What Are The 3 Rs In Education?


What Are The 3 Rs In Education
How the “3 R’s” of Education Have Changed In a parent newsletter nearly two years ago, I wrote about the new “3 R’s of education,” and how they signified a shift in thinking from when I was a young student. In November 2019, I wrote: Like many of you, I presume, I grew up hearing and learning about the all important “3 R’s” of education—Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic.

I spent countless hours racing through computations (generally using a single learned strategy), reading books (Encyclopedia Brown and the Hardy Boys were personal favorites), and watching “Reading Rainbow” and attempting to have legible handwriting—an uphill battle that was a source of friction with my parents at home.

While some components of my early schooling have endured in modern schooling—particularly the focus on developing appreciation and love for literature—much has changed. Recently, I heard a description for a new “3 R’s,” which I think aptly describes three of the most important components of a balanced, well-developed curriculum.
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What do the 3Rs mean in teaching?

Experts have identified reasoning, resilience and responsibility as key problem solving skills that, when learned, can benefit student achievement and general life success strategies. The prevailing view among scientists is that teachers can teach these skills and students can learn them.
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What are the 3Rs?

The 3R Initiative The 3R Initiative aims to promote the “3Rs” (reduce, reuse and recycle) globally so as to build a sound-material-cycle society through the effective use of resources and materials. It was agreed upon at the G8 Sea Island Summit in June 2004 as a new G8 initiative.
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Why is it called the 3Rs?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the abbreviation for reading, writing and arithmetic. For other uses, see Three Rs, The three Rs (as in the letter R ) are three basic skills taught in schools: reading, writing and arithmetic (usually said as “reading, ‘riting, and ‘rithmetic”).
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What are the 3Rs of 21st century learning?

These skills are often referred to as the 3Rs – reading, writing and arithmetic.
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Why is the 3 R’s important for kids?

Teaching Our Children the 3 Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle LWV Hingham public service column on Educating Children on Protecting our Natual Resources. This column is being initiated and coordinated by the Hingham League of Women Voters, as a public service, to inform the local townspeople of a variety of issues and constructive actions that may be taken to address various environmental concerns.

The following article was contributed by Kate Boland and Elizabeth Fetsko. It is never too early to educate our children on the value of protecting our natural resources. We are able to decrease the burden on landfills, as well as, protect the environment by practicing the following: reducing waste and consumption; reusing old items and recycling appropriate materials.

Here are some simple ways to involve children in practicing the three R’s: reduce, reuse and recycle. Reduce the amount of water used in your home by keeping a pitcher of cold water in the refrigerator rather than having family members waste the water by running it until the water reaches a cool drinking temperature.

  • Another effective way to reduce the amount of water used in your home is to teach children to turn off the water while brushing their teeth.
  • More water is used in the bathroom than any other place in the home.
  • The average total home water use for each person in the U.S.
  • Is about 50 gallons a day.
  • So, trying a few water saving habits daily can really add up to a lot of water saved in a year.

Reduce the amount of garbage generated at home by buying beverage and food items in bulk. For example, juice may be purchased in large containers rather than juice boxes. Encourage children to use washable cups at home rather than juice boxes or single serving bottles.

Also help children refill re-useable containers for taking beverages on long trips or on outings to the park. Other types of drinks, including sports drinks, can be bought in powder form and mixed with water in reusable containers. Using washable cups and reusable bottles helps to reduce the amount of garbage that ends up in landfills.

Snack food items may also be bought in bulk form to reduce waste. For example, when buying cheese for snacks buy the cheese in block form rather than in slices wrapped individually with plastic. Other “single serving” snacks that can be bought in bulk form include: puddings, cookies and Jell-O.

Remind children that using less packaging helps to reduce the amount of garbage that goes into landfills. Reuse old toys and clothes by helping your children set aside those items which they have outgrown. The toys and clothing can then be donated to non-profit organizations. This way the items end up in local organizations rather than in local landfills.

Reuse the paper from old school assignments and school notices by cutting the paper into quarters and then using the blank backs for writing grocery lists or phone messages or for making bookmarks. Recycle ordinary household items by keeping an art box handy to add items such as popsicle sticks, plastic bag wire twists, foam trays, bottle tops, plastic bottles and a myriad of other household items.

