What Does Sld Stand For In Special Education?

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What Does Sld Stand For In Special Education
Specific Learning Disability and SLD/Dyslexia –
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What disabilities fall under SLD?

Definition, Checklist and Characteristics – Specific learning disability (SLD) refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or perform mathematical calculations. What Does Sld Stand For In Special Education Specific learning disability categories include dyslexia, executive function disorder, perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, and developmental aphasia. SLD does not include learning problems related to physical difficulties (visual, hearing, motor skills), emotional disturbance, cultural factors, environmental, or economic disadvantage.
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What is an SLD example?

Difficulty with spelling. Difficulty with written expression (e.g., problems with grammar, punctuation or organization). Difficulty understanding number concepts, number facts or calculation. Difficulty with mathematical reasoning (e.g., applying math concepts or solving math problems).
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What is the difference between SLD and LD?

Benefit of Using an SLD – The benefit of using an SLD is that it has lower coherence than the light of an LD, which enables coherence noise to be reduced. For example, if an SLD is used for light interference measurement, it reduces diffused reflection (speckle noise) on the surface of the object to measure.

Since it has spectral performance with a certain width, it enables high resolution to be obtained for interference measurement. Anritsu provides broadband SLDs developed for OCT. Since an SLD also has directivity like an LD, it enables light to be focused to optical fiber and sent over a long spatial distance.

Therefore, positional light sources can be created in locations away from the light source, which makes the sensor less susceptible to the surrounding temperature when performing sensing. Anritsu provides SLD cylindrical modules that have light already focused in optical fiber, as well as SLD butterfly modules.
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Is ADHD considered a SLD?

Affects focus, attention and behavior and can make learning challenging – A disorder that includes difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Although ADHD is not considered a learning disability, research indicates that from 30-50 percent of children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability, and that the two conditions can interact to make learning extremely challenging.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that becomes apparent in some children in the preschool and early school years. It is hard for these children to control their behavior and/or pay attention. It is estimated that between 3 and 5 percent of children have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or approximately 2 million children in the United States.

This means that in a classroom of 24 to 30 children, it is likely that at least one will have ADHD. ADHD is not considered to be a learning disability. It can be determined to be a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), making a student eligible to receive special education services.

  1. However, ADHD falls under the category “Other Health Impaired” and not under “Specific Learning Disabilities.” Individuals with ADHD can also qualify for accommodations under the ADA and Section 504 if their ADHD impacts a major life function such as learning.
  2. Many children with ADHD – approximately 20 to 30 percent – also have a specific learning disability.

The principle characteristics of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. There are three subtypes of ADHD recognized by professionals. These are the predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type (that does not show significant inattention); The predominantly inattentive type (that does not show significant hyperactive-impulsive behavior) sometimes called ADD; and the combined type (that displays both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms).

Other disorders that sometimes accompany ADHD are Tourette Syndrome (affecting a very small proportion of people with ADHD); oppositional defiant disorder (affecting as many as one-third to one-half of all children with ADHD); conduct disorder (about 20 to 40% of ADHD children); anxiety and depression; and bipolar disorder.

*National Institute of Mental Health, 2003
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Is SLD a form of autism?

Assessing Autism and Learning Disabilities – For a long time, Autism and Learning Disabilities have been grouped together however, are they the same thing or different from each other? Autism and Learning Disabilities can occur together but are completely different from one another.

Lifelong conditionsDifficulties for both are present from childhoodNeither has a cureSignificant impact on a person’s lifeImpacts the way they see the world and others, as well as how they interpret them.

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What does SLD look like in the classroom?

They may have trouble with transitions or seem disorganized. Other common signs of learning differences include difficulty following directions, trouble concentrating, and not getting homework done on time — or at all. Failing tests, especially ones you know they’ve studied for, is also a sign.
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Is SLD the same as dyslexia?

FAQs –

1. What is Specific Learning Disability SLD/Dyslexia? Answer: CSDE Working Definition of Dyslexia* Dyslexia is included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) as a specific learning disability (SLD). Dyslexia impacts reading, specifically decoding and accurate and/or fluent word recognition and spelling. Dyslexia is neurobiological in origin and is unexpected and/or inconsistent with a student’s other abilities often despite the provision of appropriate instruction. Dyslexia results from a significant deficit in phonological processing (i.e., a persistent difficulty in the awareness of and ability to manipulate the individual sounds of spoken language). Typically, students with dyslexia have strengths and cognitive abilities in areas such as reasoning, critical thinking, concept formation, problem solving, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and social communication (e.g., conversation). Early identification and appropriate instruction targeting the underlying phonological processing deficits that characterize dyslexia may minimize its educational impact. Essential Clarifications

Dyslexia is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disability; an intellectual disability; emotional disturbance; a lack of appropriate instruction; cultural factors; environmental or economic disadvantage; or limited English proficiency. Early identification of the characteristics of dyslexia is critical, leading to focused, evidence-based interventions, accommodations, self-awareness, self-empowerment, and school and life success. Without targeted, systematic and explicit instruction/interventions along with accommodations (e.g., accessible educational materials in content area subjects), students with dyslexia may have:

reduced reading experiences that may impact the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge, difficulty with written expression, and/or difficulty learning a second language.

