated with discordant results; needle or core histology samples generally have revealed less accuracy than material obtained via excisional or wedge resection. These and other discrepancies call into question the term ‘gold standard’ with reference to histopathologic analysis and the difficulty in confirmation of true positive and true negative findings.

Nonetheless, methodologies of cytologic testing may not be consistent. Every cytology specimen must be interpreted with the presumption that material submitted may not be representative of the aspirated lesion. This is self-evident when the sample is acellular or consists of only peripheral blood elements; however, in more cellular specimens a clinical pathologist may identify distinct cytologic findings, which are negative for specific disease, yet fails to suggest that the results may be inconclusive.

  1. This is highly relevant when comparing the value of cytology to biopsy because, in most investigations, the exclusion of inconclusive cytologic diagnoses markedly improves the determination of diagnostic accuracy.
  2. A cytology finding that does not confirm tumor, or any other definitive diagnosis, should not necessarily be considered a negative result if it is performed on, or identified as, a non-representative specimen.

Other limitations in cytologic evaluation include the distribution and accessibility of the lesion in question. Aspirates of focal, particularly external, masses generally yield more representative findings compared to material obtained from more diffuse lesions or those sought via intracavitary needle assaults.

  1. Similarly, ultrasound-guided aspirates are proven to be more accurate than when the needle is aimed with less direction.
  2. Finally, the size of the needle used, the aspiration technique and the number of slides prepared are all associated with variation in diagnostic accuracy and the reader is encouraged to review standard cytology texts to develop suitable methods of sample procurement.

Check back next week for a post that discusses the relative accuracy of cytology versus biopsy for submissions from lesions at cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory and bony sites. Image credit: Modified from U.S. Navy photo by Tom Watanabe., via Wikimedia Commons

Dr. Andrew Loar graduated from the University of Georgia. He completed an internship at Louisiana State University and his residency in oncology at the Animal Medical Center in New York City. He has served on the clinical staffs at the veterinary schools of Virginia Tech and the University of Wisconsin, as well as the West Los Angeles Veterinary Medical Center. He received board certification with ACVIM (Internal Medicine and Oncology). He was the first veterinary oncologist to practice in southern California and operated an oncology referral clinic in San Diego from 1985-1995. Dr. Loar completed additional training in clinical pathology at Oklahoma State University, and has served as oncology/internal medicine consultant and cytologist at Veterinary Reference Laboratory, Professional Animal Laboratory, now ANTEC, and IDEXX Laboratories. After returning to the Animal Medical Center as a clinical cytologist, he later co-founded ALX Laboratory, a small, ambitious clinical pathology laboratory in Manhattan.

Cytology vs. biopsy: Comparisons of accuracy – VetBloom blog
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Why histology is better than cytology?

Histology Vs. Cytology – In terms of general practices, histology and cytology have some fundamental similarities. They are both fields essentially based on biology, and they provide detailed insights into the microscopic components of animal and plant properties.

  • Focus: Histology focuses on the chemical composition and function of tissues, while cytology looks more at the structure and function of living organisms’ cells.
  • Scope: Cytology focuses on a narrow specialized field, while histology is a much broader field covering several areas of study.
  • Slide preparation: Preparing slides for histology is quite complex, while the procedure is far more straightforward in cytology.
  • Expenses: While cytological techniques are relatively inexpensive and straightforward, histological methods require more complexity and cost more.

Overall, when discussing cytology vs. histology, the two fields overlap in terms of what they study, but their uses and practices set them apart.
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What is the study of organs called?

Anatomy. The best known aspect of morphology, usually called anatomy, is the study of gross structure, or form, of organs and organisms.
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Who is the father of tissue?

Gottlieb Haberlandt is known as the father of plant tissue culture. He was an German botanist, who was the first to separate and culture the plant cells on knop’s salt solution.
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What is the study of anatomy?

Summary – Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body. On this page, you’ll find links to descriptions and pictures of the human body’s parts and organ systems from head to toe.
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What are the two types of cytology?

Respiratory/exfoliative cytology, which includes bronchial washing, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushing cytology. Those are commonly used to detect pulmonary infections and malignancies. Urinary cytology: Urine cytology, bladder washing, and brushing cytology.
View complete answer

What is the difference between a biopsy and a cytology?

Cytology tests for cancer – A cytology test is used to look closely at cells and body fluids. It may be helpful if a patient has cancer symptoms or is due for a cancer screening. There’s a wide range of cytology test procedures. A Pap smear, which collects cells from the cervix, is one example.

Removing spinal fluid by a lumbar puncture can provide cells for a cytology test. A cytology test is different from a biopsy, During a biopsy, tissue from a certain area of the body is removed and analyzed for cancer. A cytology test removes and studies a fewer number of cells. With a cytology test, the cytological morphology of the cells collected are studied under a microscope.

The study of the cells is referred to as cytopathology.
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Is cytology same as smear?

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample? – You may be asked to refrain from sexual intercourse for 24-48 hours before the test, avoid using vaginal creams or foams in the 48 hours before the test and book the test appointment 10-14 days after the beginning of your last menstrual period.