Your child can then use these items for future “inventions”. Recycle “food” waste and yard waste by teaching your children about composting. Build a composting box together. Add to the fun by having your youngster dig for worms to turn into the soil. These are just a few simple ways to involve children in earth-friendly practices.

There are many more creative ways to involve children in practicing the three “R”s (reduce, reuse, recycle). Discovering new ways to reduce, reuse and recycle can be a fun learning experience for the whole family. Remember that it is important to recycle, however, it is slowing consumption that really makes a difference.
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What is the 3R approach in early childhood education?

Research shows three important processes shape young children’s development and early learning. We refer to these processes as the 3R’s of Early Learning: Relationships, Repetition, Routines ™. These processes are important because they focus on how children learn in addition to what they learn.
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What are examples of reuse?

Reuse: What Can We Do? – The following are some examples of reuse.

Containers can be reused at home or for school projects. Reuse wrapping paper, plastic bags, boxes, and lumber. Give outgrown clothing to friends or charity. Buy beverages in returnable containers. Donate broken appliances to charity or a local vocational school, which can use them for art classes or for students to practice repairing. Offer furniture and household items that are no longer needed to people in need, friends, or charity. Sheets of paper that have been used on only one side can be used for note-taking or rough drafts. Old, outdated furniture can be reupholstered or slipcovered. Have padding added to the furniture to give it a new look. Often the frame can be modified slightly to change the way it looks. Old towels and sheets can be cut in small pieces and used for dust cloths. Books and magazines can be donated to schools, public libraries, or nursing homes. Newspapers can be donated to pet stores. Packing materials, such as polystyrene, plastic quilting, and similar materials, can be saved and reused again for packing. Carry a reusable tote bag or take bags to the store when you go shopping. There are attractive nylon mesh bags available that can be stored easily in the glove compartment of your car. Durable canvas bags, which take very little space to tuck away when not in use, can also be used. If you buy prepared microwaveable dinners, save the plates for outdoor parties or for children. Old tires can be used in the garden and in the play yard.

Some of the strategies are very closely related in these “Three Rs” categories. For instance, we need to reduce the use of plastic bags for grocery shopping, but we can use tote bags instead and reuse them while making sure that they are clean.
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Which of the 3 R’s is more important?

Reducing is the most effective of the three R’s. The second most effective strategy for environmental stewardship is to reuse.
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How can we apply 3Rs in our daily lives?

Try to buy products made from recycled materials. Cancel delivery of unwanted newspapers (donate old magazines to waiting rooms). Take a packed lunch to work or school in a reusable plastic container. Try to buy products made from recycled materials.
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Who implemented the 3Rs?

Simple Summary – The 3Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, formulated by William Russell and Rex Burch, have become synonymous with the measures to improve the welfare of animals used in research and are now used as an ethical framework for improving laboratory animal welfare throughout the world.
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What are the 3Rs and 4Cs?

3 ‘R’s to 4 ‘C’s – Arpita Chakraborty April 23, 2019 April 23, 2019 What Are The 3 Rs In Education New skills to suit the changing times is the order of the day, Learning is delivered in the classrooms in a totally different manner than what it used to be. The 3 ‘R’s – reading, writing and arithmetic, which formed the core areas of content delivery in regular classroom teaching –have been revamped to sound as the 4 ‘C’s – critical thinking and problem solving, communication, creativity & innovation and collaboration.

  • They form the new age set of skills students need to be ready with to survive in the global economy and create a meaningful niche for themselves in the 21st century.
  • Educationists have realised that the 3 ‘R’s and the 4 ‘C’s do not formulate the limits to decide what is to be taught and how it is to be taught.

They simply outline a broad spectrum of 21st century skills, that when imbibed by students allow them to function, learn and adapt to the changing world throughout their lives. Today, undoubtedly, we live in a world dominated by technology. Our entire sphere of influence, our interactions, our careers and every minute aspect of our daily lives are mediated by computers, smart phones and tablets.

  1. The answer to all problems and situations is practically a few keystrokes and a fraction of seconds away from you.
  2. It reminds us of the revolution that was brought by the advent of the print media and how it changed the way we perceived information.
  3. Something similar is happening currently if we analyze how the integration of technology has changed the way we look at learning and classroom teaching.

The use of devices in classrooms to aid and supplement teaching-learning transactions is not just about the use of fancy gadgets and expensive technology to set up a ‘smart classroom’, rather it is the use of technology in a manner that enhances the learning experience for the students, equipping them with future-ready skills and enables them to create, collaborate, communicate and critically analyze the world around them.

