What Are The 3 R’S In Education?


What Are The 3 R
How the “3 R’s” of Education Have Changed In a parent newsletter nearly two years ago, I wrote about the new “3 R’s of education,” and how they signified a shift in thinking from when I was a young student. In November 2019, I wrote: Like many of you, I presume, I grew up hearing and learning about the all important “3 R’s” of education—Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic.

I spent countless hours racing through computations (generally using a single learned strategy), reading books (Encyclopedia Brown and the Hardy Boys were personal favorites), and watching “Reading Rainbow” and attempting to have legible handwriting—an uphill battle that was a source of friction with my parents at home.

While some components of my early schooling have endured in modern schooling—particularly the focus on developing appreciation and love for literature—much has changed. Recently, I heard a description for a new “3 R’s,” which I think aptly describes three of the most important components of a balanced, well-developed curriculum.
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What are the 3Rs of assessment?

The principles of relationships, relevance, and rigor (the three R’s) provide a framework for structuring conversations and initiatives in instructional practice (Wagner, 2002). Typically, this frame- work is applied to student learning.
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Why is 3Rs implemented?

Simple Summary – The 3Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, formulated by William Russell and Rex Burch, have become synonymous with the measures to improve the welfare of animals used in research and are now used as an ethical framework for improving laboratory animal welfare throughout the world.
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Who started 3Rs?

The PREPARE guidelines for planning animal research and testing contain links to many resources which can be used to improve applications for animal experiments and implement the 3Rs. William Russell and Rex Burch developed the concept of the 3Rs during the 1950s, and described them in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique (1959):

  • Replacement
  • Reduction
  • Refinement

Download a slide deck about the 3Rs (pdf), If you would like the Powerpoint version to use in your teaching, please email Adrian Smith, N.B. this slide deck may be updated from time to time. Latest version: 18.11.22, 09:00 CET. Spanish version (thanks to Rafael Hernández González for the translation): Russell and Burch’s definitions were: Replacement means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material (Partial Replacement if animals are still used, and Total Replacement if animals are not used). Reduction means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount or precision.

Refinement means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. Their definition of Replacement, in particular, is very different to that held by many people today, who consider replacement to be solely the use of non-animal material.

For example, according to Russell and Burch’s definition, an acute experiment (also known as non-recovery, i.e. an experiment performed on a totally anaesthetised animal which is killed under the anaesthetic at the end of the experiment) is a Partial Replacement method, not Refinement.

Many definitions of the 3Rs have been developed since Russell and Burch first described them (see below), and some differ significantly from the original definitions ( Tannenbaum & Bennett, 2015 ). Those working under the EU Directive 2010/63/EU should read carefully the descriptions of the 3Rs on the Commission’s own website, and especially their definitions of Refinement and Replacement.

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, to enjoy a better life | Educational Video for Kids.

The Commission does not divide Replacement into Partial and Complete – partial replacement as defined by Russell & Burch is Refinement according to the Commission. The UK organisation NC3Rs has re-defined Russell and Burch’s definitions so that they are more reflective of contemporary scientific practice and developments.

  1. They have also created a self-assessment tool and an introductory video for training purposes, and have written a blog to explain their rationale behind the need to take a fresh look at the concept.
  2. Currently, the 3Rs are often understood as: Replacement alternatives : methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting procedures on animals Reduction alternatives : methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals Refinement alternatives : methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being The 3Rs were primarily formulated to improve the humanity of animal experiments (i.e.

to improve animal welfare), although application of Refinement will often also improve an experiment’s validity. The Three Vs have been proposed specifically to improve the validity of animal experiments. The Three Ss have been proposed to ensure that commonsense and critical anthropomorphism are also applied.

Further thoughts about the 3Rs In their book ( chapter 7 on Refinement ), Russell and Burch emphasised the order in which the 3Rs should be addressed: ‘Suppose, for a particular purpose, we cannot use replacing techniques. Suppose it is agreed that we shall be using every device of theory and practice to reduce to a minimum the number of animals we have to employ.

It is at this point that refinement starts, and its object is simply to reduce to an absolute minimum the amount of distress imposed on those animals that are still used.’ Since the days of Russell and Burch, many new techniques have been developed which are not directly replacements for existing animal models, but which prevent animal use.

These are referred to as New Approach Methodologies or Non Animal Methods (NAMs) and include cell cultures, computer simulations and organs-on-a-chip. This creates the need for scientists to adopt a new mindset: is it necessary to model the entire organism at once? In many cases it may be more than adequate to model just one body, tissue or cell system, using a NAM.

