What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study?

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What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study
Abstract – To the extent that selective attention skills are relevant for academic foundations and amenable to training, they represent an important focus for the field of education. Here, drawing on research on the neurobiology of attention, we review hypothesized links between selective attention and processing across three domains important to early academic skills.

First, we provide a brief review of the neural bases of selective attention, emphasizing the effects of selective attention on neural processing, as well as the neural systems important to deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. Second, we examine the developmental time course of selective attention.

It is argued that developmental differences in selective attention are related to the neural systems important for deploying selective attention and managing response conflict. In contrast, once effectively deployed, selective attention acts through very similar neural mechanisms across ages.

  1. In the third section, we relate the processes of selective attention to three domains important to academic foundations: language, literacy, and mathematics.
  2. Fourth, drawing on recent literatures on the effects of video-game play and mind-brain training on selective attention, we discuss the possibility of training selective attention.

The final section examines the application of these principles to educationally-focused attention-training programs for children. Academic achievement is determined by a variety of factors including educational opportunity, socio-economic status (SES), social aptitudes, personality traits, and cognitive skills (see, for example, Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997, Wentzel, 1991, Wentzel and Caldwell, 2006 ).

  1. Among the latter, the ability to focus on the task at hand and ignore distraction, also termed selective attention, appears to have reverberating effects on several domains important to academic foundations, including language, literacy, and mathematics.
  2. While it is important to recognize that many factors determine academic achievement, the focus of this paper will be exclusively on selective attention.

Selective attention refers to the processes that allow an individual to select and focus on particular input for further processing while simultaneously suppressing irrelevant or distracting information. The competing information can occur both externally, as in extraneous auditory or visual stimulation in the environment, or internally, as in distracting thoughts or habitual responses which get in the way of performing the task at hand.

  • As most studies in the literature have focused on the filtering of external information, this review will focus primarily on the ability, when presented with a complex environment, to select the relevant dimensions for the task at hand and respond appropriately.
  • Furthermore, the focus will be on the preschool and early school years, although the considerable neural development occurring during infancy in these domains is acknowledged and discussed elsewhere (e.g., Dehaene, 1997, Kuhl, 2004, Richards, 2003, Sheese et al., 2008, Xu and Spelke, 2000 ).

Drawing on research from cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience, we propose a role for selective attention in three domains important to academic foundations (language, literacy, and mathematics). In the sections below, we posit both possible neural mechanisms linking selective attention to each domain, as well as broader implications for educational and remediation programs based on existing data on the plasticity of selective attention.
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What are examples of using selective attention while studying?

Spotlight Model –

According to this model, visual attention works like a spotlight—we select information by concentrating on a focal point. The area surrounding the focal point is called the fringe. The fringe is visible but doesn’t fall under your direct focus. The area outside the fringe is the margin which has little to zero focus.

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    Why is studying selective attention important?

    Why is selective attention important? – Selective attention is important because it allows the human brain to work more effectively. Selective attention acts as a filter to ensure that the brain works best in relation to its tasks. Did you know that you can manage much more than you think by spending just 15 fun minutes a day? MentalUP Attention Exercises Application helps you to improve your selective attention and increase your focus with gamified exercises designed by academicians and pedagogues.
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    What type of attention is best for studying?

    Attentional Systems and Neuroanatomy – According to the neuroanatomical model from Posner and Petersen (1990), there are three different attentional systems. They are the following:

      Reticular Activating System (RAS) or Alert System : This system is mainly in charge of Arousal and Sustained Attention. It is closely related to the reticular formation and some of its connections, like the frontal areas, limbic systems, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia. Posterior Attentional System (PAS) or Orientation System : This system is in charge of Focused Attention and Selective Attention of visual stimuli. The brain areas related to this system are the posterior parietal cortex, the lateral pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus, and the superior colliculus. Anterior Attentional System (AAS) or Execution System : This system is in charge of Selective Attention, Sustained Attention, and Divided Attention. It’s closely related to the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the supplementary motor area, and with the neostriatum (striate nucleus).

    When we drive, we are almost constantly using all of our attentional sub-processes. We have to be awake (arousal), we have to be able to focus our attention on the stimuli on the road (focused attention), pay attention for long periods of time (sustained attention), keep ourselves from getting distracted by irrelevant stimuli (selective attention), be able to change focus from one lane to another, to the mirror, and back to your lane (alternating attention), and be able to carry out all of the actions necessary for driving, like using the pedals, turning the wheel, and changing gears (divided attention).Attention is one of the first and most important aspects of studying at home or at school. When you study, you need to be awake and attentive to whatever you’re reading or hearing. Sustained attention is especially important when you study because reading the same information while you try to learn can become boring and monotonous after a while. Sustained attention helps you stay focused on studying for hours, which helps keep you from losing time and forgetting information that you’ve read.Attention is also essential for any type of work, from office jobs that have a certain amount of reading or writing, to air traffic controllers, athletes, cashiers, drivers, doctors, and CEOs. Every profession requires every kind of attention.We use attention in our daily lives in a countless number of tasks. From the time we wake up to when we go to bed, we are constantly using different types of attention. Poor attention may cause you to forget what you’re doing and throw the spoon in the trash and put the empty carton in the fridge. Avoiding this, reading, watching a movie, making food, showering, or meeting up with friends all require attention.

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    What is selective attention and example?

    Selective attention in psychology refers to how we focus our attention on some things and ignore others — one example is the attentional spotlight. The definition of selective attention in psychology is focusing on one object or stimuli to the exclusion of all others.

    Since attention is a limited resource and there is so much information coming into our brains at any one time from our senses, we have to choose what we pay attention to. Selective attention is most often studied in psychology in our vision and hearing. For example, the cocktail party effect is a great example of the power of auditory selective attention.

    The cocktail party effect in psychology is our impressive and under-appreciated ability to tune our attention to just one voice from a multitude. However, vision has proved an incredibly rich area for psychology research on selective attention.
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    How do I get better at selective attention?

    1. Exercise – Coordinative exercises (those that need coordinated movement of large muscles or muscle-groups) help improve selective attention by pre-activating your cognitive related neuronal networks. High-Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE) has been proven to improve selective attention, especially in university students. What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study If exercise isn’t in your routine yet, how about adding it in now? Set aside at least 30 minutes for working out in the morning or evening. Vary your workouts with running, aerobic exercises, cycling, or any other physical sport that you are interested in. You can also include mind-body exercises like yoga and tai-chi into your routine.
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    Is attention selective in ADHD?

