Virology Is The Study Of What Type Of Microorganism?

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Virology Is The Study Of What Type Of Microorganism
Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents, including, but not limited to, their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, cultivation, and genetics. Virology is often considered a part of microbiology or pathology. Virology Is The Study Of What Type Of Microorganism Image Credit: Axel_Kock / Shutterstock.com During the early years of virology, this discipline was dependent upon advances in the chemical and physical sciences; however, viruses soon became tools for probing basic biochemical processes of cells. Viruses have traditionally been viewed in a rather negative context as agents responsible for diseases that must be controlled or eliminated.
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What is virology the study of?

Virology covers all aspects of the virus from evolution, structure, life cycle and function to the diseases that they are responsible for and the host defenses against them. Viruses are infectious particles that are loaded with genetic material ( DNA or RNA) that insert themselves into host cells, splice themselves into the host genome and get themselves replicated.

  • The various structures and all of the places of the life cycle of the viruses is important in virology both for classification and for inventing ways to destroy the virus or limit its damaging effects.
  • Classification, which is a major part of virology, can be done in several ways.
  • One way is in terms of the host organisms that the virus infects, such as animals, plants, fungi and bacteria.

Each of these different types of cell is different so each presents a different challenge to the virus in its efforts to get replicated. Viruses can also be classified in terms of the genetic material present. They may have, for example, a single or double strand of RNA or DNA.
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Which organism is detected in virology?

Abstract – Virology is the study of viruses. The first viruses were discovered in 1898 and were identified by their ability to pass through filters that were too small to allow the passage of bacteria. Since that time, scientists have been studying viruses to better understand how to prevent epidemics and pandemics, and research on viruses has revealed an abundance of information on how living systems work.

  • Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and infect all living things, and yet they are not considered to be alive.
  • They share several characteristics with living organisms, but are unable to reproduce independently and maintain metabolic activities.
  • In addition, they do not undergo cell division, like living organisms do, but assemble newly made components from scratch after gaining entry into a cell and its machinery.

Viruses appeared around the same time that life began on Earth, but their origin is a much debated issue. The precellular hypothesis proposes that viruses existed before or alongside cells, whereas the escape hypothesis suggests that viruses were once components of living cells.
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What type of science is virology?

Virology (healthcare scientist) Virology is the study of viral infections, such as rubella, herpes, hepatitis and HIV. If you work in this area of healthcare science, you’ll usually be part of a larger clinical microbiology service specialising in the identification and characterisation of viruses that cause infection.
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What are viruses in virology?

Introduction to Virology Epidemiologic studies show that viral infections in developed countries are the most common cause of acute disease that does not require hospitalization. In developing countries, viral diseases also exact a heavy toll in mortality and permanent disability, especially among infants and children.

  1. Emerging viral diseases such as those due to HIV, ebola virus and hantavirus, appear regularly.
  2. Now that antibiotics effectively control most bacterial infections, viral infections pose a relatively greater and less controlled threat to human health.
  3. Some data suggest that the already broad gamut of established viral diseases soon may be expanded to include other serious human ailments such as juvenile diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, various neurologic and immunologic disorders, and some tumors.

Viruses can infect all forms of life (bacteria, plants, protozoa, fungi, insects, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals); however, this section covers only viruses capable of causing human infections. Like other microorganisms, viruses may have played a role in the natural selection of animal species.

  • A documented example is the natural selection of rabbits resistant to virulent myxoma virus during several epidemics deliberately induced to control the rabbit population in Australia.
  • Indirect evidence suggests that the same selective role was played by smallpox virus in humans.
  • Another possible, though unproved, mechanism by which viruses may affect evolution is by introducing viral genetic material into animal cells by mechanisms similar to those that govern gene transfer by bacteriophages.

For example, genes from avirulent retrovirus integrated into genomes of chickens or mice produce resistance to reinfection by related, virulent retroviruses. The same relationship may exist for human retroviruses, since human leukemia-causing retroviruses have been reported.

Viruses are small, subcellular agents that are unable to multiply outside a host cell (intracellular, obligate parasitism). The assembled virus (virion) is formed to include only one type of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) and, in the simplest viruses, a protective protein coat. The nucleic acid contains the genetic information necessary to program the synthetic machinery of the host cell for viral replication.

The protein coat serves two main functions: first, it protects the nucleic acid from extracellular environmental insults such as nucleases; second, it permits attachment of the virion to the membrane of the host cell, the negative charge of which would repel a naked nucleic acid.