When technology is used in classroom-teaching, it encourages students to work on group projects, providing them with opportunities and interfaces to communicate effectively and share their learning and skills in a way that prepares them for future situations where teamwork and collaboration would be needed to work through conflicts and find the best solutions.

To be able to succeed in their chosen areas of work, students need to think on their feet and provide effective solutions to complete a given task. Providing them with an atmosphere of digital learning where they share tools, resources and information gradually builds in them the habit of working together through an assignment creatively and effectively.

  • A student while handling a device in school understands and agrees to follow the idea that a certain code of conduct is expected of him regarding the responsible use and handling of the device and information accessed therein.
  • This instils ownership and a sense of responsibility in him.
  • As they get engaged in the process of learning and continuous pursuit of information, they gradually develop a habit of exploratory learning which goes a long way in infusing in them confidence and the willingness to continue learning in their professional and personal lives.

This helps build a strong foundation to success in all spheres of life. A student while handling a device in school understands and agrees to follow the idea that a certain code of conduct is expected of him regarding the responsible use and handling of the device and information accessed therein A teacher, thus, started out from being a “teacher” to a “facilitator” in the process of learning in a classroom and has now evolved to assume the role of being a “coach” imparting skills to students enabling them to become expert life-long learners.

  • We now aim to instil among our students curiosity (instrumental to lifelong learning), effective communication and teamwork skills and empower them with the values of freedom and responsibility so that they are ready to take charge of their own learning as a continuous journey.
  • Our schools, rather than becoming institutes for preparing students for the next level of learning, have now assumed the role of educating technologically equipped students for lifelong learning and personal fulfilment.

Share 0 : 3 ‘R’s to 4 ‘C’s – Arpita Chakraborty
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When was the 3Rs invented?

The PREPARE guidelines for planning animal research and testing contain links to many resources which can be used to improve applications for animal experiments and implement the 3Rs. William Russell and Rex Burch developed the concept of the 3Rs during the 1950s, and described them in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique (1959):

  • Replacement
  • Reduction
  • Refinement

Download a slide deck about the 3Rs (pdf), If you would like the Powerpoint version to use in your teaching, please email Adrian Smith, N.B. this slide deck may be updated from time to time. Latest version: 18.11.22, 09:00 CET. Spanish version (thanks to Rafael Hernández González for the translation): Russell and Burch’s definitions were: Replacement means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material (Partial Replacement if animals are still used, and Total Replacement if animals are not used). Reduction means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount or precision.

Refinement means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. Their definition of Replacement, in particular, is very different to that held by many people today, who consider replacement to be solely the use of non-animal material.

For example, according to Russell and Burch’s definition, an acute experiment (also known as non-recovery, i.e. an experiment performed on a totally anaesthetised animal which is killed under the anaesthetic at the end of the experiment) is a Partial Replacement method, not Refinement.

Many definitions of the 3Rs have been developed since Russell and Burch first described them (see below), and some differ significantly from the original definitions ( Tannenbaum & Bennett, 2015 ). Those working under the EU Directive 2010/63/EU should read carefully the descriptions of the 3Rs on the Commission’s own website, and especially their definitions of Refinement and Replacement.

The Commission does not divide Replacement into Partial and Complete – partial replacement as defined by Russell & Burch is Refinement according to the Commission. The UK organisation NC3Rs has re-defined Russell and Burch’s definitions so that they are more reflective of contemporary scientific practice and developments.

They have also created a self-assessment tool and an introductory video for training purposes, and have written a blog to explain their rationale behind the need to take a fresh look at the concept. Currently, the 3Rs are often understood as: Replacement alternatives : methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting procedures on animals Reduction alternatives : methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals Refinement alternatives : methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being The 3Rs were primarily formulated to improve the humanity of animal experiments (i.e.

to improve animal welfare), although application of Refinement will often also improve an experiment’s validity. The Three Vs have been proposed specifically to improve the validity of animal experiments. The Three Ss have been proposed to ensure that commonsense and critical anthropomorphism are also applied.

  • Further thoughts about the 3Rs In their book ( chapter 7 on Refinement ), Russell and Burch emphasised the order in which the 3Rs should be addressed: ‘Suppose, for a particular purpose, we cannot use replacing techniques.
  • Suppose it is agreed that we shall be using every device of theory and practice to reduce to a minimum the number of animals we have to employ.