Students with dyslexia may demonstrate additional behavioral and/or emotional reactions to their difficulty with learning to read.

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*This working definition was developed by the Connecticut State Department of Education (CSDE) with input from an external stakeholder workgroup and is based on a review of applicable literature, the IDEA, and current definitions in use by other states, organizations and legislation.

2. Who can identify a child with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD)/Dyslexia? Answer: According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004), upon completion of the administration of assessments and other evaluation measures, a group of qualified professionals and the parent of the child (planning and placement team (PPT) in Connecticut) determines whether the child is a child with a disability and the educational needs of the child.

IDEA requires that professionals who administer assessment tools and strategies to assist in the identification of a child as having SLD/Dyslexia must be trained and knowledgeable regarding such assessments. As defined in IDEA 2004, a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) includes conditions such as dyslexia.

Definitions of dyslexia vary, but all propose that dyslexia is a learning disability that impacts the area of reading. Since the PPT must provide assessments in all areas of suspected disability, for a child who is suspected of having SLD/Dyslexia, professionals with expertise in reading would be critical team members, as well as those with considerable knowledge in other areas of concern (e.g., language, mathematics, writing).

While other professionals with a more clinical background may specialize in identifying and providing remediation for individuals with dyslexia, IDEA does not indicate that there is one type of professional who is uniquely qualified to provide such identification.

3. What is an appropriate evaluation for a child suspected of having SLD/Dyslexia? Answer: To help ensure that an evaluation is appropriate (i.e., consistent with the requirements of IDEA), the PPT must first gather input from multiple sources (e.g., families, general education classroom, curriculum-based measures, standardized assessments, student records, observations) and include a review of existing evaluation data to determine what additional data, if any, are needed to identify a learning disability, a student’s need for special education, and write an IEP.

Included in this review must be any evaluative data gathered during a scientific research-based intervention process as well as other academic and behavioral data that can be used to rule out that the student’s learning difficulties are due to a lack of appropriate instruction.

  1. In Connecticut this process is called Scientific Research Based Intervention (SRBI) (Connecticut State Department of Education, 2010).
  2. When planning the evaluation, the PPT must: 1) use a variety of assessment tools and strategies to gather relevant functional, developmental and academic information about the student, including information provided by the parents; 2) not use any single measure or assessment as the sole criterion for determining whether the student is a student with a disability; 3) use technically sound (i.e., valid and reliable) instruments that may assess the relative contribution of cognitive and behavioral factors in addition to physical or developmental factors; 4) use assessments that are tailored to assess areas of specific educational need and not merely those that are designed to provide a general intelligence quotient; 5) assess a student in all areas related to the suspected disability; and 6) use measures that are sufficiently comprehensive to identify all of a student’s special, education and related service needs.

When determining whether a student has a learning disability, the PPT must ensure the student is observed in her or his learning environment, including the general education classroom, to document the student’s academic performance and behavior in the areas of difficulty.

Dyslexia is a distinct type of learning disability associated with reading difficulties in accurate and fluent single word decoding skills associated with poor phonological processing and rapid naming abilities. Therefore, in addition to other areas of concern, assessment of children suspected of having SLD/Dyslexia should address the five critical components of reading recommended by the National Reading Panel (2000): phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

4. Is a child identified with SLD/Dyslexia automatically eligible for special education services? Answer: A child identified with SLD/Dyslexia may or may not be eligible for special education services. A child is not considered to be eligible for special education under IDEA 2004 unless the child has a disability and, as a result, needs special education and related services.

Therefore, in addition to meeting the criteria for a learning disability, in order for a student to be eligible for services under IDEA 2004, the PPT must determine that the student’s learning difficulties require specially designed instruction. Some students with SLD/Dyslexia may need accommodations or related services in order to benefit from the same instruction as their peers; however, they may not need specialized instruction and, therefore, would not be eligible for special education services.