    Introduction – Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is an attentional construct defined as a cluster of symptoms characterized by slow behavior, slow information processing, mental confusion, absent-mindedness, and hypoactivity ( Barkley, 2012, 2013 ; Becker and Barkley, 2018 ).

    Despite increasing interest in research on cognitive and socioemotional functioning of SCT, there remains a need for research on core cognitive symptoms. Initially, SCT was considered a specifier of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ( Garner et al., 2017 ). However, a growing body of research indicated that SCT is a distinct attentional problem, separate from ADHD, evidenced by differences in cognitive and social functioning, statistical factor analysis, and comorbidity patterns ( Jarrett et al., 2017 ; Smith et al., 2019 ).

    While symptoms of being “easily distracted” or “mentally confused” can be observed in both, those with SCT experience problems in perceptual processes, attentional selection, and orienting/shifting of attention rather than problems in executive function ( Mikami et al., 2007 ; Jarrett et al., 2020 ).

    • Conversely, those with ADHD face problems with executive functions, including response inhibition ( Weigard et al., 2018 ).
    • Thus, it would be helpful to consider the difference in attentional problems in the early and late information processing of SCT and ADHD to distinguish the underlying cognitive characteristics.

    Those with ADHD have dysfunctions in the later stage of information processing. For example, individuals with ADHD show lower efficiency in selective attention in late information processing compared to the healthy controls and high perceptual load, which requires early selective attention to effectively eliminate the inefficiency of selective attention ( Forster et al., 2014 ).

    • Besides, deficient late selective attention suggests problems in executive functioning, especially response inhibition ( Forster and Lavie, 2007, 2009 ).
    • While attentional problems have been repeatedly proven to exist in those with SCT (e.g., selective attention), mixed results were reported regarding the information processing that is affected by attention ( Mueller et al., 2014 ; Barkley, 2018 ; Becker and Barkley, 2018 ; Kofler et al., 2019 ).

    For example, those with SCT showed impaired information processing including visual-perception, attention network, and processing speed ( Camprodon-Rosanas et al., 2017 ; Wood et al., 2017 ; Jacobson et al., 2018 ; Tamm et al., 2018 ). However, several studies found no relation between SCT symptoms and processing speed, spatial memory, and response inhibition ( Skirbekk et al., 2011 ; Bauermeister et al., 2012 ; Jarrett et al., 2017 ).

    Despite there being no direct evidence, some research suggests the possibility of poor attention in early stages of information processing. First, dysfunction of early selective attention was found to be related to SCT symptoms such as slowness and confusion in thinking considering the impairment of visual-perceptual/spatial abilities: attention to detail ( Huang-Pollock et al., 2005 ; Handy and Kam, 2015 ; Tamm et al., 2018 ).

    Second, a fMRI study found an association between increasing SCT symptoms and hypoactivity in the left superior parietal lobe, implying impaired function in receiving and encoding a great deal of visual input, seemingly related to impaired early information processing ( Fassbender et al., 2015 ).

    Third, abnormal early selective attention was suggested in children with high SCT symptoms ( Huang-Pollock et al., 2005 ). However, the study was conducted with groups of people with ADHD and controls (i.e., the result of SCT might be confounded by the presence of ADHD) and used only four items identifying SCT symptoms as a secondary analysis.

    Thus, it is essential to reconfirm the specific attentional problems of SCT in information processing and distinguish them from those of ADHD. The present study applied the prominent theory called “load theory” to enhance the understanding of attention deficit in information processing in SCT.

    • Load theory was originally proposed to solve the longstanding debate of early vs.
    • Late attentional selection in cognitive psychology ( Maylor and Lavie, 1998 ; Lavie et al., 2004 ).
    • Perceptual load, found to reduce distraction effectively in non-clinical population, has been used to investigate the deficiency of selective attention in each stage of information processing for those with ADHD compared to non-clinical population, suggesting effective interventions ( Huang-Pollock et al., 2005 ; Remington et al., 2012 ; Forster et al., 2014 ).

    As it was helpful to investigate specific mechanisms of selective attention in individuals with ADHD, it would also be helpful to relate the symptoms of selective attention of SCT, apparently similar to that of ADHD, expressed as being “easily distracted” or “mentally confused,” to specific mechanisms in individuals with SCT ( Murphy and Greene, 2017 ).

    1. According to load theory, a key determinant of the ability to focus attention is whether the task being performed involves a high perceptual load sufficient to fill perceptual capacity.
    2. When tasks involve a low load (e.g., involving few items), it leaves the capacity that can spill over, resulting in involuntary processing of distractors.

    In this respect, low load tasks necessitate the ability of late selective attention to minimize interference, relying on executive mechanism and active inhibition, happening later than perceptual processes ( Lavie, 1995 ). Conversely, when the task processing involves a high load (e.g., searching among many items), it uses up the available perceptual capacity, and therefore perception of distractors is reduced or even eliminated.

    Thus, higher levels of perceptual load engender more efficient early selective attention and make individuals stay focused on task-relevant stimuli. The deficit in early selective attention is related to the difficulty in distinction of the target-distractor, and low perceptual capacity ( Swettenham et al., 2014 ).

    In sum, although SCT symptoms result in lowering daily life functioning, the core problems of information processing of SCT have not been demonstrated yet. The results while studying cognitive symptoms have been confounded by various information processes including perceptual process, response selection, and partly due to the tasks used in each study focusing on different constructs and subject selection ( VanRullen and Thorpe, 2001 ; Kofler et al., 2019 ).

    The present study attempted to focus on selective attention, which is one of the proven symptoms of SCT, and differentiate it from that in ADHD using load theory and a corresponding task (i.e., irrelevant distractor task). As the present study aimed to investigate the distinguished problem of SCT as an independent disorder, the study was conducted on individuals with SCT who does not show high level of ADHD symptoms, and on those with ADHD who does not show high level of SCT symptoms not to confound the results.

    In addition, there is no consensus on whether those with SCT and those with ADHD who do not show high levels of SCT symptoms have visuospatial working memory (VSWM) deficits, which impact their selective attention ( Skirbekk et al., 2011 ; Bauermeister et al., 2012 ; Tamm et al., 2018 ).

    • To deal with this, the present study investigated the difference of VSWM in individuals with SCT and ADHD from controls to explore the effect of VSWM.
    • Overall, the aim of the present study was to investigate the decreased efficiency of selective attention in early information processing in individuals with SCT and compare it to individuals with ADHD and controls.

    It is hypothesized that individuals with SCT will show a marked inefficiency in selective attention in early information processing compared to controls, while there should be no marked deficit in selective attention in late information processing, in accordance with the evidence of perceptual and attentional difficulties.
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    Is selective attention the same as concentration?