Your doctor or health care provider performs a cervical cytology test to look for cervical cells that are abnormal or even potentially cancerous. The cell suspension is processed in the laboratory and placed on a glass slide, stained with a special dye, and viewed under a microscope by a cytologist or pathologist. Also, the fluid is analysed for evidence of HPV infection, which may be used to decide how often the woman should be screened for an abnormality in the future. Abnormal cells can be present without causing any noticeable symptoms. Some women with abnormal cells require treatment whilst others may need to be monitored with repeat cervical cytology tests over a period of time as often mild changes resolve on their own. In England a woman registered with a GP receives her first invitation at the age of 25. There are three-yearly examinations between 25 and 49, and five-yearly examinations between 50 and 65. Currently, a “negative” cervical cytology test means the cells obtained appear normal. In some instances (less than 3 in 100), the sample may be reported as “inadequate” for evaluation. This generally means there are insufficient cells for reliable assessment. Other reported results are:

Borderline changes: Cells are present that may indicate HPV infection or where it is uncertain what the cells are. Most borderline changes return to normal without treatment. Mild dyskaryosis: These low-grade changes are often associated with HPV and return to normal without treatment. Moderate dyskaryosis: This finding indicates that abnormal cells present which may need treatment. Severe dyskaryosis: This result indicates that abnormal cells are present. This indicates that high grade pre-cancer (CIN) is probably present and which is likely to require treatment. Severe dyskaryosis/?Invasive carcinoma: Abnormal cells are present which indicate that high grade pre-cancer (CIN) is probably present and that cancer needs to be excluded. ?Glandular neoplasia: This result means that abnormal glandular cells present. These cells may come from the cervix, the lining of the uterus (womb) or rarely from the ovary.

From mid 2019 onwards, a negative test will also indicate that “high risk” HPV infection has not been identified Cervical cytology is used as a screening test in the well-established national screening programmes. Occasionally, abnormalities may go undetected with a single test. This is why it is important to be screened regularly. The sample represents only some of cells present on the cervix. Even when carried out by a very experienced nurse or doctor, sample collection can occasionally collect too few cells to give a reliable result and a repeat cervical cytology test may be required. This happens in fewer than 3 in 100 tests. Using HPV testing as the first step should decrease the number of inadequate or unreliable results. Cervical cytology was formerly known as the smear test. When performed routinely every 3-5 years, it is a great help in the detection and treatment of cervical abnormalities known as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN). Early detection and treatment of CIN can prevent about 75% of cervical cancers developing. If you have any abnormal bleeding, for example, after sexual intercourse, between periods or after the menopause, it is important that you speak to your general practitioner. Your GP will be able to tell you whether you need to be referred to a gynaecologist for further investigation. Routine cervical cytology is not appropriate in these circumstances. The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with some strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV, which can sometimes be called wart virus infection). High risk strains of HPV are found in 99% of cervical cancers. HPV is a very common sexually transmitted virus which most people contract shortly after becoming sexually active. In 9 out of 10 women, the virus is cleared naturally by the body’s immune system within a year. Vaccines are now available to help prevent infection with the most common high risk types of HPV. In the UK, HPV vaccination is offered to girls aged 12-13 years as part of a national vaccination programme. The vaccine is made available through most schools or general practitioners. It is given in three doses over a period of six months and should ideally be given before a girl becomes sexually active. Even if you have been vaccinated, it is important to continue to accept your invitation for routine screening. This is because HPV infection can occasionally occur in women who have been vaccinated. Some risk factors such as the age at which sexual intercourse begins (the earlier, the higher the risk) and multiple sexual partners, contribute an increased risk of having the virus. Other factors are infrequent cervical screening, a history of abnormal cervical cytology or treatment for cervical abnormalities, using the oral contraceptive pill and cigarette smoking. Women whose immune systems are less active are also at increased risk and women who are HIV positive are recommended to be screened annually. For most women, regular 3-5 yearly screening is enough to prevent them from developing cervical cancer by allowing abnormalities to be detected and treated early if needed. More frequent screening may be recommended for women who have had previous treatment for high-grade cervical abnormalities, No, a single “abnormal” test does not necessarily mean that cancer is present. The tissues of the cervix undergo constant changes and repair. Treatment of abnormalities may be carried out immediately. However, for low-grade disease, treatment may not be necessary immediately as in most cases it returns to normal without any intervention. However, the situation should be monitored closely. This may require repeat testing at regular intervals until the cells return to normal or treatment becomes necessary. Infection with HPV does not indicate that a woman will get cancer, but their risk of developing cancer is increased. Regular screening will be offered to women with high risk HPV infection to detect any abnormal cells at an early stage so treatment can be offered. Progression of cervical abnormalities caused by HPV infection to cervical cancer is slow, and may take many years. This is why regular cervical screening is the best way to prevent cancer from developing. Regular tests allow abnormal precancerous tissue to be found and removed. They also can detect the cancer early if it does develop allowing appropriate treatment to be given quickly. If an abnormal area of the cervix is found, it can be removed in an outpatients clinic using a minimally invasive surgery, also known as LLETZ. This is also the standard treatment for a very early stage cancer. In more advanced cervical cancers, a hysterectomy (removal of the womb) may need to be performed. For young women with cervical cancer, new surgical techniques are being developed that preserve fertility. In some circumstances, where the cancer is more advanced, radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be required and additional surgery may be needed.

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