5. What is appropriate specialized instruction for a student with SLD/Dyslexia? Answer: As with any child who is receiving special education services, all instruction must be individualized. Each child will have a different profile of strengths and areas of concern, thus there is no one best method of instruction or intervention for each child with SLD/Dyslexia.

However, there is a great deal of evidence-based research supporting structured literacy instructional approaches as successful methods for working with students with SLD/Dyslexia. These instructional approaches differ in specific techniques and materials, but they all include structured, explicit, systematic, cumulative instruction designed to promote understanding, memory, recall, and use of spoken and written language.

They also have multiple components that focus on such areas of instruction as phonological skills, phonics and word analysis, spelling, word recognition and oral reading fluency, grammar and syntax, text comprehension, writing, and study skills. 6. What is Structured Literacy instruction? Answer: The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) has adopted the term Structured Literacy to describe explicit reading instruction that goes by many names (Orton-Gillingham, Multi-Sensory, Explicit Phonics and others such as Wilson Language Training Program, Lindamood Bell Instruction).

Phonology/Phonological Awareness – Phonology is the study of sound structure of spoken words and is a critical element of Structured Language instruction. Phonological awareness includes rhyming, counting words in spoken sentence, and clapping syllables in spoken words. An important aspect of phonological awareness is phonemic awareness or the ability to segment words into their component sounds, which are called phonemes. Sound-Symbol Association/Phonics – Once students have developed the awareness of phonemes of spoken language, they must learn how to map the phonemes to symbols or printed letters, blend sounds and letters into words and segment words into individual sounds. Sound-symbol association must be taught and mastered in two directions: visual to auditory (reading) and auditory to visual (spelling). The instruction of sound-symbol associations is often referred to as phonics, Syllable Instruction – A syllable is a unit of oral or written language with one vowel sound. Instruction includes teaching of the six basic syllable types in the English language: closed, vowel-consonant-e, open, consonant-le, r-controlled, and vowel pair. Knowledge of syllable types assists readers to determine the sound of the vowel in the syllable. Syllable division rules heighten the reader’s awareness of where a long, unfamiliar word may be divided for greater accuracy in reading or sounding out a word. Morphology – A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in the language. A structured literacy curriculum includes the study of vocabulary, including base words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Syntax – Syntax is the set of principles that dictate the sequence and function of words in a sentence in order to convey meaning. This includes grammar, sentence variation, and the mechanics of language. Semantics – Semantics is that aspect of language concerned with meaning. The curriculum (from the beginning) must include instruction in the comprehension of written language.

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Structured Literacy is distinctive in the principles that guide how critical elements are taught. Systematic and Cumulative – Structured Literacy instruction is systematic and cumulative. Systematic means that the organization of material follows the logical order of the language. The sequence must begin with the easiest and most basic concepts and elements and progress methodically to more difficult concepts and elements. Cumulative means each step must be based on concepts previously learned. Explicit Instruction – Structured Literacy instruction requires the deliberate teaching of all concepts with continuous student-teacher interaction. It is not assumed that students will naturally deduce these concepts on their own. Diagnostic Teaching – The teacher must be adept at individualized instruction. That is instruction that meets a specific student’s needs. The instruction is based on careful and continuous assessment, both informally (e.g., observation) and formally (e.g., using standardized measures through progress monitoring). The content presented must be mastered to the degree of automaticity. Automaticity is critical to freeing all the student’s attention and cognitive resources for comprehension and expression (IDA, 2015). References Answer: Connecticut State Department of Education. (2010). Guidelines for Identifying Children with Learning Disabilities. Hartford, CT. International Dyslexia Association (IDA). (2015). Effective Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia. Baltimore, MD: IDA. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.

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What is the most common SLD?

History and Physical – Although presentations of patients with LDs will be individualized and protean, there are general patterns that can help the health care provider more reliably identify the underlying pathology. Often children will present for evaluation after experiencing continued difficulties in school.

  1. Frequently, children with LDs will also demonstrate deficits in overall functioning, not solely isolated to the academic setting.
  2. For example, hindrances at school may be related to academic difficulty, negative self-concept, behavior issues, or interpersonal relations.
  3. It is essential to inquire about the child’s past school history, diet, family history of similar concerns, and developmental milestones, including social skills.