Once the viral genome has penetrated and thereby infected the host cell, virus replication mainly depends on host cell machinery for energy and synthetic requirements. The various virion components are synthesized separately within the cell and then assembled to form progeny particles. This assembly type of replication is unique to viruses and distinguishes them from all other small, obligate, intracellular parasites.

The basic structure of viruses may permit them to be simultaneously adaptable and selective. Many viral genomes are so adaptable that once they have penetrated the cell membrane under experimental conditions, viral replication can occur in almost any cell.

  • On the other hand, intact viruses are so selective that most virions can infect only a limited range of cell types.
  • This selectivity exists largely because penetration of the nucleic acid usually requires a specific reaction for the coat to attach to the host cell membrane and some specific intracellular components.
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Although some viruses may establish some forms of silent infection of cells, their multiplication usually causes cell damage or death; however, since viruses must depend on host survival for their own survival, they tend to establish mild infections in which death of the host is more an aberration than a regular outcome.

Notable exceptions are HIV, ebola virus, hantavirus and rabiesvirus. Viruses are distinct among microorganisms in their extreme dependence on the host cell. Since a virus must grow within a host cell, the virus must be viewed together with its host in any consideration of pathogenesis, epidemiology, host defenses, or therapy.

The bilateral association between the virus and its host imposes specific conditions for pathogenesis. For example, rhinoviruses require a temperature not exceeding 34°C; this requirement restricts their growth to only those cells in the cool outer layer of the nasal mucosa, thereby preventing spread to deeper cells where temperatures are higher.

The intracellular location of the virus often protects the virus against some of the host’s immune mechanisms; at the same time, this location makes the virus vulnerable because of its dependence on the host cell’s synthetic machinery, which may be altered by even subtle physical and chemical changes produced by the viral infection (inflammation, fever, circulatory alterations, and interferon).

Epidemiologic properties depend greatly on the characteristics of the virus-host association. For example, some arthropod-borne viruses require a narrow range of temperature to multiply in insects; as a result, these viruses are found only under certain seasonal and geographic conditions.

Other environmental conditions determine the transmissibility of viruses in aerosols and in food. Viruses are difficult targets for chemotherapy because they replicate only within host cells, mainly utilizing many of the host cell’s biosynthetic processes. The similarity of host-directed and virus-directed processes makes it difficult to find antiviral agents specific enough to exert a greater effect on viral replication in infected cells than on functions in uninfected host cells.

It is becoming increasingly apparent, however, that each virus may have a few specific steps of replication that may be used as targets for highly selective, carefully aimed chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, proper use of such drugs requires a thorough knowledge of the suitable targets, based on a correct diagnosis and a precise understanding of the replicative mechanisms for the offending virus.

  • Nowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms by which virus enters, spreads within, and exits from the body also is critical for correct diagnosis and treatment of disease and for prevention of spread in the environment.
  • Effective treatment with antibody-containing immunoglobulin requires knowing when virus is susceptible to antibody (for example, during viremic spread) and when virus reaches target organs where antibody is less effective.

Many successful vaccines have been based on knowledge of pathogenesis and immune defenses. Comparable considerations govern treatment with interferon. Clearly, viral infections are among the most difficult and demanding problems a physician must face. Unfortunately, some of these problems still lack satisfactory solutions, although tremendous progress has been made during the last several decades.

Many aspects of medical virology are now understood, others are being clarified gradually, and many more are still obscure. Knowledge of the properties of viruses and the relationships they establish with their hosts is crucial to successful investigation and clinical management of their pathologic processes.

Our plan for conveying this knowledge is to present, first, concepts of viral structure, and then relate them to principles of viral multiplication. Together these concepts form the basis for understanding how viruses are classified, how they affect cells, and how their genetic system functions.

Ferdinando DianzaniThomas AlbrechtSamuel Baron

: Introduction to Virology
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Is virology the study of viruses?

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Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses.
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Is virology a branch of microbiology?

virology, branch of microbiology that deals with the study of viruses. Although diseases caused by viruses have been known since the 1700s and cures for many were (somewhat later) effected, the causative agent was not closely examined until 1892, when a Russian bacteriologist, D. Virology Is The Study Of What Type Of Microorganism Britannica Quiz Biology Bonanza Direct visualization of viruses became possible after the electron microscope was introduced about 1940. In 1935 tobacco mosaic virus became the first virus to be crystallized; in 1955 the poliomyelitis virus was crystallized.
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Does a virology study bacteria?

