What Is Social Reconstructionism In Education?

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What Is Social Reconstructionism In Education
Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.
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What is an example of social reconstructionism in education?

What is Social Reconstructionism? – Edupedia Is an educational philosophy that views schools as tools to solve social problems. Social reconstructionists reason that, because all leaders are the product of schools, schools should provide a curriculum that fosters their development.

Reconstructionists not only aim to educate a generation of problem solvers, but also try to identify and correct many noteworthy social problems that face our nation, with diverse targets including racism, pollution, homelessness, poverty, and violence. Rather than a philosophy of education, reconstructionism may be referred to as more of a remedy for a society that seeks to build a more objective social order.

Outraged at the inequity in educational opportunities between the rich and the poor, George Counts wrote Dare the School Build a New Social Order? in 1932. He called on teachers to educate students to prepare them for the social changes that would accompany heightened participation in science, technology, and other fields of learning, without compromising their cultural education.

This text was important in the development of social reconstructionist schools in the United States. For social reconstructionists, the class becomes an area where societal improvement is an active and measurable goal. The reconstructionist classroom contains a teacher who involves the students in discussions of moral dilemmas to understand the implications of one’s actions.

Students individually select their objectives and social priorities and then, with guidance from the teacher, create a plan of action to make the change happen. For example, a class may read an article on texting while driving and watch a documentary on the need for awareness in school systems.

Also, a police officer or a loved one of someone who has been affected by texting while driving may speak to the class and describe dangerous and fatal events that have resulted from choosing to text while driving. If the article, the movie, and the speaker inspire them, the students may take on a long-term awareness project.

One group may choose to analyze the regional news coverage on texting while driving, while another may choose to conduct a survey, analyzing student viewpoints on the subject. Either or both groups may schedule meetings with political leaders and create programs or legislation.

  • Alternatively, they might create a web page and present it to the media.
  • All the while, the teacher advises on research techniques, writing skills, and public communication methods, building core skills that will be applicable across a broad range of topics.
  • An excellent example of social reconstructionism is the 2007 movie Freedom Writers.

In the movie the teacher was determined to get the students interested by requiring them to write. Students were allowed to write about anything they wanted and were free to express themselves in their journals however they pleased. The journal writing not only taught basic writing skills; in some individual instances, it helped to bring students out of a life of crime.
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What is the meaning of social reconstruction?

10.8 Necessary Condition: Social Reconstruction 10.8.1 What is social reconstruction? Why is it a necessary condition? Social reconstruction is a condition in which the population achieves a level of tolerance and peaceful co-existence; gains social cohesion through acceptance of a national identity that transcends individual, sectarian, and communal differences; has the mechanisms and will to resolve disputes nonviolently; has community institutions that bind society across divisions; and addresses the legacy of past abuses.

For the social well-being of a society, social reconstruction includes twin approaches: directly addressing the legacy of violent conflict through inter- and intra-group reconciliation 767 and indirectly building societal links 768 by promoting reconciliation through community-based development and cooperative action.769 Following violent conflict, social cohesion may be almost nonexistent.

Returnees, combatants, and victims of the conflict often have great difficulty finding their place in the community again. Disputes over land, water, pasture rights, inheritance, marriage, and other community issues may arise, further affecting already traumatized communities.

  • Local institutions—both formal and informal—that helped bind the population before the conflict may be shattered.
  • Spoiler narratives and impromptu war memorials that reinforce societal cleavages may be present.
  • Without the tolerance and cohesion that enables peaceful coexistence, individuals and communities may resort to violence to address their grievances and resolve disputes.10.8.2 Guidance for Social Reconstruction 10.8.3 Approach: Inter- and Intra-Group Reconciliation Reconciliation is a contentious term.

The controversy derives from its meaning as both a goal and a process.770 While reconciliation may not be a realistic end goal within the time constraints of a typical S&R mission, reconciliation processes are still crucial to the social recovery and development of the population.

  1. Simply put, reconciliation is a process through which people move from a divided past to a shared future, the ultimate goal being the peaceful coexistence of all individuals in a society.
  2. Reconciliation programs seek to promote tolerance and mutual respect, reduce anger and prejudice from the conflict, foster intergroup understanding, strengthen nonviolent conflict resolution mechanisms, and heal the wounds of conflict.

As well as address the causes of conflict, reconciliation can deter future violence and violations of human rights.10.8.4 Assess existing sources of conflict to restore social capital and promote reconciliation. While many definitions exist, social capital is widely understood to be the resources that create a strong network of institutionalized relationships.771 To restore social capital in a war-torn country, be sure to understand underlying social cleavages that create conflict and tension.