If none of these meet the research objectives and the scientists is considering using an animal model, a search for animal replacements is then the next step. There are now many 3R Centres in existence, working with both replacement, reduction and refinement methods.

Norecopa maintains an interactive map of European 3R Centres, Development of the 3R concept According to Russell and Burch, the ultimate aim of the 3Rs was to abolish inhumanity (or distress), and thereby achieve humanity, which explains the title of their book. They distinguished between direct and contingent inhumanity.

Direct inhumanity is ‘the infliction of distress as an unavoidable consequence of the procedure employed, as such, even if it is conducted with perfect efficiency and completely freed of operations irrelevant to the object in view’. Contingent inhumanity (usually referred to today as contingent suffering ) is ‘the infliction of distress as an incidental and inadvertent by-product of the use of the procedure, which is not necessary for its success’.

  • Examples of contingent inhumanity are poor housing and handling.
  • Russell & Burch wrote: The greatest scientific achievements have always been the most humane and the most aesthetically attractive, conveying that sense of beauty and elegance which is the essence of science at its most successful.
  • CCAC Training Module on the Three Rs Development of interest in the 3Rs The evolution of the Three Rs tenet has been described in detail (Balls, 1996, 2007, 2009; 2014; Balls et al,, 1995; Russell, 2005, Hubrecht & Carter, 2019).
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The concept was developed as part of a project initiated by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) in 1954, consisting of interviews with researchers about animal research, with the aim of improving upon the routines of the day. The word “alternatives” was deliberately not used in the invitation, to avoid the risk of researchers declining to participate, which instead described ‘a review of progress in the development of humane techniques “.

The Three Rs” evolved some time between 1955 og 1957, although it cannot be determined precisely (Russell, 2005). The project resulted in publication of Russell and Burch’s book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique in 1959 (Russell & Burch, 1959), Little happened after this until the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME) was established 10 years later, which despite its name was founded to promote all three Rs.

The 3Rs were collectively described as “alternatives” by D.H. Smyth in his book Alternatives to Animal Experiments (Smyth, 1978), at which time it was felt that methods to replace animals were still in their infancy. The first major effort to bring focus to bear on 3R alternatives after this was a world congress on animal use and alternatives which was arranged in Baltimore in November 1993, at which William Russell spoke (Russell, 1995).

  1. This became the first of a series of world congresses which are now arranged every 3 years.
  2. After 1959, Russell and Burch did not meet again at a scientific event until 1995, when a workshop was arranged at Sheringham, where 58 proposals to strengthen alternatives to animal experiments were made (Balls et al.

, 1995). The November 2005 issue of Animal Welfare was dedicated to the three R’s and included: The use of databases, information centres and guidelines when planning research that may involve animals. Smith AJ & Allen T (2005): Animal Welfare 14:347-359 Recording of a lecture on 22 November 2019 by Professor Michael Balls entitled On the Replacement of Animal Testing: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow which gives a detailed history of the development of the 3R tenet.