Virologists study viruses that affect humans, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi and plants, in community, clinical, agricultural and natural environments.
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What is an example of virology?

Growth in cultures – Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and because they only reproduce inside the living cells of a host these cells are needed to grow them in the laboratory. For viruses that infect animals (usually called “animal viruses”) cells grown in laboratory cell cultures are used. Cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus. The infected cells have become round and balloon-like. Viruses that have grown in cell cultures can be indirectly detected by the detrimental effect they have on the host cell. These cytopathic effects are often characteristic of the type of virus.

For instance, herpes simplex viruses produce a characteristic “ballooning” of the cells, typically human fibroblasts, Some viruses, such as mumps virus cause red blood cells from chickens to firmly attach to the infected cells. This is called “haemadsorption” or “hemadsorption”. Some viruses produce localised “lesions” in cell layers called plaques, which are useful in quantitation assays and in identifying the species of virus by plaque reduction assays,

Viruses growing in cell cultures are used to measure their susceptibility to validated and novel antiviral drugs,
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Why do we study viruses in virology?

Hollie French, Elizaveta Elshina, Emmanuelle Pitre and Aartjan te Velthuis – Viruses are the most abundant and perhaps most diverse biological entities on Earth. They are simple life forms and are entirely dependent on hijacking host cells to replicate their genomes.

However, contrary to common belief, not all viruses cause disease, since some are beneficial. By studying viruses, we can learn about the biology of host cells and organisms, develop strategies against viral disease and manipulate viruses for our own purposes. Some viruses are only a single self-replicating gene, while others can encode almost a thousand proteins and be the size of a bacterium.

Life cycles also vary among viruses, with some lasting millions of years and others less than an hour. Yet, in spite of vast structural and molecular differences, all viruses need to gain entry into a cell, find a site to replicate, and spread.
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What is the study of bacteria called?

Microbiology is the study of the biology of microscopic organisms – viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, slime molds, and protozoa. The methods used to study and manipulate these minute and mostly unicellular organisms differ from those used in most other biological investigations.

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Recombinant DNA technology uses microorganisms, particularly bacteria and viruses, to amplify DNA sequences and generate the encoded products. Moving genes from one microorganism to another, or amplifying them within microorganisms, permits application of microbial skills to solve medical and environmental problems.

Many microorganisms are unique among living things in their ability to use gaseous nitrogen from the air for their nutritional requirements, or to degrade complex macromolecules in such materials as wood. By rearranging the genes that control these and other processes, scientists seek to engineer microorganisms that will process wastes, fertilize agricultural land, produce desirable biomolecules, and solve other problems inexpensively and safely.

  • Microbiologists pursue careers in many fields, including agricultural, environmental, food, and industrial microbiology; public health; resource management; basic research; education; and pharmaceuticals.
  • Jobs in all of these fields are available at the BS level as well as the MS and PhD levels (see our guide for applying to graduate schools).

The Microbiology major also incorporates the requirements expected for admission to medical, dental, and other health-professional schools, and to graduate schools in microbiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and related disciplines.
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What is the difference between virology and microbiology?

Medical microbiologists oversee the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illness caused by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and parasites). Virologists oversee the diagnosis, management and treatment of patients with viral infections. In this article, we discover more about the key achievements in these specialties and the challenges they are facing, including emerging pathogens and antimicrobial resistance.

  1. The specialties of medical microbiology and virology have been at the forefront of major public health breakthroughs, from the development and testing of vaccines to the characterisation of viruses such as hepatitis and advances in hand hygiene.
  2. Infection is an ever-evolving specialty, as new pathogens that may present diagnostic and treatment challenges are constantly emerging with possibly devastating consequences in a naive population.

At the same time, we continue to face the challenges of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infections in patients with complex clinical needs and seek new treatments where the immune system is impaired, such as for cancer or autoimmune diseases. Infection is an ever-evolving specialty, as new pathogens that may present diagnostic and treatment challenges are constantly emerging with possibly devastating consequences in a naive population.

Infections may be acquired in the community, in association with healthcare or travel. Without prompt diagnosis and management, many infections are associated with considerable mortality and morbidity and the ability to transmit to other persons. Global awareness of infection has been increasing over recent years, with infections such as Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, avian influenza, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola and SARS-CoV-2 all making headlines across the world.

Even more commonly encountered and less exotic infections (e.g. tuberculosis, hospital-associated infections, urinary tract pathogens or chest pathogens) can present complex challenges that require the expertise of an infection specialist. One example is meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, for which the introduction of antibiotics in the community for suspected meningococcal disease has resulted in a huge reduction in mortality and morbidity.