Assess the distribution of resources across society and the opportunities for individuals and groups to access those resources. Reliable delivery of and access to essential services builds vertical capital. For more on delivery of services, see Section 8.5.11, Community and intergroup reconciliation builds horizontal capital.

In a society emerging from conflict, resolving the status of marginalized groups—including minorities, refugees, and IDPs—is necessary to build social capital. Individual human capital, such as skills and dignity, should also be preserved and supported.772 10.8.5 Understand the cultural context to shape strategies for promoting reconciliation.

Reconciliation processes are delicate and highly political in nature and should be grounded in the culture.773 To mitigate potential skepticism and fear about biases and intentions, reconciliation programs should involve all of society, including everyone from high-level politicians down to the ordinary survivor.774 Creating effective reconciliation programs requires assessing the social, political, economic, and cultural context before determining the best methods.

Restoring social relationships successfully involves paying close attention to cultural or traditional mechanisms that exist for dealing with crises. It also entails assessing popular support for these processes to ensure that programs will be effective and that victims do not feel pressured into participating.775 10.8.6 Build on indigenous practices for healing and acknowledging wrongdoing.

To ensure effective social recovery, be sure to assess the traditional or cultural means a society may have for acknowledging past misdeeds.776 Rather than displacing these mechanisms, build on them and use them in ways that can be constructive toward the reconciliation process.777 10.8.7 Ensure host nation ownership over the reconciliation process.

Host nation ownership is vital to success; reconciliation cannot be imported. Reconciliation processes should be led and implemented by the host nation population, not international actors. Consulting with the population on the design and implementation of the programs is essential to ensure that the efforts are locally driven.778 On the other hand, the role of international third parties can also be helpful as an honest broker.

Leaders of these processes need to understand that they require political will from host nation leaders, a degree of buy-in from the local community, and dedicated resources.10.8.8 Recognize that reconciliation is an ongoing process—not an end goal—that may last for generations. Reconciliation is an extremely complex and multifaceted process that can be strongly impacted by political, economic, and cultural variables that are not always easy to measure or manage.

Forgiveness and healing are very personal processes that may require time and nuanced approaches to promote. Because the process may take a very long time, it is absolutely critical to be explicit about the time frame and expectations of the process.779 The host nation government and civil society, therefore, should be prepared to continue promoting reconciliation processes from many different angles and over an extended period of time.780 10.8.9 Pay attention to sequencing.781 In undertaking reconciliation processes, timing and sequencing is crucial.

  1. Immediately after violent conflict ends, collection of evidence and witness statements should occur as soon as possible, when memories are still fresh and the destruction of critical war crimes evidence can be avoided.
  2. However, other processes, such as truth telling, may be best implemented after people have had time to absorb their experiences, resources have been secured, and a sound program has been developed through broad consultation with various groups.

Rushing into reconciliation processes too quickly, when wounds are still raw and resources are scarce, can be a risky move. See Trade-off: Section 10.9.6, Pursuing reconciliation vs. stability.10.8.10 Consider the many different strategies that exist to promote reconciliation processes.

Truth telling, While there are many variations, this strategy generally involves the public recounting of memories of violence and is one of the most common techniques for confronting the past. Truth telling is founded on the idea that a comprehensive understanding of the conflict can help to restore social relationships. Truth telling is sometimes described as historical justice or means of setting the record straight. This strategy is often pursued through the establishment of truth commissions, which seek to uncover the past and bring to light the violations that occurred on all sides of the conflict.783 Truth commissions are generally understood to be: 784

Temporary bodies, usually in operation for one to two years Nonjudicial bodies with some degree of independence Officially sanctioned, authorized, or empowered by the host nation government Created at a point of political transition. Truth commissions typically: Investigate patterns of past abuses and specific violations committed over a period of time, not just a single specific event Focus on violations of human rights and sometimes of humanitarian norms Complete their work with the submission of a final report that contains conclusions and recommendations.

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Peace commissions, Peace commissions play a role in fostering tolerance, promoting dialogue, and preventing violence.785 Means for doing this include mediating among groups, offering peace education and training through community programs, and countering rumors that may contribute to instability.

Peace commissions typically comprise local leaders and representatives of the broader community. Retributive justice and dispute resolution mechanisms. The prosecution of war crimes is an important aspect of the reconciliation process, as it holds war criminals and human rights violators accountable for their actions.

But just as important are the other forms of justice, such as the issuance of reparations to victims, the documentation of truth, and mediation of ongoing disputes through traditional mechanisms. Retributive justice also entails strengthening the rule of law system to combat impunity and ensure the protection of human rights.