It is at this point that refinement starts, and its object is simply to reduce to an absolute minimum the amount of distress imposed on those animals that are still used.’ Since the days of Russell and Burch, many new techniques have been developed which are not directly replacements for existing animal models, but which prevent animal use.

These are referred to as New Approach Methodologies or Non Animal Methods (NAMs) and include cell cultures, computer simulations and organs-on-a-chip. This creates the need for scientists to adopt a new mindset: is it necessary to model the entire organism at once? In many cases it may be more than adequate to model just one body, tissue or cell system, using a NAM.

If none of these meet the research objectives and the scientists is considering using an animal model, a search for animal replacements is then the next step. There are now many 3R Centres in existence, working with both replacement, reduction and refinement methods.

  • Norecopa maintains an interactive map of European 3R Centres,
  • Development of the 3R concept According to Russell and Burch, the ultimate aim of the 3Rs was to abolish inhumanity (or distress), and thereby achieve humanity, which explains the title of their book.
  • They distinguished between direct and contingent inhumanity.
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Direct inhumanity is ‘the infliction of distress as an unavoidable consequence of the procedure employed, as such, even if it is conducted with perfect efficiency and completely freed of operations irrelevant to the object in view’. Contingent inhumanity (usually referred to today as contingent suffering ) is ‘the infliction of distress as an incidental and inadvertent by-product of the use of the procedure, which is not necessary for its success’.

Examples of contingent inhumanity are poor housing and handling. Russell & Burch wrote: The greatest scientific achievements have always been the most humane and the most aesthetically attractive, conveying that sense of beauty and elegance which is the essence of science at its most successful. CCAC Training Module on the Three Rs Development of interest in the 3Rs The evolution of the Three Rs tenet has been described in detail (Balls, 1996, 2007, 2009; 2014; Balls et al,, 1995; Russell, 2005, Hubrecht & Carter, 2019).

The concept was developed as part of a project initiated by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) in 1954, consisting of interviews with researchers about animal research, with the aim of improving upon the routines of the day. The word “alternatives” was deliberately not used in the invitation, to avoid the risk of researchers declining to participate, which instead described ‘a review of progress in the development of humane techniques “.

  1. The Three Rs” evolved some time between 1955 og 1957, although it cannot be determined precisely (Russell, 2005).
  2. The project resulted in publication of Russell and Burch’s book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique in 1959 (Russell & Burch, 1959),
  3. Little happened after this until the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) was established 10 years later, which despite its name was founded to promote all three Rs.

The 3Rs were collectively described as “alternatives” by D.H. Smyth in his book Alternatives to Animal Experiments (Smyth, 1978), at which time it was felt that methods to replace animals were still in their infancy. The first major effort to bring focus to bear on 3R alternatives after this was a world congress on animal use and alternatives which was arranged in Baltimore in November 1993, at which William Russell spoke (Russell, 1995).

This became the first of a series of world congresses which are now arranged every 3 years. After 1959, Russell and Burch did not meet again at a scientific event until 1995, when a workshop was arranged at Sheringham, where 58 proposals to strengthen alternatives to animal experiments were made (Balls et al.

, 1995). The November 2005 issue of Animal Welfare was dedicated to the three R’s and included: The use of databases, information centres and guidelines when planning research that may involve animals. Smith AJ & Allen T (2005): Animal Welfare 14:347-359 Recording of a lecture on 22 November 2019 by Professor Michael Balls entitled On the Replacement of Animal Testing: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow which gives a detailed history of the development of the 3R tenet.