  • However, giving antimicrobials prior to taking samples to look for infection (e.g.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures) means that the chances of obtaining a positive culture result are massively reduced as well as fostering microbial drug resistance.
  • Multidrug resistance is an increasing problem, therefore antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention and control (IPC) remain cornerstones of an infection service.The Medical Microbiology Specialty Advisory Committee (SAC) and Medical Virology SAC merged in 2019, with the inaugural joint meeting being held on 1 November 2019.

The role of the SAC is varied and it holds accountability for strategy, standards and best practice, specialty engagement, and supports other committee and College activities.
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What are the 3 types of viruses?

List of Viral Diseases – Following is a list of virus diseases that have made a significant socioeconomic impact in the last few decades.

  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
  • Ebola
  • Influenza
  • SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
  • Chikungunya
  • Small Pox (Now eradicated)

Explore more about Explore more about viruses or other related concepts by register at, Viruses are used in biotechnology research because they share the properties of living and non-living species. The viruses can be both helpful and harmful. Bacteriophage can be used to preserve water since it can eliminate germs and maintain the freshness of the liquid.

  • Pox, polio, mumps, jaundice, and other diseases can be controlled by injecting dead viruses into people as vaccines, which is how antidotes and vaccines are made.
  • A specific virus can control some insects and animals that are hazardous to people.
  • Disease management: The T2 bacteriophage virus protects from dysentery by killing dangerous bacteria, such as E-coli. Because viruses can specifically target cells and DNA, they are used in virotherapy to treat various disorders. It might play an essential role in gene therapy and cancer treatment.
  • The most familiar living model utilised in laboratories is the virus. In genetics research, viruses are primarily used. It is an essential topic of discussion in genetic engineering.
  • Due to the virus’s combination of living and non-living traits, it is necessary to understand the evolutionary tendency and the mechanism by which living entities are created.
  • Viruses are an example of an organic nanoparticle in nanotechnology. They have been utilised as a model for arranging materials on the nanoscale due to their shape, size, and structures.
  • One million viruses can be found in a spoonful of seawater, aquatic ecosystems’ most abundant natural component. A virus can boost the number of photosynthesis in oceans and reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by about three gigatonnes of carbon per year.

A virus is a biological entity that can only reproduce within a host. Anatomically, viruses possess nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) which are encased within a protective protein coat. These entities are able to infect all forms of life, ranging from bacteria to humans, and consequently, they bring about a multitude of diseases in their host.

  • Viruses can infect bacterial, plant, and animal cells
  • Retroviruses are used in Gene Therapy and Cloning
  • No other living being evolves as quickly as viruses do
  • Many viruses can lead to cancer
  • For years, a virus may stay dormant in a host

Based on their host, viruses can be classified into three types, namely, animal viruses, plant viruses, and bacteriophages.

  • AIDS
  • Chikungunya
  • Ebola
  • Influenza
  • SARS
  • Small Pox

Viruses possess trademark characteristics of both living and non-living entities. For instance, they can only reproduce within a host, just like a parasite. But unlike parasites or any other living organisms, viruses can be crystallized. During this stage, they remain dormant, until they enter another host, restarting the cycle all over.
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Who is father of virology?

Martinus Beijerinck is often called the Father of Virology. Beijerinck’s laboratory grew into an important center for microbiology.
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Is virology a type of biology?

Virology is a branch of biology. Specifically, it is a branch of microbiology. However, many virologists have degrees in molecular biology, genetics or medicine.
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Is virology a biological science?

In the traditional sense, ‘Virology’ is the scientific discipline dealing with the biology of viruses (including molecular biology and biochemistry) and viral diseases (including physiology, epidemiology and clinical aspects of viruses).
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What are the 7 major microorganisms?

The major groups of microorganisms—namely bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and viruses —are summarized below.
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What are the four types of microbiology?

Meet all five of the major groups of microbes, and find out what role they play along with their structure. Microbes are organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. They evolved long before the first plants and animals appeared and affect our lives in more ways than we might expect.

  1. Microbiologists are discovering new species of microbe at a faster rate than ever, thanks to advances in DNA sequencing techniques.
  2. Current estimates suggest there could be at least 1 billion different species of microbe on Earth, possibly more.
  3. Microbial diversity is truly staggering, yet all these microbes can be grouped into five major types: Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and Protists,

Let’s look at each one in more detail. Viruses are the smallest of all the microbes. Their genome is made of either DNA or RNA (not both), and this is packaged inside a protein shell called a capsid, They are not made of cells (acellular), cannot make their own proteins and don’t grow. Virology Is The Study Of What Type Of Microorganism
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What is an example of virology?