Discouraging revenge Protecting against the return to power of perpetrators Fulfilling an obligation to the victims Individualizing guilt Strengthening legitimacy and process of democratization Breaking the cycle of impunity.

Restorative justice,787 Restorative justice mechanisms are often employed as an alternative or a complement to retributive justice efforts. While retributive justice focuses primarily on the perpetrator, restorative justice engages the victim, the perpetrator, and the broader community in an effort to restore relationships destroyed as a result of violent conflict. Rather than focusing on punishment of the perpetrator, restorative justice mechanisms emphasize getting perpetrators to accept responsibility for their actions. One model for restorative justice involves a mediation process where willing victims meet with willing perpetrators to explore and express their feelings about the facts surrounding an offense and seek to mend relationships. Lustration. Lustration is the administrative step of barring a whole class of individuals from public employment, political participation, and the enjoyment of other civil rights based on involvement with a prior regime. Many variables to consider when using lustration include to what extent the group being barred has been defeated or discredited, its social influence, and its potential for mounting resistance. Reparations. Reparations are a form of justice that seeks to compensate victims for their losses and to acknowledge the violations they suffered. Many terms exist to describe similar concepts as the idea has evolved over time: restitution, compensation, rehabilitation, or satisfaction and redress. Reparations may be an important element of the reconciliation process for vulnerable populations that suffered from the conflict, such as youth, women, torture victims, and ethnic minorities. When considering using reparations, be aware that victims may feel that they are simply being paid off. Reparations processes can be expensive and typically employ direct financial transfers, but can also include grants for victims’ children or targeted programs for groups or regions that suffered greatly.788 Mass media, Radio, television, and art are all media through which peace messages and peace education can be promulgated in an effective way. UN missions, for example, often establish UN radio through which peace messages are communicated, including providing information on disarmament and demobilization sites, dispelling rumors, countering hate speech, and providing a forum for dialogue. Healing. Healing is broadly defined as any strategy or activity that seeks to promote the psychological health of individuals after they have experienced trauma. Healing processes are lengthy, intensive, and are often linked with the rehabilitation of national and local communities to restore a sense of normalcy and belonging.789 Memorialization. Memorialization is a process that, when properly constructed, can honor victims and serve as a tool to address the past and promote a peaceful future. By educating and reminding people about the past, memorialization aims to prevent the renewal of conflict and to aid in social reconstruction by creating a “never again” mentality.790 Experience shows that memorials that prompt survivors to examine contested recollections of the past and facilitate exchange across ethnic, cultural, and religious groups can advance social reconstruction. It also shows, however, that impromptu memorials run the risk of reigniting old tensions. Build memorialization initiatives with intensive, deliberate, and locally led consultation and design, based on a thorough understanding of the following local context; beliefs about death and burial, grieving, revenge, and justice; and important cultural, historic, and other symbolic sites and document collections.791 Explore how transitional justice processes can relate to memorialization.

10.8.11 Be prepared to provide necessary security.792 Some reconciliation processes can stir strong reactions from victims and perpetrators, which can result in violence from those who seek to undermine those processes. Because of the political volatilities, a credible guarantee of security is vital to the success of these processes and to ensure public participation in them, particularly in truth telling processes and in administering retributive justice.

Common fears include victims’ fear of retaliation by perpetrators, perpetrators’ fear for their own lives after testifying, fear of government reprisals, and fear that testimonies given in truth commissions will be used in legal prosecutions.10.8.12 Approach: Community-Based Development Community-based development, long separated in official guidance from governance, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, and reconciliation, is now understood to unite all of these fundamental activities in conflict-affected societies through community-driven processes that have stood the test of time and been applied in dozens of missions.793 Development that brings representatives of divided societies together helps them learn to govern and reconcile while rebuilding their shattered communities.

This approach can rebuild social capital and trust within and between communities.794 10.8.13 Build relationships and trust through collaborative development processes.795 This collaborative approach should be considered the heart of any strategy to promote peaceful coexistence and eventual reconciliation.796 The features of development processes that aid in reconciliation and promote governance include the following:

Democratically selected community bodies reflecting the diverse make-up of localities with a special focus on inclusion of gender and minority representation Joint community decision-making to assess and prioritize needs Community selection of projects (e.g., schools, community centers, health clinics) Community receipt of aid money and management of the allocation of resources Contribution of labor to reconstruction projects Accountability and transparency mechanisms to ensure integrity of the process.

10.8.14 Understand that the development process is as important as the projects. The process outlined above, and the cooperation and solidarity it can instill, enables social reconstruction. Do not rush the process because doing so can exacerbate community tensions by unleashing a new contest for power.