  1. Russell WMR & Burch RL (1959): The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Wheathampstead: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
  2. National Research Council – National Academy of Sciences (1977): The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  3. Newton CM (1977): Biostatistical and biomedical methods in efficient animal experimentation. In: The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing 267-281, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  4. Rowsell HC (1977): The Ethics of Biomedical Experimentation. In: The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing 267-281, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  5. Smyth DH (1978): Alternatives to Animal Experiments,218 pages, Scolar Press, ISBN 0-85967-396-0
  6. Russell, W.M.S. (1995), The W.M.S. Russell speech at the award luncheon. The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research, Testing. New York: Mary Ann Liebert Publishing, 71-80
  7. Balls, M., Goldberg, A.M., Fentem, J.H., Broadhead, C.L., Burch, R.L., Festing, M.F.W., Frazier, J.M., Hendriksen, C.F.M., Jennings, M., van der Kamp, M.D.O., Morton, D.B., Rowan, A.N., Russell, C., Russell, W.M.S., Spielmann, H., Stephens, M.L., Stokes, W.S., Straughan,,W., Yager, J.D., Zurlo, J. & van Zutphen, B.F.M. (1995) The Three Rs: the way forward: the report and recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 11, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 23: 838–66.
  8. Russell, W.M.S. (2005): The Three Rs: past, present and future. Animal Welfare, 14(4): 279-286
  9. Balls, M. (2007) Professor W.M.S. Russell (1925-2006): Doyen of the Three Rs. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation, 14 (Special Issue), 1-7.
  10. Balls, M. (2009) The origins and early days of the Three Rs concept. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 37(3): 255-65.
  11. Balls, M. (2014) Rex Leonard Burch: Humane Scientist and Gentle Man. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 42(5): 57-9.
  12. Tannenbaum J & Bennett BT (2015): Russell and Burch’s 3RS Then and Now: The Need for Clarity in Definition and Purpose, JAALAS, 54(2): 120-132
  13. Sneddon LU, Halsey LG & Bury NC (2017): Considering aspects of the 3Rs principles within experimental animal biology.J.Exp.Biol,220, 3007-3016
  14. Jean-Quartier C, Jeanquartier F, Jurisica I & Holzinger A (2018): In silico cancer research towards 3R, BMC Cancer 18:408
  15. Rehberger K, Kropf C & Segner H (2018): In vitro or not in vitro: a short journey through a long history (of ecotoxicology). Environmental Sciences Europe, 30:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-018-0151-3
  16. Hubrecht RC & Carter E (2019): The 3Rs and Humane Experimental Technique: Implementing Change, Animals 9(10), 754.
  17. Lewis DI (2019): Animal experimentation: implementation and application of the 3Rs. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences 3 (6): 675–679.
  18. Wikipedia entries about The Three Rs and Bill Russell

The Declaration of Bologna In 1999, 40 years after the publication of Russell & Burch’s book, the participants at the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences endorsed the principle of the Three Rs in the form of the Declaration of Bologna (published with permission from the journal ATLA, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals ): More resources about the 3Rs

  • Advice from the NC3Rs on training about the 3Rs
  • Advice from the NC3Rs for project licence applicants on Replacement, Reduction and Refinement
  • Responsible Animal Research: A Riff of Rs (Rowan & Goldberg, 1995)
  • Reproducibility – Is it a Fourth R? (viewpoint from the Canadian Council on Animal Care )
  • Reduce, refine, replace – responsibility (viewpoint of the Max Planck Society )
  • An institutional framework for the 3Rs
  • An issue of the journal Animals marking the 60th Anniversary of the 3Rs contained the following papers:
    • Smith AJ & Lilley E (2019): The Role of the Three Rs in Improving the Planning and Reproducibility of Animal Experiments
    • Hubrecht RC & Carter E (2019): The 3Rs and Humane Experimental Technique: Implementing Change
    • Message R & Greenhough B (2019): But It’s Just a Fish: Understanding the Challenges of Applying the 3Rs in Laboratory Aquariums in the UK
    • Zidar J et al. (2019) Group and Single Housing of Male Mice: Collected Experiences from Research Facilities in Sweden
    • Flammer SA et al. (2019): Alternatives to Carbon Dioxide—Taking Responsibility for Humanely Ending the Life of Animals
    • Ritskes-Hoitinga M & van Luijk J (2019): How Can Systematic Reviews Teach Us More about the Implementation of the 3Rs and Animal Welfare?
    • Jirkof P et al. (2019): Assessing Affective State in Laboratory Rodents to Promote Animal Welfare—What Is the Progress in Applied Refinement Research?
    • Mazhary H & Hawkins P (2019): Applying the 3Rs: A Case Study on Evidence and Perceptions Relating to Rat Cage Height in the UK
    • Hawkins P & Bertelsen T (2019): 3Rs-Related and Objective Indicators to Help Assess the Culture of Care
    • Steiner AR et al. (2019): Humanely Ending the Life of Animals: Research Priorities to Identify Alternatives to Carbon Dioxide
  • Strech & Dirnagel (2019): 3Rs missing: animal research without scientific value is unethical
  • The ‘R’ of Replacement: Implementing alternatives to replace the use of animals in research and testing (RSPCA presentation)
  • Focus on the 3Rs (newsletters from the Swedish 3R Center on each of the three Rs)
  • The EU Commission’s webpage on the 3Rs
  • Animal welfare and scientific quality depend on the 3Rs
  • Törnqvist E, Annas A, Granath B, Jalkesten E, Cotgreave I & Öberg M (2014): Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing, PLoS ONE 9(7): e101638. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101638
  • The Danish 3R survey: knowledge, attitudes and experiences with the 3Rs among researchers involved in animal experiments in Denmark
  • The 3Rs: What are Medical Scientists Doing about Animal Testing?
  • What is understood by “animal-free research”?
  • Beyond the 3RS: Expanding the use of human-relevant replacement methods in biomedical research (Herrmann et al,, 2019)
  • List of 3Rs funding opportunities, compiled by the North American 3Rs Collaborative