    Sport Psychology: Attention & Concentration In this article we are delving into the topic of attention and concentration. This is part two of a four part series covering aspects of Sports Psychology which impact and can improve your sports performance. Even if you are not an athlete, we hope that these articles can help you find ways to improve your performance in day to day life.

    • These stimuli are inevitably difficult to manage as they can come from both within the athlete themselves (internal stimuli) and also from the athlete’s environment and other people (external stimuli).
    • Examples
    • Internal stimuli :
    • The athletes thoughts and emotions;
    • Predicting other players’ movements
    • Worrying that your play wont go as planned
    • Fearing loss

    External stimuli :

    • Weather & playing surface
    • Taunts from competitors
    • Noise from the crowd

    In this context the definition of attention is to be able to pick out the relevant stimuli whilst ignoring distractions. Concentration can be defined as ‘attentional focus’ and refers to when the mind is focussed on a particular stimulus. Selective attention or attention narrowing is focusing on particular stimuli, and this is a skill that you can train and improve.

    “Attention and concentration control must be one of the objectives to consider in any psychological training program and an ability that must be refined by both athletes and trainers” – Dosil 2004 It has been seen in research that the more experienced the athlete, the better their selective attention.

    This is partly due to their training in this area, having more experience and also their greater technical ability. The more automatic the physical task becomes, the easier it will be for the athlete to focus on other stimuli. Training attention and concentration Trainers and coaches are becoming increasingly aware that they must use tools derived from Sports Psychology to increase their athlete’s selective attention and concentration. As previously mentioned, research shows that experienced athletes have better attention and concentration skills. It is very possible to learn how to improve your attention and concentration abilities over time. As with techniques for all psychology topics you must be open to trying new things and also to sticking with the process.

    • Theories suggest that the athlete’s attentional focus style, the way they perceive and handle the stimulus in the situation, varies from person to person.
    • Therefore, it is important for the coach and the athlete to have an understanding of which types of stimuli tend to distract, and which they find helpful to focus on.

    If a coach realises that they have an athlete who finds it particularly hard to stay focussed or they cannot hold their attention for very long, it is important to get to the bottom of why this is. Knowing the cause will greatly help in deciding how to train to improve these aspects.

    1. Below, we will cover several tools that are used in sport to improve athlete’s attention and concentration skills.
    2. Technique Toolbox
    3. Thought-Stopping and Thought-Centering:

    There are two techniques that athletes must be aware of for keeping their focus on track; ‘ thought-stopping ‘ – generating positive thoughts to stop negative thoughts taking over, and also ‘ thought-centering ‘ – shifting the attention to set aside negative thoughts.

    1. The athlete must be able to identify their dysfunctional negative thoughts and feelings by considering two things: ‘is it helpful to think like this?’ and ‘will these thoughts help me to achieve my objective?’.
    2. When the answer is no, the thoughts need stopping and centering,
    3. Thinking “I haven’t trained well, I’m achy, everyone else has worked harder so will be better” vs “I am ready, I feel calm, I have trained well and I’m sure I will do my best”.

    Techniques used by athletes for thought-stopping and thought-centering :

    • Positive Affirmations : create a written list of positive thoughts which energise you and boost the mood. Reading through this list can then become part of the athlete’s routine, and when needed these affirmations can be recalled mentally to replace negative thoughts
    • Breathing techniques : breathing has been long associated with calming the mind. A common technique is to breath in deeply and exhale slowly, imagining the exhale removing negativity
    • Focusing on your own center of gravity : to help avoid thinking of external stimuli which cause distraction
    • Centering the attention on a relevant external cue : provides a strong focus and gives the mind a stimulus to serve as a distraction from the athletes own negative thoughts. An example in weightlifting would be: focusing your sight only on the bar when you walk towards it, tightening your wrist wraps or chalking your hands

    Other techniques for improving concentration and attention:

    • Practice simulation : the idea here is to simulate competition variables during training sessions as much as possible. The more similar the conditions the better as the athlete will learn to cope with and ignore external stimuli. Examples of this could be getting teammates to act as opposition athletes, or playing recordings of crowd noise whilst training
    • Using keywords : the coach and athlete can come up with verbal cues that cater to the athletes individual preferences. These can be used to reinforce attention, motivation and confidence. You may often hear weightlifting coaches at high level competitions shouting certain cues to their athletes as they lift
    • Visual control : this requires the athlete to pick a physical location to focus on, which does not represent any stimuli that impair their performance. An example could be focussing on the wall ahead at eye level whilst lifting at a competition as you know that nothing will get in your eyeline and distract you
    • Technique mastering : as previously mentioned, the more the athlete masters their physical skills the more they will be able to pay attention to other stimuli. They can then focus more on what the scenario requires, rather than how to perform the necessary movements
    • Focusing on the present : being able to remain in the moment is paramount for athletic performance. Focusing on the past can be very distracting, for example looking back over something that has just happened in the game (missing a goal), instead of where to go now (the next shot on goal)
    • Audiovisual samples : watching videos of competitions can allow the athlete to see what elements they find distracting. Once the athlete and coach are aware of these they can work to re-focus on other stimuli

    Wrapping up: Sports psychologists provide athletes and coaches with the tools that they need when they face high pressure, high performance situations. Attention and concentration are key for remaining in the moment and facing tough scenarios head on.

    Sport provides incredibly dynamic events, where many stimuli are thrown at you at a rapidly changing pace. Being able to only focus on what is key to your goals is incredibly important if you want to achieve them, whether in sport or in life. – Team Canterbury Strength References Baden, D.A., Warwick-Evans, L., & Lakomy, J.

    (2004). Am I nearly there? The effect of anticipated running distances on perceived exertion and attentional focus, journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 215-231. Boutcher, S.H. (1992). Attention and athletic performance: An integrated approach. In T.

    • Horn (ed.) Advances in sports psychology.
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    • 2002) Attentional processes and sports performance. In T.
    • Horn (ed) Advances in sports psychology.
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    • Madrid: McGraw-Hill.

    Easterbrook, J.A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183-201. Gladwell, M. (1999). The physical genius. The New Yorker, 75, 57-65. Hannin, Y.L. (1980). A study of anxiety in sports. In W.F.

    Straub (ed.), Sport Psychology: An analysis of athlete behavior (pp.236-249). New York: Movement publications. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Biddle, S. (1999). The effect of goal orientation and perceived competence on cognitive interference during tennis and snooker performance. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 22, 479-501.