Be patient because building democratic processes in this manner may mean that projects take longer to complete.797 10.8.15 Provide resources to ensure sustainability. In every S&R mission for the past two decades, community-based development programs have been launched to promote reconstruction and reconciliation.

Many of these programs suffer from a lack of sustained resources, which can undermine the legitimacy of the peace process and reconciliation prospects. This requires a commitment of aid money to the community-based development program, as well as capacity-building and technical support for the process.798 10.8.16 Ensure inclusion and transparency to promote reconciliation and healing.
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What is the role of teachers in social reconstructionism?

Teachers Role – The role of the Social Reconstructivist teacher is constantly changing as a result of the changing nature of society. Consequently, metaphors like “shaper of a new society,” “transformational leader,” and “change agent” have been used to describe the Social Reconstructionist teacher (Webb et.

  • Creating a safe and democratic environment for their students so that lessons and topics may be discussed, debated, and all students voices will be heard. What Is Social Reconstructionism In Education
  • Presenting students with material that looks into social injustices so that their students know that these injustices exist.
  • Creating lessons to inform students but also evoke an emotional response from their students.
  • Being fearless in presenting material to students.
  • Setting up a democratic environment in the classroom.
  • Inspiring students to be the change they wish to see in the world.
  • Helping to shed light on social inequities.
  • Providing students with the knowledge they need and the critical thinking skills to process it in meaningful ways so they can make positive changes in society.

In order to accomplish all of these tasks, Social Reconstructivist teachers have to take on a leadership role in the classroom so that they can effectively facilitate student learning.

  1. Do you think you could be a Social Reconstructivist teacher given the 
 ambiguity involved in this philosophy?
  2. If you were an Social Reconstructivst 
 teacher, how would you create a safe and democratic learning environment (give 
 2-3 specific examples)?

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What is the role of students in social reconstructionism?

The role of the learner in the reconstructionist learning environment is to be an active participant (Brameld, 1956). Students are encouraged to think critically about the world in which they live in and how it can be changed for the better. Students learn how to be problem solvers and decision makers.
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Is social Reconstructionism student or teacher centered?

Reconstructionism is another student centered philosophy that promotes world social progress, focuses on world events, controversial issues, and developing a vision for a new better world.
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Is social reconstructionism teacher centered?

Whether they are driven to improve their learning environments or to develop programs and curricula, most educators in leadership or development roles gained necessary expertise by earning advanced degrees, such as a Master of Science in Educational Theory and Practice,

  • Advanced degrees introduce educators to theories and best practices that can elevate their teaching and improve student learning.
  • The fundamentals of successful teaching Fundamental to any advanced knowledge is a core understanding of the principles of education.
  • These fundamentals are the basis behind the range of skills teachers use to reach as many students as possible, despite the different learning needs that may exist in one classroom.

Learning skills such as differentiation allows teachers to adapt their teaching methods as necessary to make sure that no one student falls behind the others in the classroom. Teachers who earn a Master of Science in Educational Theory and Practice acquire advanced understanding of the philosophies of education that generate today’s teaching approaches.

  1. Understanding how education arrived at its current state enables teachers to keep a critical eye on the field’s new direction, ensuring that it develops in a manner best suited to student learning.
  2. Philosophies of education generally fit into two categories: teacher-centered learning and student-centered learning.

Teacher-centered philosophies emphasize that the best way to ensure student learning is to ensure teaching uniformity. Perennialism is one example of a teacher-centered philosophy of education. It emphasizes understanding of great works of art, literature, history and other fields as timeless pieces of human development that everyone should understand in order to create stable, shared cultures.

Essentialism is another teacher-centered philosophy of education. It is similar to perennialism; however, it emphasizes personal development rather than necessary knowledge. Student-centered philosophies of education take a different stance. These philosophies believe that because global culture is constantly developing, no one-size-fits-all approach can effectively teach all varieties of students.

Student-centered philosophies developed as a reaction to teacher-centered education when educators began to consider learning as a cooperative process instead of an authoritarian one. Social reconstructionism, which emphasizes that learning should accompany social responsibility, is an example of student-centered teaching.

  1. Another model is existentialism, which argues that students must be able to direct their learning if they are to develop as people of free will.
  2. Finally, progressivism is a student-centered philosophy of education that recognizes that relevance is important to learning.
  3. Classrooms and lessons should relate to students’ lives if educators hope to leave lasting effects.
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Understanding the philosophies of education is essential for educators who want to monitor the further growth of the teaching field. These and other principles are important aspects of earning a Master of Science in Educational Theory and Practice. Teachers who wish to lead both in the classroom and in their districts will need a strong foundation in the principles behind contemporary education.
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What are the advantages of social reconstructionism in education?