Dissemination of resources on how to implement the 3Rs should be one of the pillars of all scientist’s work: This page was updated on 20 April 2023
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What are 4Cs?

What are learning skills? From Thoughtful Learning The 21st century learning skills are often called the 4 C’s: critical thinking, creative thinking, communicating, and collaborating. These skills help students learn, and so they are vital to success in school and beyond.

  1. See videos of each main area below at the website – https://k12.thoughtfullearning.com/FAQ/what-are-learning-skills Critical Thinking Critical thinking is focused, careful analysis of something to better understand it.
  2. When people speak of “left brain” activity, they are usually referring to critical thinking.

Here are some of the main critical-thinking abilities: * Analyzing is breaking something down into its parts, examining each part, and noting how the parts fit together. * Arguing is using a series of statements connected logically together, backed by evidence, to reach a conclusion.

  • Classifying is identifying the types or groups of something, showing how each category is distinct from the others.
  • Comparing and contrasting is pointing out the similarities and differences between two or more subjects.
  • Defining is explaining the meaning of a term using denotation, connotation, example, etymology, synonyms, and antonyms.

* Describing is explaining the traits of something, such as size, shape, weight, color, use, origin, value, condition, location, and so on. * Evaluating is deciding on the worth of something by comparing it against an accepted standard of value. * Explaining is telling what something is or how it works so that others can understand it.

  1. Problem solving is analyzing the causes and effects of a problem and finding a way to stop the causes or the effects.
  2. Tracking cause and effect is determining why something is happening and what results from it.
  3. Creative Thinking Creative thinking is expansive, open-ended invention and discovery of possibilities.

When people speak of “right brain” activity, they most often mean creative thinking. Here are some of the more common creative thinking abilities: * Brainstorming ideas involves asking a question and rapidly listing all answers, even those that are far-fetched, impractical, or impossible.

* Creating something requires forming it by combining materials, perhaps according to a plan or perhaps based on the impulse of the moment. * Designing something means finding the conjunction between form and function and shaping materials for a specific purpose. * Entertaining others involves telling stories, making jokes, singing songs, playing games, acting out parts, and making conversation.

* Imagining ideas involves reaching into the unknown and impossible, perhaps idly or with great focus, as Einstein did with his thought experiments. * Improvising a solution involves using something in a novel way to solve a problem. * Innovating is creating something that hasn’t existed before, whether an object, a procedure, or an idea.

* Overturning something means flipping it to get a new perspective, perhaps by redefining givens, reversing cause and effect, or looking at something in a brand new way. * Problem solving requires using many of the creative abilities listed here to figure out possible solutions and putting one or more of them into action.

* Questioning actively reaches into what is unknown to make it known, seeking information or a new way to do something. Communicating * Analyzing the situation means thinking about the subject, purpose, sender, receiver, medium, and context of a message.

  1. Choosing a medium involves deciding the most appropriate way to deliver a message, ranging from a face-to-face chat to a 400-page report.
  2. Evaluating messages means deciding whether they are correct, complete, reliable, authoritative, and up-to-date.
  3. Following conventions means communicating using the expected norms for the medium chosen.

* Listening actively requires carefully paying attention, taking notes, asking questions, and otherwise engaging in the ideas being communicated. * Reading is decoding written words and images in order to understand what their originator is trying to communicate.