    James, W. (1980). The principles of psychology (Vol.1) New York: Henry Holt and company. Landers, D. et al. (1994). Effects of learning on electroencephalographic patterns in novice archers. International Journal of Sport Psychology,no.22 (3), pp.56-70. Masters, K.S., & Ogles, B.M.
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    What does selective attention mean for how you should study quizlet?

    Ability to attend to only one voice among many. What does selective attention mean for how you should study. With selective attention you are able to Focus on a particular thing even though there is a lot going on. Inattentional blindness. Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
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    How important is focused attention in learning?

    Focused Attention and It’s Effect on Wellbeing Psychologists have identified differing types of attention that help us to process information. They are generally known as Alternating Attention, Divided Attention, Selected Attention and Focused Attention.

    Alternating Attention is switching between tasks that require different cognitive processing. Divided Attention is having the ability to process more than two responses or tasks at the same time; multitasking, if you will. Selected Attention is the ability to filter out other distractions by selecting only the information or stimuli required for the task or cognitive process. Focused Attention is having the ability to focus on one task for an unlimited amount of time without distraction.

    In this technical age, the distractions for learners are varied and many. With social media, television, internet, smart phones, and so much more to choose from, it seems nigh impossible to manage Focused Attention for any length of time. But the benefits of developing focused attention skills are plenty and can assist in wellbeing as well as success in other areas.

    Examples of focused attention are listening to a lecture, reading a book, watching a film or making something without distraction. This level of focus allows the brain to take in the whole task without it being littered with a number of other thoughts and processes. People with conditions like ADHD are unable to filter out distractions, which will detract from their wellbeing.

    This is a factor teachers and caregivers will need to take into account when dealing with students who are living with an attention disorder. Focussed attention leads to quicker and more directed completion of a task, thereby leading to a sense of success, thus improving wellbeing.

    Allow your students consistency. Don’t move the desks around too much, and ensure students are comfortable where they sit and who they are sitting with.

    A colourful classroom is great for students, but make sure there’s not too much dangling from ceilings and walls. Decorations are excellent stimuli for creativity, so they are crucial, but they are also an excellent disruption, so a balance is important.

    Give clear and precise instructions so students are able to understand the task and get to work.

    Encourage the class to ask questions and talk about the task before it begins, so they can understand it from a number of perspectives.

    Use assessment to encourage focus. Regular tests and supervised tasks will not only improve their ability to focus their attention, but it will also prepare students for senior secondary and tertiary learning, as well as improving their skills in the workplace.

    Encourage exercise and physical activity as it is well documented that exercise improves wellbeing and concentration.

    AS A STUDENT:

    Have a dedicated homework area which is away from distractions and that you know is the place where study happens. Sitting on the bed or couch to study will not improve focused attention as the brain knows these areas are for resting. Tasks will take longer and this can be frustrating, thus having a negative impact on wellbeing.

    Do one thing at a time. Complete one homework task before moving on to another. It can be very stressful completing a number of tasks at once and you will feel overloaded. Take it one step at a time and tick tasks off on a list when you’ve completed them.

    Get some exercise. It will improve your attention span and wellbeing. If you’re finding it hard to focus, go for a walk, think about the task you need to do, and then start it straight away on your return.

    Use a timetable or diary and fill it in regularly. Tick things off as you’ve done them, but remember to do one thing at a time. See it through, tick it off and move on to the next task.

    Focused Attention can have a substantial impact on wellbeing and personal success. The ability to devote attention to any one task at a time is an attribute that can be learned, practised and improved with time and dedication. : Focused Attention and It’s Effect on Wellbeing
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    Does paying attention help you learn faster?

    The Importance of Attention – The very first step to learning is paying attention. Whether in the classroom, reading a textbook, listening to a podcast, or practicing a skill for work, dedicating complete attention is absolutely critical. All of these activities entail learning,

    Remember: “paying” is an action. You are essentially giving your thoughts, energy, and time to what is happening in the moment. Think about when a friend, family member, or co-worker asks, “Are you paying attention to me?” Attention means focusing on what is being stated, discussed, or shown, using the senses to literally bring information into the brain,

    As a busy college student, there are challenges to paying attention. Below are tips and strategies for increasing your awareness about attention. And your ability to pay better attention will help your brain do what it is designed to do: learn !
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    What are the three types of selective attention?

    Discover 31 more articles on this topic The bottleneck doesn’t allow the fluid to enter into the body of the bottle all at once; rather, it lets the fluid to enter in certain amounts depending on the flow rate, until all of it has entered the bottle’s body. What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study
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    Is selective attention a cognitive skill?

    What Are Cognitive Skills: Selective Attention – Even though there are distractions around you, selective attention is a cognitive ability that helps to focus on a specific subject. It assists you in deciding where to concentrate your efforts among several options and allows you to stay focused on that job.
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    What is an example of selective attention bias?

    1 Introduction – Attentional bias means that a person selectively attends to a certain category or certain categories of stimuli in the environment while tending to overlook, ignore, or disregard other kinds of stimuli. For example, one person might selectively attend to stimuli related to food (particularly food that is perceived to be particularly delicious). What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study Figure 1, Summary of the main topics that have been discussed in the present chapter. What do these different kinds of attentional bias mean, and how do they arise? Often—if not always—the attentional bias is motivationally relevant, i.e., it is related to the person’s goal-directed behavior.

    • Formally, we define motivation as “the internal states of the organism that lead to the instigation, persistence, energy, and direction of behavior towards a goal” ( Klinger and Cox, 2011, p.4).
    • How do such states come about, and how do they give rise to attentional bias? Motivation starts when a person is aware of incentives that he or she finds attractive.

    An incentive is defined as any object or event that could potentially change a person’s affect in a positive way, either by enhancing positive affect or by reducing negative affect. In addition to incentive, affect and affective change are, therefore, key motivational constructs.

    Affect —which can be either positive or negative—is the subjective component of an emotional response. Affective change is a change in affect from its present state; it is the essence of what people are motivated to achieve. People want to feel better than they currently do, either by increasing their positive affect (e.g., joy, happiness, or satisfaction) or by decreasing their negative affect (e.g., fear, boredom, or depression).

    Of the many positive incentives that could potentially enhance a person’s positive affect and the many negative incentives that could reduce the person’s negative affect if they were removed, each person might set a goal of acquiring only a subset of the positive incentives or a goal of getting rid of only a subset of the negative incentives.

    In either case, a goal is formed from the moment that the person makes a commitment to either obtain or to get rid of an incentive. Why are some incentives but not others transformed into goals? Motivational psychologists often rely on Value X Expectancy Theory ( Bundorf et al., 2013; Cox et al., 2015; Morone and Morone, 2014 ) to explain this outcome.