Conclusion – Social reconstruction in education has the primary goal of making the world a better place to live, for all. By instilling the proper values and beliefs in students, those attributes will spread throughout society and become ingrained in the fabric of the nation.

The benefits are numerous, from increased economic opportunities to an elimination of social ills due to inequalities and mistreatment. Teachers can train students to carry out projects that benefit local communities. When such activities accumulate over time and geography, the entire country benefits.

Ultimately, society develops its own mechanisms of reform and change because the individual members are prepared and motivated to perform such service for the greater good of all.
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What are the key points of reconstructionism?

Reconstructionism is a philosophical movement within the field of education, sometimes termed social reconstructionism.It asserts that educators must develop curricula and pedagogical techniques specifically to reconstruct society and educational practices from their current state.The role of educationists is that of change agents and social architects.There are five major tenets of reconstructionism: (1) Society and education require constant reconstruction; (2) programs of study should be interdisciplinary; (3) education is being used to build a new social order and educate individuals into new citizenry behavioral roles, (4) a rationally educated humankind can direct the process of social and conscious evolution toward progressive goals and thus control humankind’s destiny; and (5) educational socialization must now be both globalist and futuristic in its orientation (Gutek, 1988; James, 1995; Ozman & Crave, 1999; Stanley, 1992).

  1. The overriding idea is that because education is a strategic social institution, a shift in educational orientation will manifest social changes.
  2. For social change to occur, humankind must first be educated for change.
  3. Thus, reconstructionists assert that current curricular action will ultimately translate into future social and political policies (Gutek, 1988; James, 1995; Oreienstein & Behar-Horenstein, 2001; Oreinstein & Hunkins, 1998) Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) is an archetypal reconstructionist figure.

He was a humanist, social globalist, futurist, and a pioneer theorist in the development of global education thought. His thought was deeply influenced by German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel’s (1770-1831) idealism of dialectical consciousness evolution.

  • Hegelian philosophy asserts that a dialectic process of ideas (thesis, antithesis, and synthesis) leads to higher order knowledge.
  • Human history and social systems exist within progressive dialectical movement with each new idealistic epoch resulting in an elevated social reality and level of consciousness (Oreinstein & Carver, 1999).

Similarly, Brameld argued that social reconstruction occurs through the dialectical process of ideas precipitated through education. Education is the forum to cultivate ideas that will push humankind into new-elevated social realities (1956 and 1972).

  1. Brameld believed that collectively humankind is at a critical crossroads with one path leading to inevitable destruction and the other toward exaltation.
  2. He was committed to educating humankind toward the path of empowerment through exploring alternative ideas in the reconstruction of sovereign internationalism into a new diverse yet unified global order.

Therefore, educational content and context must be focused on promoting transnational cooperation over present day nationalism and sovereign individualism. Finally, he believed that humankind must embrace a united global organization that encompasses peoples of all nations, race, culture and creeds with the common purpose of constructing a peaceful international order (Brameld, 1956).

The best way to socialize an international citizenry into a globalized democratic system is to nurture a new consciousness that humankind shares the planet collectively. Given this, educators have an extraordinary opportunity to point humankind toward new directions through integrating transformative globalist social theories into curricula contexts (Brameld, 1956, 1972).

Brameldian educational thought is congruent with current sociological demands of globalization and is relevant for contemporary scholarly debate. Teilhardian Philosophy of Evolution Frenchmen Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) was one of the unique intellectuals of the 20 th century.

An ardent humanist, globalist, and dogmatic evolutionist, he was a prophetic visionary of evolving globalization and a future unified global order. Teilhardianism is intellectually stimulating and reflectively challenging. Academically, he was a paleontologist and a Jesuit philosopher. The focus of his research was the creative process of evolution.

Teilhard (1999) writes: ” Is evolution a theory, a system or a hypothesis? It is much more, it is a general condition to which all theories, all hypotheses, all systems must bow and which they must satisfy henceforward if they are to be thinkable and true.

Evolution is a light illuminating all facts, a curve that all lines must follow” (p.219). For him, this assertion is nonetheless true for social and psyche evolution. His primary objective in analyzing evolution was to acquire a meaningful understanding of the human phenomenon. Teilhard termed his methodology Scientific Phenomenology,

The assertion is that a holistic analysis of evolutionary movement must incorporate objective scientific analysis of empirical activity coupled with a subjective phenomenological observation of conscious activity. He surmised that this method is necessary as evolution is moving from a physical energy “without” and from psyche energy “within” reality.

Tangential energy is the physical energy “without” evolutionary movement while r adial energy is the psyche energy “within” evolution. Tangential energy is the quantitatively measurable laws of physics and radial energy is the qualitatively observable phenomenon of nature. These energies form an interconnected monist reality of physical and psychic energies.