  1. Russell WMR & Burch RL (1959): The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Wheathampstead: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
  2. National Research Council – National Academy of Sciences (1977): The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  3. Newton CM (1977): Biostatistical and biomedical methods in efficient animal experimentation. In: The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing 267-281, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  4. Rowsell HC (1977): The Ethics of Biomedical Experimentation. In: The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing 267-281, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-02603-2
  5. Smyth DH (1978): Alternatives to Animal Experiments,218 pages, Scolar Press, ISBN 0-85967-396-0
  6. Russell, W.M.S. (1995), The W.M.S. Russell speech at the award luncheon. The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research, Testing. New York: Mary Ann Liebert Publishing, 71-80
  7. Balls, M., Goldberg, A.M., Fentem, J.H., Broadhead, C.L., Burch, R.L., Festing, M.F.W., Frazier, J.M., Hendriksen, C.F.M., Jennings, M., van der Kamp, M.D.O., Morton, D.B., Rowan, A.N., Russell, C., Russell, W.M.S., Spielmann, H., Stephens, M.L., Stokes, W.S., Straughan,,W., Yager, J.D., Zurlo, J. & van Zutphen, B.F.M. (1995) The Three Rs: the way forward: the report and recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 11, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 23: 838–66.
  8. Russell, W.M.S. (2005): The Three Rs: past, present and future. Animal Welfare, 14(4): 279-286
  9. Balls, M. (2007) Professor W.M.S. Russell (1925-2006): Doyen of the Three Rs. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation, 14 (Special Issue), 1-7.
  10. Balls, M. (2009) The origins and early days of the Three Rs concept. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 37(3): 255-65.
  11. Balls, M. (2014) Rex Leonard Burch: Humane Scientist and Gentle Man. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 42(5): 57-9.
  12. Tannenbaum J & Bennett BT (2015): Russell and Burch’s 3RS Then and Now: The Need for Clarity in Definition and Purpose, JAALAS, 54(2): 120-132
  13. Sneddon LU, Halsey LG & Bury NC (2017): Considering aspects of the 3Rs principles within experimental animal biology.J.Exp.Biol,220, 3007-3016
  14. Jean-Quartier C, Jeanquartier F, Jurisica I & Holzinger A (2018): In silico cancer research towards 3R, BMC Cancer 18:408
  15. Rehberger K, Kropf C & Segner H (2018): In vitro or not in vitro: a short journey through a long history (of ecotoxicology). Environmental Sciences Europe, 30:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-018-0151-3
  16. Hubrecht RC & Carter E (2019): The 3Rs and Humane Experimental Technique: Implementing Change, Animals 9(10), 754.
  17. Lewis DI (2019): Animal experimentation: implementation and application of the 3Rs. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences 3 (6): 675–679.
  18. Wikipedia entries about The Three Rs and Bill Russell

The Declaration of Bologna In 1999, 40 years after the publication of Russell & Burch’s book, the participants at the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences endorsed the principle of the Three Rs in the form of the Declaration of Bologna (published with permission from the journal ATLA, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals ): More resources about the 3Rs

  • Advice from the NC3Rs on training about the 3Rs
  • Advice from the NC3Rs for project licence applicants on Replacement, Reduction and Refinement
  • Responsible Animal Research: A Riff of Rs (Rowan & Goldberg, 1995)
  • Reproducibility – Is it a Fourth R? (viewpoint from the Canadian Council on Animal Care )
  • Reduce, refine, replace – responsibility (viewpoint of the Max Planck Society )
  • An institutional framework for the 3Rs
  • An issue of the journal Animals marking the 60th Anniversary of the 3Rs contained the following papers:
    • Smith AJ & Lilley E (2019): The Role of the Three Rs in Improving the Planning and Reproducibility of Animal Experiments
    • Hubrecht RC & Carter E (2019): The 3Rs and Humane Experimental Technique: Implementing Change
    • Message R & Greenhough B (2019): But It’s Just a Fish: Understanding the Challenges of Applying the 3Rs in Laboratory Aquariums in the UK
    • Zidar J et al. (2019) Group and Single Housing of Male Mice: Collected Experiences from Research Facilities in Sweden
    • Flammer SA et al. (2019): Alternatives to Carbon Dioxide—Taking Responsibility for Humanely Ending the Life of Animals
    • Ritskes-Hoitinga M & van Luijk J (2019): How Can Systematic Reviews Teach Us More about the Implementation of the 3Rs and Animal Welfare?
    • Jirkof P et al. (2019): Assessing Affective State in Laboratory Rodents to Promote Animal Welfare—What Is the Progress in Applied Refinement Research?
    • Mazhary H & Hawkins P (2019): Applying the 3Rs: A Case Study on Evidence and Perceptions Relating to Rat Cage Height in the UK
    • Hawkins P & Bertelsen T (2019): 3Rs-Related and Objective Indicators to Help Assess the Culture of Care
    • Steiner AR et al. (2019): Humanely Ending the Life of Animals: Research Priorities to Identify Alternatives to Carbon Dioxide
  • Strech & Dirnagel (2019): 3Rs missing: animal research without scientific value is unethical
  • The ‘R’ of Replacement: Implementing alternatives to replace the use of animals in research and testing (RSPCA presentation)
  • Focus on the 3Rs (newsletters from the Swedish 3R Center on each of the three Rs)
  • The EU Commission’s webpage on the 3Rs
  • Animal welfare and scientific quality depend on the 3Rs
  • Törnqvist E, Annas A, Granath B, Jalkesten E, Cotgreave I & Öberg M (2014): Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing, PLoS ONE 9(7): e101638. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101638
  • The Danish 3R survey: knowledge, attitudes and experiences with the 3Rs among researchers involved in animal experiments in Denmark
  • The 3Rs: What are Medical Scientists Doing about Animal Testing?
  • What is understood by “animal-free research”?
  • Beyond the 3RS: Expanding the use of human-relevant replacement methods in biomedical research (Herrmann et al,, 2019)
  • List of 3Rs funding opportunities, compiled by the North American 3Rs Collaborative
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Dissemination of resources on how to implement the 3Rs should be one of the pillars of all scientist’s work: This page was updated on 20 April 2023
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What are the 3Rs hidden curriculum?

