The Study Of Classical Texts Caused Humanists To Focus On What Subject?


The Study Of Classical Texts Caused Humanists To Focus On What Subject

Question Answer
The study of classical text caused humanist to focus on what subject? human potential and achievement.
The first use of movable type was used where? China.
The printing press was invented by? Johann Gutenberg.
What was the first full size book Gutenberg printed? the Bible.

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What did the study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on?

Classics Lead to Humanism The study of classical texts led to humanism, an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teaching as medieval scholars had, humanists studied them to understand ancient Greek values.
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What subjects did humanists focus on?

A Humanist Education – Erasmus was important in one other area: education for everybody. It was all very well for scholars to debate the ideals of education in theory but more practical offerings were needed to achieve the humanist goal of widening education.

  • Erasmus, therefore, wrote many textbooks such as his hugely popular On Copia (1512), which taught students how to argue, revise texts, and produce new ones.
  • His 1521 On Writing Letters taught how to best write letters, aim for specific audiences, and employ eloquent expressions.
  • Erasmus even produced guides for those wishing to establish a school and compiled recommended syllabuses.

Humanists emphasised the importance of an education which covered the liberal arts of rhetoric, moral philosophy, grammar, history, and poetry. Physical exercise, just like in ancient, was also considered an essential part of a rounded education that resulted in young people being able to realise their potential and become good citizens.
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What subject did the study of classical texts cause humanists to focus on quizlet?

The study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what subject? Roman law and government. For what is the Medici family famous? For being rulers and religious supporters of the arts.
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What was the intellectual and cultural movement known as humanism?

The great intellectual movement of Renaissance Italy was humanism. The humanists believed that the Greek and Latin classics contained both all the lessons one needed to lead a moral and effective life and the best models for a powerful Latin style.
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What subject from ancient times did humanists study?

The humanist agenda – Humanists sought to rediscover lost and forgotten texts, purge them of mistakes made by monastic scribes through a rigorous analysis, and circulate them in handwritten copies (later, with the advent of the printing press, humanists began to publish printed versions of these texts).

  • In the mid-fifteenth century, after the introduction of Greek texts into Italy due to Ottoman attacks on the Byzantine Empire, humanists translated these texts into Latin, making them more accessible to those who could not read Greek.
  • They often made copious annotations in these manuscripts to help the reader understand them.

Moreover, they often published their own works which consciously emulated the style and substance of the ancient authors. At their core, humanists were educators. They devised their educational program, the studia humanitatis, in complete opposition to the tradition (based on logic and theology) that had gained prominence in the middle ages.

Humanists wanted a curriculum that would not make theologians but make citizens useful to governments and society. They placed five disciplines in the curriculum of the studia humanitatis : grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. Each of these disciplines served a specific purpose in fostering virtuous, active citizens of the city-states.

These subjects, based on reading Latin (and, later, Greek) authors was to arm citizens with the eloquence, morality, and examples of virtuous behavior of the ancients. The values of the ancient Romans and Greeks would perfect citizens and help them realize their potential as individuals endowed with free will to know the good and to act on it.

Like Plato and other ancient philosophers that preceded them, the humanists aspired to have princes implement their ideas of moral reform. Many, like Leon Battista Alberti, had grand visions of city-planning, which only a prince or a government could execute. Humanists also sought to change Italian society at the individual level by creating uomini universali —well-rounded men who could be useful to society.

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Although having diverse views on philosophical matters, humanists were united by a secular view of humanity’s place in the world. They gave orations on and debated the idea of the dignity of man. This concept gained momentum with the revival of after Marsilio Ficino’s translation of the entire corpus of Plato’s extant works in 1469 and his harmonizing of Christian theology with Platonic ideas.

Ficino’s pupil, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, took this idea further in his Oration on the Dignity of Man, written in 1486. Pico argued that in the humans occupied a privileged space due their capacity to learn and grow as individuals. They were the median between God and animal and plant life; and they could become “terrestrial gods” due to this thirst for knowledge or stagnate from ignorance.

Human dignity lay in this free will—humans could choose where they stood in the chain of being and played a role in shaping themselves and the world. Moreover, humanists not only praised human dignity but also the human body. Rather than being something to hide and be ashamed of, humanists and artists of the renaissance began to depict for the first time since antiquity favorable images of the nude human body, and on a large scale not seen since antiquity.