Thus all matter, inanimate and organic, contains seeds of consciousness. Controlled scientific experiments cannot demonstrate the existence of consciousness in the inorganic material world but it can be verified through phenomenological inquiry of evolutionary phenomena (Birx, 1991; King, 1996; Teilhard, 1999).

Teilhard proclaimed his greatest discovery as the Law of Complexity and consciousness (Complexity-consciousness). The Law of Complexity-consciousness states that an increase in physical complexity produces an intensification of tangential energy with a corresponding elevated increase of radial energy; consciousness,

Formulated, an increase in the complexity of matter organizationally equals a higher degree of consciousness. This relational interplay between energies pushes evolutionary movement in a geometric, conic-shaped, pattern toward increasing convergence. Through the Law of Complexity-consciousness, evolution has occurred in stages producing distinct planetary spheres of existence.

  1. The first stage was from a point of disorganized elementary particles moving upwards to pre-life matter,
  2. This is the evolution of elemental matter and the physical organization of planet Earth, the Geosphere,
  3. The second stage is emergence of organic matter converging into the organization of complex life forms upwards to the emergence of mammals.

This is the evolution of life and the formation of the Biosphere. Most significantly, this stage produced Homo sapiens who possess a physically large brain and neurologically complex cerebral system, capable of reflective thought. Reflexive thought is or consciousness is the essential characteristic of human phenomenon.

Distinctively, humans are the only creatures on earth who are meta-cognitive (i.e., humans are the only creatures that know that they know. Thus, the human phenomenon, the apex of biological evolution, is now the key to understanding and directing future evolutionary movement (Birx, 1991; Teilhard, 1999).

The emergence of reflective consciousness marks the current stage of evolution. Evolutionary movement has now shifted from the biological realm to the psychosocial realm. This is the formative stage of the Noosphere. Teilhard derived the prefix for the Greek term ” noos” meaning mind.

The Noosphere is described as a semi-imposed layer of thought forming around the planet, metaphorically clothing the globe with a brain. The future of human evolution is the organizational complexification of this social sphere surrounding the planet creating a collective global consciousness. Futuristically, Teilhard theorized that Noospheric evolution would over eons of time lead to a final end point, the Omega Point.

The Omega Point is in essence spiritual evolution. The postulation is that ultimately only consciousness, or radial energy, will exist after the law of entropy totally diminishes tangential energy extinguishing material existence. With this esoteric conjecture, Teilhard leaps into mystical scientific speculation and theological inference.
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What is the importance of Reconstructionism in education?

Education is the process of learning, teaching and discussion in acquiring proper learnt results of knowledge, skills, values, and beliefs. As to be known, the education systems is differentiate formally within few stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college or university.

In the education system, it is compulsory up to certain ages while beyond the limit were to believe that achieving their education is independently through previous raisings and past lessons to grant. A philosophy in education is a set of statement that seeks to discover the unillustrated version of syllabus and norms but, accordingly in beliefs and values that focuses on vision and missions.

Reconstructionism defines as a continuation of reforming oneself or themselves to establish social networks through learnings without correcting based on theory and it cannot be construct without foundation. Its concept is to analyze the world’s event where all beings has their own purpose to live and to use in transforming the existing society with empowerment through deep thinking and advancing from what is learnt.

Firstly, the aim of the education under the philosophy of reconstructionism is a quest to make the world a better place and a better society through experienced learnt in the education systems. Education is an activity liberating the individuals from a chaotic absurd world. It is a part of human’s desire in wanting to bring unity, peace and control to the current world for the purpose of better life as times goes by.

Life is beautiful but not always easy, it has problems too, and the challenge lies in facing them with courage which allows to make the pain bearable by providing hope. Reconstructionism helps in transforming the present to a future landscapes from the aid of innate learnings by being ahead and proceed with major aspects of changes with improvements and reconstruction of society.

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Place Order Secondly, the aim of education is to reconstruct the way students perceive the world in a different manner. The beneficial of the younger generations is that they have the opportunity to learn from the knowledgeable ones who’d lived ahead before them to promote differences in believing, teaching, and opinions.

It also helps in approach in changes through differences in generation gaps and miscommunications. A good education is one that emphasizes individually through intellectual journeys so that one can see and understand themselves better. It will teach the students and the future generations to know that there is more answers beyond theories and the stack of textbooks and paperwork’s on office desk.

Other than that, reconstructivism makes one to understand the method of how to conduct themselves through life by grasping rules and regulations and gaining a sense of conscience. Next, the aim of education is to reconstruct the young generation’s mindset to be more open-mindedness in acceptance of differences in knowledge of the diversity of one’s country.