    According to this theory, two primary variables determine whether an incentive is transformed into a goal. They are (a) the value that the person attributes to the incentive (how valuable to the person the affective change that the incentive would produce would be) and (b) the person’s expected likelihood of actually being able to obtain the incentive if he or she puts forth the effort.

    Because the relationship between value and expectancy is multiplicative, if either of them is zero (or near zero), a goal to pursue the incentive will not be formed. For example, a person might imagine that becoming a millionaire would bring about a very positive affective change, but the person might not actually try to become a millionaire because the expected chances of being able to do so are virtually nil.

    People, of course, vary widely with regard to the value that they attribute to using addictive substances and their actual use of them. What are the factors that determine the value of using these substances? To answer this question, we will use alcohol consumption as an example; nevertheless, much of the discussion can be generalized to use of other kinds of addictive substances.

    One kind of variable that affects the value of drinking alcohol is each person’s own biochemical reaction to alcohol (e.g., Dickson et al., 2006 ). Pharmacologically, some people react positively to drinking alcohol, and they experience few negative consequences. Other people experience primarily unpleasant reactions, such as facial flushing and nausea.

    Sociocultural and environmental factors also affect the value of drinking alcohol (e.g., Dantzer et al., 2006 ). Societies differ widely in how they view drinking alcohol and the extent to which they condone or prohibit it; thus, people living in a particular society will be overtly or subtly reinforced for drinking in the same manner as other people living in that society.

    Within each society, additional environmental factors—such as advertising alcohol and taxation on alcohol and the extent to which drinking alcohol is promoted in a particular situation (e.g., Hollingworth et al., 2006; Huckle et al., 2008; Paschall et al., 2014 )—also affect the value that people attribute to drinking alcohol.

    Other characteristics of individuals themselves (other than each person’s biochemical reactivity to alcohol) might affect the degree to which they value drinking. Notable among these is each person’s personality characteristics (e.g., see Vrieze et al., 2014 ) and the degree to which they are feeling stressed because of frustrations in other areas of their lives ( Demirbas et al., 2012 ).

    As in the case of all goal pursuits, a person will form a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance when both (a) the value that the person attributes to using the substance (the expected desirable affective change) is high and (b) the person’s expected chances of being able to actually achieve the desired change in affect is high.

    When the goal is formed, the person is in a distinctive motivational state—called a current concern ( Cox et al., 2015; Klinger and Cox, 2011 ). This state lasts from the moment that the commitment to the goal pursuit is first made until either the goal is reached or the pursuit of the goal is relinquished.

    1. During this period, the goal striving is reflected in the person cognitive processes (e.g., his or her thoughts, memories, attention, and even dreams).
    2. The construct current concern is presumed to refer to latent goal-related brain processes, and recent neuroscientific research has identified clues about how these processes are represented in the brain ( Berkman and Lieberman, 2009; Klinger and Cox, 2011; Kouneiher et al., 2009 ).

    For example, expected satisfaction from goal attainments are mainly processed in amygdala and with interactions with orbital prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex; the interactions among these structures help to determine anticipated goal outcomes, cue reactivity, and response selections ( Baxter et al., 2000; Murray, 2007 ).

    Later in the chapter, we discuss how anterior cingulate cortex plays an important role in determining attentional bias for addiction-related cues. In any case when a person has a goal of drinking alcohol, the person selectively attends to stimuli in the environment that are related to procuring and imbibing alcohol.

    This process facilitates the goal striving by increasing the person’s motivation to drink and his or her actual consumption of alcohol. Extensive research has been conducted on alcohol and other substance-related attentional bias (e.g., Cox et al., 2006 ) and other kinds of cognitive biases (e.g., automatic action tendencies; Wiers et al., 2011 ) related to people’s goal of drinking alcohol.

    In the following sections, we (a) briefly review this research, (b) describe how dual process models help to account for decisions about whether or not to use an addictive substance, (c) discuss how various brain loci are involved in attentional bias and other kinds of cue reactivity, and (d) suggest how findings from neurocognitive research can be applied to cognitive training and future research.

    Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079612315001405
    View complete answer

    Is selective attention a skill?

    3. Role of selective attention on domains important to academic performance – The above discussion has highlighted the impact of selective attention on multiple stages of neural processing and demonstrated that this mechanism of attention is essentially available to very young children.
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    What are the 4 factors of selective attention?

    Have you ever failed to remember an actor’s face? or only remember part of visual identities, such as hair, clothes color, etc when someone asks you? This is because our visual attention is limited. We see very little at any given instant. We get what we need when we need it. – Visual attention. O ur brain is constantly aware of everything that happens because it is arranged for eye movements to occur and the particularly relevant information to selective pay attention. Understanding that we only sample the visual world on a kind of need-to-know basis allows us to think about visual design issues from a new perspective and allocating our working memory resources to briefly retain in focal attention.

    • Visual thinking consists of a series of acts of attention, driving our eye movements, and tunning our pattern-finding circuits, always refer as a visual query.
    • Selective attention is the process of reacting to certain stimuli when many stimuli are present.
    • The reason I mention selective attention is to achieve the perception, but we also need to know that selective attention does not guarantee perception because we cannot perceive something we don’t attend to.

    When our attention is drifted to an object, the perception process proceeds by three concurrent process:(Colin Ware, 2008, more details please find in this book ) Bottom-up analysis process, which is driven by salience and physical make up of the stimulus. A reading example of bottom-up and top-down process. Source by ucalgary. Top-down processing, which is based on users’ knowledge and context, depends on expectancies stored from experience in long-term memory. It is driven by the need to accomplish some goals.

    For example, It might be a cognitive goal, such as understanding an idea expressed in a diagram. Utilization, which is the combination of physical stimulus and experience. When there is information present in a clear and visual way, it may stimuli the ability of familiarity to degraded bottom-up processing, reflect in our brain to pulling out long-term memory drives top-down processing.

    You can think of the top-down process as the ability to correctly guess what stimuli or an event are. Our visual search appears to be guided much more by the top-down process than by the bottom-up process. There are 4 factors that influence selective attention include salience, efforts, expectancy, and value.

    Salience influence the attentional capture. Usually, salience contributes to the bottom-up process. Efforts refer to how difficult we need to find the stimulus we’re looking for. Value refers to the factors of stimulus we need to receive the attention.When expectancy and value together, it always drives the top-down process, which is knowledge-driven factors in allocating attention.