Growth in cultures – Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and because they only reproduce inside the living cells of a host these cells are needed to grow them in the laboratory. For viruses that infect animals (usually called “animal viruses”) cells grown in laboratory cell cultures are used. Cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus. The infected cells have become round and balloon-like. Viruses that have grown in cell cultures can be indirectly detected by the detrimental effect they have on the host cell. These cytopathic effects are often characteristic of the type of virus.

  • For instance, herpes simplex viruses produce a characteristic “ballooning” of the cells, typically human fibroblasts,
  • Some viruses, such as mumps virus cause red blood cells from chickens to firmly attach to the infected cells.
  • This is called “haemadsorption” or “hemadsorption”.
  • Some viruses produce localised “lesions” in cell layers called plaques, which are useful in quantitation assays and in identifying the species of virus by plaque reduction assays,

Viruses growing in cell cultures are used to measure their susceptibility to validated and novel antiviral drugs,
View complete answer

Why do we study viruses in virology?

Hollie French, Elizaveta Elshina, Emmanuelle Pitre and Aartjan te Velthuis – Viruses are the most abundant and perhaps most diverse biological entities on Earth. They are simple life forms and are entirely dependent on hijacking host cells to replicate their genomes.

However, contrary to common belief, not all viruses cause disease, since some are beneficial. By studying viruses, we can learn about the biology of host cells and organisms, develop strategies against viral disease and manipulate viruses for our own purposes. Some viruses are only a single self-replicating gene, while others can encode almost a thousand proteins and be the size of a bacterium.

Life cycles also vary among viruses, with some lasting millions of years and others less than an hour. Yet, in spite of vast structural and molecular differences, all viruses need to gain entry into a cell, find a site to replicate, and spread.
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Is virology a PhD or MD?

Students who study in Virology receive a PhD in medical sciences.
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How is virology used in diagnosis?

Journal List Elsevier Public Health Emergency Collection PMC7128905

As a library, NLM provides access to scientific literature. Inclusion in an NLM database does not imply endorsement of, or agreement with, the contents by NLM or the National Institutes of Health. Learn more about our disclaimer. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract.2005 Jan; 8(1): 7–26.

Definitive identification of viral infections can be challenging. Sometimes, history and clinical presentation are sufficient to narrow, if not solidify, the diagnosis. Laboratory testing often is required for confirmation of the identity of the infectious agent. Although commitments of time and money are involved, verification of the pathogen identity is important.

Many diseases present with vague or similar symptoms and lesions. Depending upon the agent, aspects such as prognosis, treatment protocol, and control measures will be impacted by the diagnosis. In addition, identification of the infecting pathogen will aid surveillance and may be required by regulations that pertain to trade and transport.

  • Finally, some agents have zoonotic potential,,
  • Impediments to viral diagnoses exist.
  • The variety of techniques and methods for detection of viral infection is nearly as diverse as the viruses themselves.
  • Deciding which assay is most suitable in each case can be daunting.
  • In addition, there is little, if any, standardization among diagnostic laboratories; this impacts the interpretation of results.

The advent of newer molecular assays also offers challenges to the practitioner in terms of understanding the technique and assessing the results appropriately. Finally, proper interpretation of results can be difficult, especially with regard to serologic assays.

  • Diagnostic virology in its simplest form involves two avenues—detection of the virus itself and characterization of the host antibody response to the infecting virus.
  • The assays that are involved vary in methodology, expense, availability, sensitivity, and specificity.
  • This article provides an overview of some of the more common techniques that are used and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

First, it is important to remember that the results that are received from the various assays depend, in large part, on the quality of the specimen that was submitted. For antibody assays, this is straightforward, because only serum is required. It may be advantageous to ship these samples cooled in warm climes or during hotter time periods to prevent bacterial growth and antibody destruction.

  1. Proper sampling and shipment for virus detection may be more involved.
  2. For many assays (eg, antigen detection assays), the virus need not remain viable.
  3. In these situations, rapid shipment and cooling during transport are not required.
  4. For some assays, however, degradation of the virus during transport will necessitate cooling during shipment.

This often is true for genetic detection that uses polymerase chain reaction. Many viral genomes, especially those of RNA viruses, are labile. For virus propagation, the virus must remain infectious from the moment it is collected until it reaches the laboratory.
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