In Malaysia, there are 3 main nations which are Malay, Chinese and India. Each of their race has their own differences and uniqueness which can be identify in both direct and indirect manner. In the same cultures can also be judge by mixed raise due to their mind set of stereotypes. Due to these factors, opinions and suggestion of the minority were remained neglected from the majorities despite the potential ideas that was discharged egoistically.

Many adults have a sense of ignorance in developing a good relationship establishment among different race due to the stereotypes rumoured. Thus, the development of open-mindedness should be spread amongst the generations not only for a good rapport between each other in one society but, to also evolve one’s thinking skills against the world’s perspectives.

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Variously, one will obtaining new information of the contrary between cultures, ways of living, dissimilarities in opinions and formalities in discussion of any curiosities. Lastly, the aim of education is to help individual, mainly students to examine the abnormal side of life, the irrational as well as the good side.

It helps in enhancing the independently aspects of searching for answers through exploring the list of questions of what’s wrong and why it is wrong. It also helps in strengthening one’s individual’s control in seeking their definition of truth and seeking the interests of the overwhelming majority of mankind.
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Who created social reconstructionism in education?

Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) founded social reconstructionism as a response to the horrors of WWII. He believed that education had the responsibility to mold human beings into a cohesive and compassionate society.
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What is the meaning of reconstructionism?

Reconstructionism is a philosophical approach that questions essentialism and other rigid and dogmatic standpoints. It questions the existing standards in order to provide new perspectives to the social, political, economical and other related issues.
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How is social reconstructionism different from constructivism?

But in reconstructionism the purpose is to solve social issues and make learners aware of the social issues and use individual experiences to solve social problems in different ways. Constructivism works a lot for active learnin. Constructivists put the learner at the centre point.
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What is the difference between social reconstructionism and critical pedagogy?

Social reconstructionism believes that society should be continually reformed as it grows and innovates. On the other hand, critical pedagogy will encourage this societal reformation through education, as it encourages learners to question oppressive
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What are the advantages of social reconstructionism in education?

Conclusion – Social reconstruction in education has the primary goal of making the world a better place to live, for all. By instilling the proper values and beliefs in students, those attributes will spread throughout society and become ingrained in the fabric of the nation.

The benefits are numerous, from increased economic opportunities to an elimination of social ills due to inequalities and mistreatment. Teachers can train students to carry out projects that benefit local communities. When such activities accumulate over time and geography, the entire country benefits.

Ultimately, society develops its own mechanisms of reform and change because the individual members are prepared and motivated to perform such service for the greater good of all.
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What are the key points of reconstructionism?

Reconstructionism is a philosophical movement within the field of education, sometimes termed social reconstructionism.It asserts that educators must develop curricula and pedagogical techniques specifically to reconstruct society and educational practices from their current state.The role of educationists is that of change agents and social architects.There are five major tenets of reconstructionism: (1) Society and education require constant reconstruction; (2) programs of study should be interdisciplinary; (3) education is being used to build a new social order and educate individuals into new citizenry behavioral roles, (4) a rationally educated humankind can direct the process of social and conscious evolution toward progressive goals and thus control humankind’s destiny; and (5) educational socialization must now be both globalist and futuristic in its orientation (Gutek, 1988; James, 1995; Ozman & Crave, 1999; Stanley, 1992).

  1. The overriding idea is that because education is a strategic social institution, a shift in educational orientation will manifest social changes.
  2. For social change to occur, humankind must first be educated for change.
  3. Thus, reconstructionists assert that current curricular action will ultimately translate into future social and political policies (Gutek, 1988; James, 1995; Oreienstein & Behar-Horenstein, 2001; Oreinstein & Hunkins, 1998) Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) is an archetypal reconstructionist figure.

He was a humanist, social globalist, futurist, and a pioneer theorist in the development of global education thought. His thought was deeply influenced by German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel’s (1770-1831) idealism of dialectical consciousness evolution.

  1. Hegelian philosophy asserts that a dialectic process of ideas (thesis, antithesis, and synthesis) leads to higher order knowledge.
  2. Human history and social systems exist within progressive dialectical movement with each new idealistic epoch resulting in an elevated social reality and level of consciousness (Oreinstein & Carver, 1999).

Similarly, Brameld argued that social reconstruction occurs through the dialectical process of ideas precipitated through education. Education is the forum to cultivate ideas that will push humankind into new-elevated social realities (1956 and 1972).

  1. Brameld believed that collectively humankind is at a critical crossroads with one path leading to inevitable destruction and the other toward exaltation.
  2. He was committed to educating humankind toward the path of empowerment through exploring alternative ideas in the reconstruction of sovereign internationalism into a new diverse yet unified global order.