– Again the main theoretical influence is Goffman, ‘The Presentation of the Self in Everyday life’. Important concepts include; front, defining the situation, the negotiation of Reality. Examples: Jackson (1968) ‘Life in Classrooms’: Jackson used the term hidden curriculum to describe the unofficial 3Rs – rules, routines and regulations.

These 3Rs had to be learned by students to survive comfortably in classrooms. Students develop classroom coping strategies to accommodate delay, denial and interruption. The survival strategies are learned at the expense of the official curriculum – learning is inhibited. Holt (1969) ‘How Children Fail’: ‘Right Answerism’ is the survival strategy.It involves pleasing the teacher by giving or appearing to give the right answer.

This encourages tactics that detract from the educational experience of school. Non-examined areas are neglected and ‘memorisation’ rather than ‘understanding’ is fostered.

  1. Postman & Weingartner (1969)
  2. The hidden curriculum consists of discovering that:
  1. Knowledge is beyond the power of students and is in any case, none of their business.
  2. Recall is the highest form of intellectual achievement – the collection of ‘facts’ is the goal of education.
  3. The voice of authority is to be trusted more than independent judgement.
  4. One’s own ideas and those of classmates are inconsequential.
  5. Feelings are irrelevant in education.
  6. There is always a single unambiguous answer to any question.
  7. Passive acceptance is a more desirable response to ideas than active criticism.
  • Woods (1983) ‘Sociology and The School.
  • Woods outlines various strategies adopted by teachers and pupils in the classroom.

Woods is particularly interesting for his work on control in the classroom – strategies for survival – the hidden curriculum of teachers. He suggests that traditional normative means of control are often inadequate therefore teachers need other techniques to survive in the classroom.

Socialisation: Socialise children into tolerable forms of behaviour. ‘Pupils are given drill in how to move about the school, sit in desks, raise hands. the puritan ethic of hard work, sober living and good manners is continuously urged upon them.’ Domination: Coercive control, punishment (even illegal in some cases) is used.

‘There is a great deal of punching, knuckling, tweaking, clouting, slapping, slippering, hair-pulling, twisting, rulering and kicking.’ There are also humiliating verbal assaults – anger is part of a teachers ‘front’. This seemed especially typical of P.E. Negotiation The principle of exchange – in return for good behaviour work demands are lessened. Rules and compromises over rules are worked out between teacher and pupils. Teachers may abandon work ideals and settle for what they can get. Fraternisation: ‘If you can’t beat them join them’.

Minimise potential conflict and develop a sense of obligation/identification. Fraternisation has a number of forms-young teachers have natural advantages, other examples, humour, sport, television are used to maintain student interest. Teaching becomes entertainment. Absence or Removal: Go sick – timetable manipulation; delaying tactics in lessons; unloading problem pupils on to others; use coursework – pupil-initiated work.

Ritual and Routine: These enable teachers to establish a ‘regime’, for example, registration, form periods, assemblies, timetables. Routine has a survival value. Textbook teaching, dictating notes are both coping mechanisms that can secure student support since it involves them in little effort.
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What are the 3Rs and which is ultimately most important?

By Emma MacDonald Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Students learn these words at a very young age. But their meaning and importance are often swept aside as kids grow older. Instead of forgetting about these fundamentals, we should be expanding upon them. Recycling, while accessible and easy, is not the best option of the three for environmental health.

  • In fact, of the three, it is the least environmentally friendly.
  • It is better to reduce your consumption of all items in general, but since consuming nothing at all is impossible in the current state of the world, at least reducing consumption of harmful materials would lessen a person’s environmental impact quite a bit.

Reusing an item is also better than recycling it, as less energy is consumed in order to make and recycle one item that someone used over a period of time than two or three or four of the same item in that same window. So here is a list of ways to first reduce, then reuse your items before you recycle them.