    As a designer, we need to understand that our visual perception is biased. it is always based on our past experience, the current context, which is the present, and our goal, which is the future. We need to understand the biased factors to take advantage of them into the design. (Johnson, 2014| more details please reference this book,)

    Perception biased by experience. Our past perceptions—can bias our current perception in several different ways. If we prime to see the world one way, we may miss important information. Biased by familiar perceptual patterns or frames. This is also be called frames, include the objects or events that are usually encountered in a situation. For example, since the perceptual frames users of computer software and websites have, they often click buttons or links without looking carefully at them. Our perception of the interface display leads us to expect than on what is actually on the screen. Habituation. This happens when we repeatedly exposed to the same perceptions. For example, we experience habituation in computer usage when the same error messages or “Cancel reservation” (image 1–1) confirmation messages appear again and again. People initially notice them and perhaps respond, but eventually, click them closed reflexively without bothering to read them.

    Image 1–1. Confirmation message

    Attentional blink. When people use computer-based systems and online services, attentional blink can cause them to miss information or events if things appear in rapid succession. Perception biased by the current context. Our visual perception — reading in particular — is not strictly a bottom-up process. It includes top-down influences too. For example, the word in which a character appears may affect how we identify the character. In image 1–2, the same character is perceived as H or A depending on the surrounding letters.

    Image1–1. Sources by Johnson, Jeff. Designing with the Mind in Mind.

    Perception is also biased by goals, Our goal will guide our perceptual apparatus and filter our perceptions. Things that are unrelated to our goals tend to be filtered out preconsciously, never registering in our conscious minds. For example, when people navigate through software or a website. They scan screens quickly and superficially for items that seem related to their goal. For those unrelated items unrelated, they often don’t even notice them.

    Avoid ambiguity. Avoid ambiguous information displays, and test your design to verify that all users interpret the display in the same way. This can refer to usability testing. Be consistent. Place information and controls in consistent locations. For example, controls and data displays that serve the same function on different pages should be placed in the same position on each page on which they appear. This can apply to same color, text fonts, shading, and so on. This consistency allows users to spot and recognize them quickly. For example, the primary button is consistent with the orange and rectangle shape in every page (the image 1–3).

    Image 1–3. Sources by http://www.mobile-patterns.com/ Retrieved from @ Anton Nikolov Design principle: Consistency

    Understand the goals. users come to a system with goals they want to achieve. Designers should understand those goals. Ensure that at every point in an interaction, the information users need is available, prominent, and maps clearly to a possible user goal, so users will notice and use the information.

    Visual search refers to an active scan of the visual environment for a particular object or feature among some other objects or features. It usually contains two types:

    Parallel visual search. It refers to evaluate all stimuli at once to determine where the target is. This search drives well when an item is identified in parallel. For example, can you find there is a green square in image 1–4?Since the green square targets pop out on the screen. The parallel visual search happens.

    Image 1–4. The green square targets pop out on the screen. The parallel visual search happens.

    Serial visual search, It refers to evaluate each stimuli individually to determine if it is a target or not. Can you find the red circle in the image 1–5? Since the non-targets are noisy on the screen. The contrast with target isn’t enough, so we are required to look through each stimuli individually until we find what we’re search for.

    Image 1–5. The non-targets are noisy on the screen. It requires our visually search our target one by one. People tend to search from top to bottom, and from left to right, but if information is not structured (like a map), search is more random. Detection probability and web browsing. F-shape heat map Understanding the eye movements is the key part of the skill of visual design. Visual details can only be seen via fovea, at the very center of the retina. the region of the fovea (This article introduced it), however, is only about the size of our thumbnail held at arm’s length. Perception Process. Sources by Colin Ware. Visual Thinking for Design Usually, there’s two-wave that occur when our eyes alight on a point of interest. The information-driven wave passes information first to the back of the brain along the optic nerve. An attention-driven wave originates in the attention control centers of the forebrain and sweeps back, then sweeps forward to the forebrain, enhancing the most relevant information and suppressing the less relevant information.

    Pursuit eye movements, This type of eye movement is always used when we’re tracking a moving object. For example, our eyes are easy to attract by moving objects, such as the image 1–6, the moving ball. As you track the moving ball, our eyes do it continuously and smoothly as it across the screen.

    Image 1–6. A bouncing and moving red ball

    Saccadic eye movement, This is referred to as the ability to look at things is a familiar part of the process of seeing. The saccades direct our fovea onto an object or region of interest. A famous example is at image 1–7, The figure on the right shows a scan path of saccades and fixation made when people viewing the woman on the left. (credit to @ scholarpedia.com )

    Image 1–7. The figure on the right shows a scan path of saccades and fixation made when people viewing the woman on the left. creadit to scholarpedia.com As a designer, if you can design the pages with the expected elements as many as possible, the easier people can use the top-down processing to get attention. The UX Collective donates US$1 for each article published in our platform. This story contributed to Bay Area Black Designers : a professional development community for Black people who are digital designers and researchers in the San Francisco Bay Area.
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    Does selective attention improve memory?

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS –

    The nature of working memory (WM) capacity is often debated. We examine the role of selective attention in WM capacity across development. We report that selective attention plays a critical role in developmental and individual differences in visual working memory capacity. These results support the hypothesis that efficient use of existing resources may contribute to the development of WM capacity.

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    Is attention part of intelligence?

    Numerous studies have indicated that attention is related to intelligence (Schweizer, Moosbrugger, & Goldhammer, 2005). According to these findings, we can infer that the attentional abilities of intellectually gifted are better than those of children of average intelligence.
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    Are ADHD people focused?

    The name attention deficit disorder can give the impression that if you have ADHD you can’t focus or pay attention to anything. However, this is misleading because ADHD is actually a problem of regulating attention rather than a lack of attention. Children and adults with ADHD find it very hard to focus on boring mundane tasks, yet can focus exceptionally well on activities that interest them.

    1. In fact, when they are engaged in a task that is interesting to them, they focus so well that it is called hyperfocus.
    2. The ability to hyperfocus can be frustrating to parents, teachers or spouses, and results in comments like, “They can focus when they want to.” However, the ability to focus is more complex than just wanting to.

    Lots of people with ADHD want to focus, perhaps on a lecture or what their partner is saying, yet they can only hyperfocus on an activity when there is the right balance of personal interest, stimulation, and reward.
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    Is ADHD from lack of attention?

    ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active.
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    During which of the following activities might you used selective attention?

    Sensation and Perception – AP Psychology 12 Lucia is sunbathing on a bright day. She notices that, while her eyes are closed, the light behind her eyelids appears as red spots, but when she opens her eyes, the scenery takes on a bluish hue until she adjusts to the light.