Speaking involves using spoken words, tone of voice, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids in order to convey ideas. * Turn taking means effectively switching from receiving ideas to providing ideas, back and forth between those in the communication situation. * Using technology requires understanding the abilities and limitations of any technological communication, from phone calls to e-mails to instant messages.

* Writing involves encoding messages into words, sentences, and paragraphs for the purpose of communicating to a person who is removed by distance, time, or both. Collaborating * Allocating resources and responsibilities ensures that all members of a team can work optimally.

Brainstorming ideas in a group involves rapidly suggesting and writing down ideas without pausing to critique them. * Decision-making requires sorting through the many options provided to the group and arriving at a single option to move forward. * Delegating means assigning duties to members of the group and expecting them to fulfill their parts of the task.

* Evaluating the products, processes, and members of the group provides a clear sense of what is working well and what improvements could be made. * Goal setting requires the group to analyze the situation, decide what outcome is desired, and clearly state an achievable objective.

* Leading a group means creating an environment in which all members can contribute according to their abilities. * Managing time involves matching up a list of tasks to a schedule and tracking the progress toward goals. * Resolving conflicts occurs from using one of the following strategies: asserting, cooperating, compromising, competing, or deferring.

* Team building means cooperatively working over time to achieve a common goal.
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How do you explain reduce reuse and recycle?

Are there any more ‘R’s? – Sometimes, two more ‘R’s can be added to the three basic ones.

  • Rethink can be added to the start of the list. It means we should think about the way our actions impact the environment.
  • Recover is sometimes added to the end of the list. It refers to the act of putting waste products to use. For example, decomposing garbage produces methane gas, which can be recovered and burnt to produce energy.

Recycling uses old products in new ways. Reduce means to minimise the amount of waste we create. Reuse refers to using items more than once. Recycle means putting a product to a new use instead of throwing it away. Rethink is about considering how our actions affect the environment.

  • Recover refers to the practice of putting waste products to use.
  • Landfill is a site where waste materials are disposed of.
  • On average, every person in Australia generates more than 2000kg of rubbish each a year! The energy saved by recycling one plastic drink bottle is enough to power a computer for 25 minutes.

For every tonne of paper that is recycled, 13 trees are saved. Artists recycle to create something new from something old. The 3 ‘R’s – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle – are all about minimising the amount of waste we produce, reusing products as much as we can, and remembering to recycle any materials that can be used for a new purpose.
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How effective are the 3 R’s?

‘The three R’s – reduce, reuse and recycle – all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy. Plus, the three R’s save land and money that communities must use to dispose of waste in landfills.
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What is one example for reduce?

What are examples of ‘reduce?’ Examples of reduction include canceling unwanted magazine subscriptions and eating less energy-intensive food. Turning off the water during teeth brushing rather than leaving it running for the full two minutes is another example of reduction.
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What are the 3 R’s of relaxation?

The Three R’s: Rest, Relaxation and Rejuvenation – LYH – Lynchburg Tourism.
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What are the 3rs of waste management lesson plan?

Reduce – make smaller or less in amount. Reuse – the action of using something again. Recycle – processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials.
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What is the role of the teacher in reconstructionism?

Teachers Role – The role of the Social Reconstructivist teacher is constantly changing as a result of the changing nature of society. Consequently, metaphors like “shaper of a new society,” “transformational leader,” and “change agent” have been used to describe the Social Reconstructionist teacher (Webb et.

  • Creating a safe and democratic environment for their students so that lessons and topics may be discussed, debated, and all students voices will be heard. What Are The 3 Rs In Education
  • Presenting students with material that looks into social injustices so that their students know that these injustices exist.
  • Creating lessons to inform students but also evoke an emotional response from their students.
  • Being fearless in presenting material to students.
  • Setting up a democratic environment in the classroom.
  • Inspiring students to be the change they wish to see in the world.
  • Helping to shed light on social inequities.
  • Providing students with the knowledge they need and the critical thinking skills to process it in meaningful ways so they can make positive changes in society.

In order to accomplish all of these tasks, Social Reconstructivist teachers have to take on a leadership role in the classroom so that they can effectively facilitate student learning.

  1. Do you think you could be a Social Reconstructivist teacher given the 
 ambiguity involved in this philosophy?
  2. If you were an Social Reconstructivst 
 teacher, how would you create a safe and democratic learning environment (give 
 2-3 specific examples)?

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