  1. Replace single use items with reusable ones once you have used up all pre-owned single use versions
    1. Plastic bags → Rope/Canvas produce bags
    2. Plastic/Paper grocery/shopping bags → Canvas reusable bags
    3. Single use plastic water bottles → Metal/Glass/Reusable plastic water bottle
    4. Plastic disposable razor → Metal razor
    5. Face wipes → Washcloth
    6. Toothbrush → Electric toothbrush with replaceable heads
    7. Plastic wrap, Foil, Ziplocs → Tupperware, Fabric Pouches, Beeswax Wrap
    8. Paper Towels, Napkins → Washcloths, Cloth Napkins
    9. Water Bottles → Brita Filter or Tap Water
    10. Straws → Bamboo or Metal straws
    11. Cutlery → Bamboo cutlery goes well with straws in a zero waste kit !
    12. Menstrual Products → Period Underwear, Menstrual Cups
  2. Replace items that come in lots of packaging with ones that have none, less, or biodegradable packaging.
    1. Unpackaged shampoo/conditioner bars can replace liquid shampoo with a bottle
    2. Cardboard dispensers biodegrade whereas plastic dispensers don’t
  3. Buy high quality, less often.
  4. Borrow items if you only need them once or twice
  5. Buy in bulk for items that last
    1. Laundry Detergent
    2. Cleaning products
    3. Pasta
    4. Rice

Reuse :

  1. Reuse items you have lying around the house
    1. If you forget your reusable bags at the store and need grocery bags, reuse them as small bin liners or to pick up after a pet.
  2. Buy items secondhand
    1. Clothing
    2. Furniture
    3. Dishware
    4. DVD’s/CD’s
    5. Electronics (buy refurbished)
  3. Donate unused items to secondhand shops

    See bullets for #2

  4. Repair broken items rather than recycling them or throwing them away

    Repair Cafes are places where experts can help people to learn how to fix their own items or help to fix them. Look online to find one near you!

And finally, if all else fails, recycle whatever you are unable to cut down on or reuse. In a blog post like this, we would be at fault if we didn’t mention the privileged nature of individual action. Many sustainable tips include buying a reusable item that is much more expensive than a single use product would be. What Are The 3 R A scene from the Willimantic No Freeze Shelter Some local to Storrs suggestions follow:

  • Mercy Housing and Shelter Corporation
  • Windham Area Interfaith Ministry
  • Willimantic No Freeze Shelter
  • Norwich No Freeze Shelter
  • Holy Family Home and Shelter
  • MACC Charities

Sources: https://communityoutreach.uconn.edu/semester-long-programs/#SS https://communityoutreach.uconn.edu/philanthropy/ https://www.nrdc.org/stories/reduce-reuse-recycle-most-all-reduce
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What is 3Rs and 4Cs?

3 ‘R’s to 4 ‘C’s – Arpita Chakraborty April 23, 2019 April 23, 2019 What Are The 3 R New skills to suit the changing times is the order of the day, Learning is delivered in the classrooms in a totally different manner than what it used to be. The 3 ‘R’s – reading, writing and arithmetic, which formed the core areas of content delivery in regular classroom teaching –have been revamped to sound as the 4 ‘C’s – critical thinking and problem solving, communication, creativity & innovation and collaboration.

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They form the new age set of skills students need to be ready with to survive in the global economy and create a meaningful niche for themselves in the 21st century. Educationists have realised that the 3 ‘R’s and the 4 ‘C’s do not formulate the limits to decide what is to be taught and how it is to be taught.

They simply outline a broad spectrum of 21st century skills, that when imbibed by students allow them to function, learn and adapt to the changing world throughout their lives. Today, undoubtedly, we live in a world dominated by technology. Our entire sphere of influence, our interactions, our careers and every minute aspect of our daily lives are mediated by computers, smart phones and tablets.

  1. The answer to all problems and situations is practically a few keystrokes and a fraction of seconds away from you.
  2. It reminds us of the revolution that was brought by the advent of the print media and how it changed the way we perceived information.
  3. Something similar is happening currently if we analyze how the integration of technology has changed the way we look at learning and classroom teaching.

The use of devices in classrooms to aid and supplement teaching-learning transactions is not just about the use of fancy gadgets and expensive technology to set up a ‘smart classroom’, rather it is the use of technology in a manner that enhances the learning experience for the students, equipping them with future-ready skills and enables them to create, collaborate, communicate and critically analyze the world around them.

When technology is used in classroom-teaching, it encourages students to work on group projects, providing them with opportunities and interfaces to communicate effectively and share their learning and skills in a way that prepares them for future situations where teamwork and collaboration would be needed to work through conflicts and find the best solutions.