Commonly recognized specific learning disabilities include:

Reading disability (dyslexia) – is the most common LD, representing at least 80% of all LDs, and results from deficits in phonologic processing. Skills necessary for appropriate phonologic processing involve reading decoding, phonics, ability to produce sounds, and proper auditory capabilities. The progression often originates with problems with reading decoding in the more nascent years, on to dysfluent reading, and then to difficulty with reading comprehension. These children may eventually avoid reading altogether. Dyscalculia – presents as a weakness in performing arithmetic operations. Patients will experience impediments organizing problems, finishing multiple-step calculations, distinguishing mathematical calculation signs. Proper math sense is incumbent on a broad range of neurodevelopmental functions including number sense, calculation and retrieval of math facts, the language of math, visual-spatial skills, and comprehension of word problems. Dysgraphia – is characterized by distorted writing despite thorough instruction and motor ability. Children with dysgraphia will produce inconsistent and illegible handwriting while rarely staying within the margins. These children might also demonstrate maladroit fine motor coordination, problems with spelling (encoding), grammar and syntax, or expressing ideas in writing. Nonverbal LDs (right hemisphere developmental LD) – as the name suggests, comprise hindrances with nonverbal activities, such as problem-solving, visual-spatial tasks, reading body language, and recognizing social cues. Often these disorders do not manifest until the third grade as patients have difficulty with higher-order reading comprehension. There is substantial clinical overlap with autism spectrum disorder (e.g. poor social communication and pragmatics). Of note, not recognized in the DSM-V.

Individual factors (intrinsic) and environmental factors will influence the clinical presentation. Intrinsic factors include comorbid psychiatric conditions and personality traits. Environmental factors encompass home, school, programs, etc. LDs do not often exist in isolation, rather, they will present comorbidly with other LDs and psychiatric conditions.
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What are the 5 most common learning disabilities?

Conclusion – Learning disabilities are extremely common and can affect people of all ages. They can impact a person’s ability to learn, process information, and perform certain tasks. The top five most common learning disabilities are dyslexia, ADHD, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and dyspraxia.

Each of these conditions can present with a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed through a combination of medical and educational assessments. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with a learning disability, as early intervention can make a significant difference in managing the condition and achieving success in school and other areas of life.

If you suspect that you or a loved one has a learning disability LD Resources Foundation is here to help. Check out our resources to help you better understand your condition and find the help you need.
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What is the difference between ADHD and SLD?

Question: I’m confused about the ADHD and learning disabilities. I’ve heard some people say ADHD is a learning disability and some people say it isn’t. Which is it? – Answer: ADHD isn’t a, But it can affect learning. Schools know this and have developed different kinds of classroom supports to help children who struggle with attention.

Law covers 13 kinds of conditions, Learning disabilities is one of the 13 groups. Another group is called “Other Health Impairment.” This is the group that covers ADHD. This means that kids with ADHD may be able to get an Individualized Education Program ( ). But here’s where things can get confusing. To qualify for an IEP, a child’s ADHD has to significantly affect learning or school performance.

So what’s the difference between ADHD and learning disabilities? A learning disability makes it hard to acquire specific skills such as reading or math. ADHD impacts more global skills like paying attention and controlling impulses. (It’s tough to do well in any subject if you can’t focus on the lessons, homework, or tests.) Here’s another reason some people are confused about ADHD and learning disabilities: It’s common for kids to have both.
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Is SLD an intellectual disability?

Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of: visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; intellectual disability ; serious emotional disability; cultural factors; environmental or economic disadvantage; or limited English proficiency.
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What are the 3 types of learning disabilities?

There’s nothing as heartbreaking as watching one of your most dedicated students try and fail to grasp a school subject. A student struggling with reading, writing, or math can be overwhelmed by feelings of frustration and embarrassment. They may feel helpless or avoid participating in class.

  • They may even act out to draw attention away from their shortcomings.
  • But what if their behavior is a response to an undiagnosed problem, one affecting one-third of students with disabilities ? A specific learning disability is a disorder of one or more psychological processes involved in language acquisition, manifesting as an “imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.” No wonder students with learning disabilities can have a hard time in class; their own psychological processes are working against them.
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Educators must be on the lookout for signs of the three types of specific learning disabilities: dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia.
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Is dyspraxia a SLD?

Question: Is dyspraxia a learning disability? It definitely seems to affect my child’s ability to learn! – Answer: In the U.S., is not considered a, But it is considered a disability, and it can impact learning. If you google the term “dyspraxia” you may see it described as a “motor learning disability.” It’s often called this in the U.K.

  • And other countries.
  • Dyspraxia affects the use of muscles.
  • Different types of dyspraxia can affect writing, speech and other movements involved in learning.
  • That’s one reason dyspraxia is often discussed in the same breath as and other learning differences.
  • Students with dyspraxia can get special education services.

The law covers 13 categories of disabilities that can affect learning, Learning disabilities is one of the 13. But that’s not the category that covers most kids with dyspraxia. They tend to be covered under “Speech and Language Impaired” or “Other Health Impaired.” Here’s one more detail that can add to confusion.