  • For instance, Venus was portrayed in her classical pose, the Venus pudica —naked but modestly covering her nudity with her arms and long hair rather than as a fully clothed aristocratic woman, as medieval artists had portrayed the goddess.
  • The motif of the Venus pudica is best represented by Botticelli’s Birth of Venus, commissioned by the Medici family in the early 1480s.

Even biblical figures could be portrayed in their human nakedness. Nothing like this was possible before 1400 since medieval moralists had nothing but contempt for the human body, seeing it as a receptacle of sin and generally depicted it negatively.
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What is humanists the study about?

Classical Mythology – A study of classical myths in their cultural context and in their wider application to abiding human concerns (such as creation, generation, sex and gender, identity, heroic experience, death, transformations, and transcendence).
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Did humanism focus on religion?

During the Renaissance period in Italy a growth of an idea called Humanism began. This was a time period when man focused on his own enlightenment and less on religious strength.
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Did humanists focus on worldly subjects rather than religious ones?

Humanism – intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. Humanists were usually Christians who believed that the individual in the here and now had an important role to play. Education was important. Emphasis on individual achievement.
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What was the focus of the humanism movement?

Humanism did not aim to remake humanity but rather aimed to reform social order through an understanding of what was basically and inalienably human.
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What caused the humanism movement?

Origins of Humanism – Renaissance Humanism began in the later 13th century when Europeans’ hunger for studying classical texts coincided with a desire to imitate those authors in style. They weren’t to be direct copies but drew on old models, picking up vocabulary, styles, intentions, and form.

Each half needed the other: You had to understand the texts to take part in the fashion, and doing so drew you back to Greece and Rome. But what developed wasn’t a set of second-generation mimics; Renaissance Humanism began to use knowledge, love, and maybe even obsession with the past to change how they and others saw and thought about their own era.

It was not a pastiche, but a new consciousness, including a new historical perspective giving a historically based alternative to “medieval” ways of thinking. Humanism began to affect culture and society and powered, in large part, what we now call the Renaissance.

Humanists operating before Petrarch, called “Proto-Humanists,” were mainly in Italy. They included Lovato Dei Lovati (1240–1309), a Paduan judge who may have been the first to mix reading Latin poetry with writing modern classical poetry to major effect. Others tried, but Lovato achieved far more, recovering among other things Seneca’s tragedies.

A hunger for bringing old texts back to the world was characteristic of Humanists. This searching was vital because much of the material was scattered and forgotten. But Lovato had limits, and his prose style stayed medieval. His pupil, Mussato, connected his studies of the past to contemporary issues and wrote in the classical style to comment on politics.
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What was the humanist movement based on?

Humanistic Studies – Probably the most widely accepted definition of humanism is that it was the broad educational, literary, and cultural movement involving the studia humanitatis —grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy, based on the standard ancient authors in Latin and, to a lesser extent, Greek.

Humanistic studies generated a greater emphasis on man, a tendency toward concrete self expression, a fundamental classicism, and efforts to revive or restate the philosophical and other views of ancient writers by those who studied the humanities. Hence, a humanist was a scholar, teacher, or student of the humanities based on the classics.

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This is the definition proposed by Paul Oskar Kristeller (b.1905–d.1999), first articulated in 1945 and repeated and developed in many books and articles since. Kristeller 1965 and Kristeller 1979 offer synoptic treatments of his understanding of humanism, while Kristeller 1956–1996 provides many concrete examples of his scholarship on particular topics.

Celenza, Christopher S. The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanists, Historians, and Latin’s Legacy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. Save Citation » Export Citation » Share Citation » Chapter 2, pp.16–57 and 167–178, contrasts Kristeller’s synchronic approach to humanism with Eugenio Garin’s diachronic approach. See also comments on Hans Baron’s civic humanism thesis, pp.36–39. Find this resource:

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Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Studies in Renaissance Thought and Letters,4 vols. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1956–1996. Save Citation » Export Citation » Share Citation » Collection of many of Kristeller’s articles on humanism, rhetoric, philosophy, medicine, and other topics.