To be able to succeed in their chosen areas of work, students need to think on their feet and provide effective solutions to complete a given task. Providing them with an atmosphere of digital learning where they share tools, resources and information gradually builds in them the habit of working together through an assignment creatively and effectively.

  • A student while handling a device in school understands and agrees to follow the idea that a certain code of conduct is expected of him regarding the responsible use and handling of the device and information accessed therein.
  • This instils ownership and a sense of responsibility in him.
  • As they get engaged in the process of learning and continuous pursuit of information, they gradually develop a habit of exploratory learning which goes a long way in infusing in them confidence and the willingness to continue learning in their professional and personal lives.

This helps build a strong foundation to success in all spheres of life. A student while handling a device in school understands and agrees to follow the idea that a certain code of conduct is expected of him regarding the responsible use and handling of the device and information accessed therein A teacher, thus, started out from being a “teacher” to a “facilitator” in the process of learning in a classroom and has now evolved to assume the role of being a “coach” imparting skills to students enabling them to become expert life-long learners.

  • We now aim to instil among our students curiosity (instrumental to lifelong learning), effective communication and teamwork skills and empower them with the values of freedom and responsibility so that they are ready to take charge of their own learning as a continuous journey.
  • Our schools, rather than becoming institutes for preparing students for the next level of learning, have now assumed the role of educating technologically equipped students for lifelong learning and personal fulfilment.

Share 0 : 3 ‘R’s to 4 ‘C’s – Arpita Chakraborty
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What are the 3 R’s activities?

You can help by learning about and PRACTISING the three R’s of waste management: Reduce, reuse, and recycle! Practising all three of these activities every day is not only important for a healthy environment, but it can also be fun.
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What are the 5 teaching styles?

Home > News > How Effective are these Five Teaching Styles? 17 April 2015 | Posted by: innova Throughout the last century, traditional teaching methods have undergone significant changes; brought on by social, cultural and technological developments. In the contemporary classroom, five distinct teaching styles have emerged as the primary strategies adopted by modern teachers: The Authority Style, The Delegator Style, The Facilitator Style, The Demonstrator Style and The Hybrid Style.
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What are the skills for learning?

Skills for Learning – When we refer to the word ‘learning’, we mean the act of acquiring and retaining knowledge of something by studying, experiencing or being taught. In a school setting, we’re learning all the time through those three mediums, both academically and socially.

We learn how to do maths equations, close reading and neat handwriting at the same time as we learn how to be empathetic, respectful and fair. It’s the job of primary schools and parents everywhere to nurture the necessary skills for learning, but what are they? The skills for learning can be broken down into ‘the 4 C’s’: critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration,

All four of those skills cross and intermingle. This comprehensive Teaching Wiki aims to break down the 4 C’s, providing you with helpful information and handy resources.
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Why do we say reduce, reuse, and recycle?

Reducing, reusing and recycling waste helps save landfill space by keeping useful materials out. The amount of energy and natural resources needed to produce or collect the raw materials and manufacture the product are reduced.
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Where did the phrase reduce, reuse, recycle come from?

The Story Behind “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” What Are The 3 R Last week we went over some basic recycle tips in support of tomorrow. Let’s continue with the recycling theme and dive into the history behind the popular slogan “reduce, reuse, recycle”. Where did it come from? What is the meaning? How did I unintentionally memorize it? If you are nodding your head and wondering these same things, then read on and let’s clear these mysteries up.

The origin of the phrase, “reduce, reuse, recycle”, is often debated. But it can be traced back to the underlying movement of becoming environmentally conscious in the 1970’s. This was during the time of the Vietnam War when Americans were demanding that air pollution, waste and water quality needed attention.

Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, listened to the people and decided to bring the nation together for our first Earth Day on April 22, 1970. Twenty million Americans united under shared common values for protecting our planet. This historic day ultimately lead to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) being created that same year.

In 1976, Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to increase recycling and conservation efforts as waste became a bigger problem. It is estimated that the slogan “reduce, reuse, recycle” was born at this time. The catchy phrase has been taken to new heights as environmentally friendly practices are becoming the new normal.

People are making an increasing effort to recycle, reuse items that have another purpose, and reduce our waste. Now the slogan has become embedded in our culture over time. Soon enough, tossing an aluminum can will have you running to the nearest recycling bin.
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Is it three R’s or RS?

The three Rs : Reduce! Reuse! Recycle!
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