It’s not uncommon for kids to have dyspraxia and learning disabilities. But the most important thing to keep mind is that whether your child has dyspraxia, learning disabilities or both, there are many ways you and your child’s school can help. Learning more about dyspraxia is a good starting point. You may also want to read more about your child’s rights,

This can help you advocate for the services and supports your child needs to succeed in school and in life.
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Do students with SLD have intelligence?

Students with specific learning disabilities have average to above average intelligence but may have difficulties acquiring and/or demonstrating knowledge and understanding content. This results in lower achievement for age and ability level, resulting in a significant discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.
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What is a Behavioural trait of child with SLD?

Social Skills and Learning Disabilities What Does Sld Stand For In Special Education The consequences of learning disabilities are rarely confined to school or work. Many areas of life are affected, including the role of the person with learning disabilities in their family, relationships with friends, non-academic functioning such as sports or dancing, self-esteem and self-confidence to handle daily situations.

  1. Individuals who have learning disabilities may be less observant in their social environment, may misinterpret the social behavior of others at times, and may not learn as easily from experiences or social “cues” as their friends.
  2. Some children may exhibit an immaturity and social ineptness due to their learning disability.

While seeking acceptance, their eagerness may cause them to try too hard in inappropriate ways. Common behavioral characteristics of individuals with learning disabilities:

Inability to interpret environment and social cues Poor judgment; little thought about logical consequences Poor impulse control Need for immediate gratification Inability to set realistic priorities and goals Inappropriate conclusions due to deficient reasoning ability Illogical reasons for actions Inability to develop meaningful relationships with others Immature and “bossy” behavior Low frustration tolerance resulting in disruptive behavior

Direct instruction in social skills training is highly recommended to help individuals with learning disabilities cope with their innate lack of social perception. Professional help from a variety of disciplines on an ongoing basis may be necessary. : Social Skills and Learning Disabilities
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How common is SLD?

SLD is the most common category under IDEA. In 2018, 34 percent of students who qualified did so under this category.’
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How does SLD affect reading?

Omitting or substituting words. Poor reading comprehension. Slow reading speed (oral or silent) Confusion with directions.
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What qualifies as a specific learning disability?

Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions
View complete answer

What is the most common SLD?

History and Physical – Although presentations of patients with LDs will be individualized and protean, there are general patterns that can help the health care provider more reliably identify the underlying pathology. Often children will present for evaluation after experiencing continued difficulties in school.

  • Frequently, children with LDs will also demonstrate deficits in overall functioning, not solely isolated to the academic setting.
  • For example, hindrances at school may be related to academic difficulty, negative self-concept, behavior issues, or interpersonal relations.
  • It is essential to inquire about the child’s past school history, diet, family history of similar concerns, and developmental milestones, including social skills.

Commonly recognized specific learning disabilities include:

Reading disability (dyslexia) – is the most common LD, representing at least 80% of all LDs, and results from deficits in phonologic processing. Skills necessary for appropriate phonologic processing involve reading decoding, phonics, ability to produce sounds, and proper auditory capabilities. The progression often originates with problems with reading decoding in the more nascent years, on to dysfluent reading, and then to difficulty with reading comprehension. These children may eventually avoid reading altogether. Dyscalculia – presents as a weakness in performing arithmetic operations. Patients will experience impediments organizing problems, finishing multiple-step calculations, distinguishing mathematical calculation signs. Proper math sense is incumbent on a broad range of neurodevelopmental functions including number sense, calculation and retrieval of math facts, the language of math, visual-spatial skills, and comprehension of word problems. Dysgraphia – is characterized by distorted writing despite thorough instruction and motor ability. Children with dysgraphia will produce inconsistent and illegible handwriting while rarely staying within the margins. These children might also demonstrate maladroit fine motor coordination, problems with spelling (encoding), grammar and syntax, or expressing ideas in writing. Nonverbal LDs (right hemisphere developmental LD) – as the name suggests, comprise hindrances with nonverbal activities, such as problem-solving, visual-spatial tasks, reading body language, and recognizing social cues. Often these disorders do not manifest until the third grade as patients have difficulty with higher-order reading comprehension. There is substantial clinical overlap with autism spectrum disorder (e.g. poor social communication and pragmatics). Of note, not recognized in the DSM-V.

Individual factors (intrinsic) and environmental factors will influence the clinical presentation. Intrinsic factors include comorbid psychiatric conditions and personality traits. Environmental factors encompass home, school, programs, etc. LDs do not often exist in isolation, rather, they will present comorbidly with other LDs and psychiatric conditions.
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