Therefore, educational content and context must be focused on promoting transnational cooperation over present day nationalism and sovereign individualism. Finally, he believed that humankind must embrace a united global organization that encompasses peoples of all nations, race, culture and creeds with the common purpose of constructing a peaceful international order (Brameld, 1956).

The best way to socialize an international citizenry into a globalized democratic system is to nurture a new consciousness that humankind shares the planet collectively. Given this, educators have an extraordinary opportunity to point humankind toward new directions through integrating transformative globalist social theories into curricula contexts (Brameld, 1956, 1972).

Brameldian educational thought is congruent with current sociological demands of globalization and is relevant for contemporary scholarly debate. Teilhardian Philosophy of Evolution Frenchmen Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) was one of the unique intellectuals of the 20 th century.

An ardent humanist, globalist, and dogmatic evolutionist, he was a prophetic visionary of evolving globalization and a future unified global order. Teilhardianism is intellectually stimulating and reflectively challenging. Academically, he was a paleontologist and a Jesuit philosopher. The focus of his research was the creative process of evolution.

Teilhard (1999) writes: ” Is evolution a theory, a system or a hypothesis? It is much more, it is a general condition to which all theories, all hypotheses, all systems must bow and which they must satisfy henceforward if they are to be thinkable and true.

Evolution is a light illuminating all facts, a curve that all lines must follow” (p.219). For him, this assertion is nonetheless true for social and psyche evolution. His primary objective in analyzing evolution was to acquire a meaningful understanding of the human phenomenon. Teilhard termed his methodology Scientific Phenomenology,

The assertion is that a holistic analysis of evolutionary movement must incorporate objective scientific analysis of empirical activity coupled with a subjective phenomenological observation of conscious activity. He surmised that this method is necessary as evolution is moving from a physical energy “without” and from psyche energy “within” reality.

Tangential energy is the physical energy “without” evolutionary movement while r adial energy is the psyche energy “within” evolution. Tangential energy is the quantitatively measurable laws of physics and radial energy is the qualitatively observable phenomenon of nature. These energies form an interconnected monist reality of physical and psychic energies.

Thus all matter, inanimate and organic, contains seeds of consciousness. Controlled scientific experiments cannot demonstrate the existence of consciousness in the inorganic material world but it can be verified through phenomenological inquiry of evolutionary phenomena (Birx, 1991; King, 1996; Teilhard, 1999).

Teilhard proclaimed his greatest discovery as the Law of Complexity and consciousness (Complexity-consciousness). The Law of Complexity-consciousness states that an increase in physical complexity produces an intensification of tangential energy with a corresponding elevated increase of radial energy; consciousness,

Formulated, an increase in the complexity of matter organizationally equals a higher degree of consciousness. This relational interplay between energies pushes evolutionary movement in a geometric, conic-shaped, pattern toward increasing convergence. Through the Law of Complexity-consciousness, evolution has occurred in stages producing distinct planetary spheres of existence.

The first stage was from a point of disorganized elementary particles moving upwards to pre-life matter, This is the evolution of elemental matter and the physical organization of planet Earth, the Geosphere, The second stage is emergence of organic matter converging into the organization of complex life forms upwards to the emergence of mammals.

This is the evolution of life and the formation of the Biosphere. Most significantly, this stage produced Homo sapiens who possess a physically large brain and neurologically complex cerebral system, capable of reflective thought. Reflexive thought is or consciousness is the essential characteristic of human phenomenon.

  1. Distinctively, humans are the only creatures on earth who are meta-cognitive (i.e., humans are the only creatures that know that they know.
  2. Thus, the human phenomenon, the apex of biological evolution, is now the key to understanding and directing future evolutionary movement (Birx, 1991; Teilhard, 1999).

The emergence of reflective consciousness marks the current stage of evolution. Evolutionary movement has now shifted from the biological realm to the psychosocial realm. This is the formative stage of the Noosphere. Teilhard derived the prefix for the Greek term ” noos” meaning mind.

  1. The Noosphere is described as a semi-imposed layer of thought forming around the planet, metaphorically clothing the globe with a brain.
  2. The future of human evolution is the organizational complexification of this social sphere surrounding the planet creating a collective global consciousness.
  3. Futuristically, Teilhard theorized that Noospheric evolution would over eons of time lead to a final end point, the Omega Point.

The Omega Point is in essence spiritual evolution. The postulation is that ultimately only consciousness, or radial energy, will exist after the law of entropy totally diminishes tangential energy extinguishing material existence. With this esoteric conjecture, Teilhard leaps into mystical scientific speculation and theological inference.
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