    1. Her experience is best explained by which of the following theories of perception? Possible Answers: Correct answer: Opponent-process Explanation : The opponent-process theory of color vision posits that colors are processed in pairs of chromatic opposites.
    2. This theory explains why the suffusion of reddish hues from the direct sunlight though Lucia’s eyelids left an afterimage of bluish color in their absence.

    The trichromatic theory of color vision attributes the discernment of color to specializations of the eye’s cones and does not account for negative afterimages. Gestalt theory concerns the perception of parts and wholes. Inattentional blindness is not a theory, but a phenomenon in which objects that are plainly available in an individual’s perceptual field nonetheless go unnoticed due to a lack of attention paid to them.

    Which of the following is an example of synesthesia? Possible Answers: George still feels pain in his left arm below the elbow, even though his left arm was amputated three years ago. Taylor once ate pineapple pizza and got very sick to his stomach afterwards. He later learned that he had gotten the stomach flu and so his sickness had nothing to do with the pizza, but he still hates pineapple pizza.

    When solving math problems, Angela gets a certain taste in her mouth whenever she sees a certain digit– for example, she tastes the number 9 as sour. Ashley was in a car accident that resulted in severe head trauma, and now she cannot remember any events that occurred leading up to the accident or six months prior to it.

    1. Correct answer: When solving math problems, Angela gets a certain taste in her mouth whenever she sees a certain digit– for example, she tastes the number 9 as sour.
    2. Explanation : The situation with Angela is the best example of synesthesia—a phenomenon, in which stimulation of one sensory pathway triggers a response by a different, unrelated sensory pathway.

    People with synesthesia might see a certain color whenever they taste a certain food. The important thing to note is that in synesthetic perception, the person experiences the synesthetic connection as being projected outside the body, not just in the mind’s eye (e.g.

    • Angela does not simply imagine the color red when she sees the letter A: she actually sees A as being colored red, even if it is printed in plain black font).
    • The other situations described in the answer choices reflect other psychological phenomena.
    • Ashley is experiencing amnesia; George, phantom limb syndrome; and Taylor, taste aversion.

    A series of lights rapidly blinking off and on in succession creates the illusion of motion. This effect, which is often used in animation pictures, is referred to as which of the following? Possible Answers: Correct answer: Phi phenomenon Explanation : The Gestalt laws of perception are a set of principles that govern the way humans tend to perceive visual stimuli as a collective whole, rather than discrete individual objects or events.

    • Different names are given to the specific applications of this overarching principle.
    • For example, the phi phenomenon refers to the tendency to perceive a series of lights blinking on and off down a line as a single light moving along, instead of a number of lights turning on and off for no apparent reason.

    The law of prägnanz (not the prägnanz effect that was listed as an answer choice) is the Gestalt law that suggests that people perceive visual stimuli in terms of the simplest explanation or form possible. Opponent-process theory is a concept of visual perception that explains why some colors seem to be incompatible (e.g.

    We might see a yellowish green, but we cannot really imagine a reddish green). Thresholds are defined as the limits of one’s perceptions. There are different types of thresholds for perceiving stimuli. Which of the following is the absolute threshold? Possible Answers: The amount of stimulus that’s necessary to determine if a stimulus has been kept the same The average amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present The amount of stimulus that’s necessary to determine if a stimulus has been changed The least amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present The most amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present Correct answer: The least amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present Explanation : The answer is “the least amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present.” The average amount of information that’s necessary to understand a stimulus is actually present holds no relevance in psychological terms, while the amount of stimulus that’s necessary to determine if a stimulus has been changed is called the difference threshold,

    The other answers hold no actual meaning in psychological terms, such as the max amount of stimulus, or the difference in stimulus to determine if the stimulus has been kept the same. Which of the following are defined as symptoms that involve the perception of nonexistent sensory stimulation? Possible Answers: Correct answer: Hallucinations Explanation : Mania and anxiety are most closely associate with behavior and not sensory perception.

    1. The main difference between delusions and hallucinations are that delusions are false beliefs.
    2. Conversely, “hallucinations” are false perceptions from a stimulus that does not exists.
    3. These perceptions are generated by the mind and occur during consciousness.
    4. The _ is the lowest level of a stimulation that an organism can detect.

    Possible Answers: minimal activity stimulus all-or-nothing phenomenon Correct answer: absolute threshold Explanation : Absolute threshold is the lowest level of stimulation that an organism can detect. For example, the quietest sound that a human can hear is their absolute threshold for hearing.

    • Which type of processing makes us vulnerable to optical illusions? Possible Answers: Explanation : Top-down processing involves the impact of prior knowledge on sensation and perception.
    • Many optical illusions are successful by capitalizing on our prior knowledge to influence our perception of an image.

    During which of the following activities might you use selective attention? Possible Answers: Driving on a busy freeway during rush hour Attending a concert at a sold out show Having a convorsation with a friend at a loud party All of these activities would employ selective attention Correct answer: All of these activities would employ selective attention Explanation : Selective attention allows one to focus on certain specific sensory information, while ignoring other sensory input.

    1. All of the given examples would require selective attention, and in fact, almost every situation you could imagine would require some level of selective attention.
    2. For example, when reading a book, even if you are in a quiet room, you require selective attention to focus on the pages and words while ignoring any sort of background noise or action in your periphery.

    The cocktail party effect focuses on which type of perception? Possible Answers: Explanation : The cocktail party effect explains one’s ability to focus one’s attention on one particular sound (an auditory stimulus) while simultaneously filtering out others.

    The name for this effect comes from the ability of a person at a party to focus his attention onto a particular conversation, while drowning out the other conversations happening at the party. Which of the following describes the ability to pay attention to one voice among many? Possible Answers: The cocktail party effect Correct answer: The cocktail party effect Explanation : The cocktail party effect describes a person’s ability to attend to just one voice among a group of voices-akin to a party guest’s ability to listen to just one person’s voice among the voices of many conversations.12 If you’ve found an issue with this question, please let us know.

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    What is an example of selective attention bias?

    1 Introduction – Attentional bias means that a person selectively attends to a certain category or certain categories of stimuli in the environment while tending to overlook, ignore, or disregard other kinds of stimuli. For example, one person might selectively attend to stimuli related to food (particularly food that is perceived to be particularly delicious). What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study Figure 1, Summary of the main topics that have been discussed in the present chapter. What do these different kinds of attentional bias mean, and how do they arise? Often—if not always—the attentional bias is motivationally relevant, i.e., it is related to the person’s goal-directed behavior.

    Formally, we define motivation as “the internal states of the organism that lead to the instigation, persistence, energy, and direction of behavior towards a goal” ( Klinger and Cox, 2011, p.4). How do such states come about, and how do they give rise to attentional bias? Motivation starts when a person is aware of incentives that he or she finds attractive.

    An incentive is defined as any object or event that could potentially change a person’s affect in a positive way, either by enhancing positive affect or by reducing negative affect. In addition to incentive, affect and affective change are, therefore, key motivational constructs.

    Affect —which can be either positive or negative—is the subjective component of an emotional response. Affective change is a change in affect from its present state; it is the essence of what people are motivated to achieve. People want to feel better than they currently do, either by increasing their positive affect (e.g., joy, happiness, or satisfaction) or by decreasing their negative affect (e.g., fear, boredom, or depression).

    Of the many positive incentives that could potentially enhance a person’s positive affect and the many negative incentives that could reduce the person’s negative affect if they were removed, each person might set a goal of acquiring only a subset of the positive incentives or a goal of getting rid of only a subset of the negative incentives.

    • In either case, a goal is formed from the moment that the person makes a commitment to either obtain or to get rid of an incentive.
    • Why are some incentives but not others transformed into goals? Motivational psychologists often rely on Value X Expectancy Theory ( Bundorf et al., 2013; Cox et al., 2015; Morone and Morone, 2014 ) to explain this outcome.

    According to this theory, two primary variables determine whether an incentive is transformed into a goal. They are (a) the value that the person attributes to the incentive (how valuable to the person the affective change that the incentive would produce would be) and (b) the person’s expected likelihood of actually being able to obtain the incentive if he or she puts forth the effort.

    Because the relationship between value and expectancy is multiplicative, if either of them is zero (or near zero), a goal to pursue the incentive will not be formed. For example, a person might imagine that becoming a millionaire would bring about a very positive affective change, but the person might not actually try to become a millionaire because the expected chances of being able to do so are virtually nil.

    People, of course, vary widely with regard to the value that they attribute to using addictive substances and their actual use of them. What are the factors that determine the value of using these substances? To answer this question, we will use alcohol consumption as an example; nevertheless, much of the discussion can be generalized to use of other kinds of addictive substances.

    One kind of variable that affects the value of drinking alcohol is each person’s own biochemical reaction to alcohol (e.g., Dickson et al., 2006 ). Pharmacologically, some people react positively to drinking alcohol, and they experience few negative consequences. Other people experience primarily unpleasant reactions, such as facial flushing and nausea.

    Sociocultural and environmental factors also affect the value of drinking alcohol (e.g., Dantzer et al., 2006 ). Societies differ widely in how they view drinking alcohol and the extent to which they condone or prohibit it; thus, people living in a particular society will be overtly or subtly reinforced for drinking in the same manner as other people living in that society.

    Within each society, additional environmental factors—such as advertising alcohol and taxation on alcohol and the extent to which drinking alcohol is promoted in a particular situation (e.g., Hollingworth et al., 2006; Huckle et al., 2008; Paschall et al., 2014 )—also affect the value that people attribute to drinking alcohol.

    Other characteristics of individuals themselves (other than each person’s biochemical reactivity to alcohol) might affect the degree to which they value drinking. Notable among these is each person’s personality characteristics (e.g., see Vrieze et al., 2014 ) and the degree to which they are feeling stressed because of frustrations in other areas of their lives ( Demirbas et al., 2012 ).

    As in the case of all goal pursuits, a person will form a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance when both (a) the value that the person attributes to using the substance (the expected desirable affective change) is high and (b) the person’s expected chances of being able to actually achieve the desired change in affect is high.

    When the goal is formed, the person is in a distinctive motivational state—called a current concern ( Cox et al., 2015; Klinger and Cox, 2011 ). This state lasts from the moment that the commitment to the goal pursuit is first made until either the goal is reached or the pursuit of the goal is relinquished.

    • During this period, the goal striving is reflected in the person cognitive processes (e.g., his or her thoughts, memories, attention, and even dreams).
    • The construct current concern is presumed to refer to latent goal-related brain processes, and recent neuroscientific research has identified clues about how these processes are represented in the brain ( Berkman and Lieberman, 2009; Klinger and Cox, 2011; Kouneiher et al., 2009 ).

    For example, expected satisfaction from goal attainments are mainly processed in amygdala and with interactions with orbital prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex; the interactions among these structures help to determine anticipated goal outcomes, cue reactivity, and response selections ( Baxter et al., 2000; Murray, 2007 ).

    Later in the chapter, we discuss how anterior cingulate cortex plays an important role in determining attentional bias for addiction-related cues. In any case when a person has a goal of drinking alcohol, the person selectively attends to stimuli in the environment that are related to procuring and imbibing alcohol.

    This process facilitates the goal striving by increasing the person’s motivation to drink and his or her actual consumption of alcohol. Extensive research has been conducted on alcohol and other substance-related attentional bias (e.g., Cox et al., 2006 ) and other kinds of cognitive biases (e.g., automatic action tendencies; Wiers et al., 2011 ) related to people’s goal of drinking alcohol.

    In the following sections, we (a) briefly review this research, (b) describe how dual process models help to account for decisions about whether or not to use an addictive substance, (c) discuss how various brain loci are involved in attentional bias and other kinds of cue reactivity, and (d) suggest how findings from neurocognitive research can be applied to cognitive training and future research.

    Read full chapter URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079612315001405
    View complete answer

    What is an example of selective attention PE?

    – Selective attention is where the performer focuses their concentration on what they are doing or about to do and ignores all other distractions. A sprinter uses selective attention on the blocks at the start of the race. Positive thinking is the performer being optimistic (about future performance), thinking and being confident about doing well and winning, shutting out negative thoughts and feeling well prepared.

    Improves motivation Improves confidence Improves performance Decreases anxiety
    This psyches the performer up, eg thinking about winning before a football match Eg a netball player not thinking about how good the opposition is but focusing on their own strengths before a match This allows a performer to play better, eg a tennis player concentrating on where to place the shot rather than thinking ‘don’t hit it in the net’ This increases confidence, eg remembering how much good training a runner has done to prepare for a cross country race

    Performers practise and use selective attention and positive thinking, especially when they are learning new skills or are in challenging situations during a performance.

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    What are the three types of selective attention?

    Discover 31 more articles on this topic The bottleneck doesn’t allow the fluid to enter into the body of the bottle all at once; rather, it lets the fluid to enter in certain amounts depending on the flow rate, until all of it has entered the bottle’s body. What Does Selective Attention Mean For How You Should Study
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