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Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought II: Papers on Humanism and the Arts, New York: Harper and Row, 1965. Save Citation » Export Citation » Share Citation » Has articles on humanism, Platonism, Aristotelianism, and the influence of humanism on vernacular literature, music, and painting. Find this resource:

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Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought and Its Sources, Edited by Michael Mooney. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. Save Citation » Export Citation » Share Citation » Collects some of Kristeller’s most important articles defining humanism, its connections with the Middle Ages and Byzantine learning, and humanistic concepts of the dignity of man. Find this resource:

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Monfasani, John, ed. Kristeller Reconsidered: Essays on His Life and Scholarship, New York: Italica, 2006. Save Citation » Export Citation » Share Citation » Assessments by sixteen scholars of Kristeller’s contributions to Renaissance studies. Find this resource:

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Why did humanists study?

Humanism During the Renaissance – Humanism was an important philosophy that helped ignite the curiosity and desire for knowledge that led to the beginning of the Renaissance. By the 13th century, people began wanting to learn more about classic Greek and Roman culture, literature, and philosophy.

  • This study began to affect how people saw the world.
  • One major effect was that people began questioning the systems they were living in.
  • Humanists believed people should be educated in classical art, literature, and science.
  • They also believed that God gave humanity great potential and that humans should make the most of it rather than blindly following a religious plan.

Humanism spread through the 14th and 16th centuries inspiring the work of many important artists, scientists, and philosophers.
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What 4 things did humanists study?

Renaissance – David by Michelangelo, 1501–1504. Artistic work during the Renaissance illustrates the emphasis given to anatomical details of humans. The intellectual movement later known as Renaissance humanism first appeared in Italy and has greatly influenced both contemporaneous and modern Western culture.

  • Renaissance humanism emerged in Italy alongside a renewed interest in literature and the arts in 13th-century Italy.
  • Italian scholars discovered Ancient Greek thought, particularly that of Aristotle, through Arabic translations from Africa and Spain.
  • Other centers were Verona, Naples, and Avignon,
  • Petrarch, who is often referred to as the father of humanism, is a significant figure.

Petrarch was raised in Avignon; he was inclined toward education at a very early age and studied alongside his well-educated father. Petrarch’s enthusiasm for ancient texts led him to discover manuscripts such as Cicero’s Pro Archia and Pomponius Mela ‘s De Chorographia that were influential in the development of the Renaissance.

  1. Petrarch wrote Latin poems such as Canzoniere and De viris illustribus, in which he described humanist ideas.
  2. His most-significant contribution was a list of books outlining the four major disciplines—rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry, and grammar—that became the basis of humanistic studies ( studia humanitatis ).

Petrarch’s list relied heavily on ancient writers, especially Cicero. The revival of classicist authors continued after Petrarch’s death. Florence chancellor and humanist Coluccio Salutati made his city a prominent center of Renaissance humanism; his circle included other notable humanists—including Leonardo Bruni, who rediscovered, translated, and popularized ancient texts.

Humanists heavily influenced education. Vittorino da Feltre and Guarino Veronese created schools based on humanistic principles; their curriculum was widely adopted and by the 16th century, humanistic paideia was the dominant outlook of pre-university education. Parallel with advances in education, Renaissance humanists made progress in fields such as philosophy, mathematics, and religion.

In philosophy, Angelo Poliziano, Nicholas of Cusa, and Marsilio Ficino further contributed to the understanding of ancient classical philosophers and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola undermined the dominance of Aristotelian philosophy by revitalizing Sextus Empiricus ‘ skepticism.

  1. Religious studies were affected by the growth of Renaissance humanism when Pope Nicholas V initiated the translation of Hebrew and Greek biblical texts, and other texts in those languages, to contemporaneous Latin.
  2. Humanist values spread from Italy in the 15th century.
  3. Students and scholars went to Italy to study before returning to their homelands carrying humanistic messages.
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Printing houses dedicated to ancient texts were established in Venice, Basel, and Paris. By the end of 15th century, the center of humanism had shifted from Italy to northern Europe, with Erasmus of Rotterdam being the leading humanist scholar. The longest-lasting effect of Renaissance humanism was its education curriculum and methods.
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What was a classical idea that humanists began to believe?

Humanism During the Renaissance – Humanism was an important philosophy that helped ignite the curiosity and desire for knowledge that led to the beginning of the Renaissance. By the 13th century, people began wanting to learn more about classic Greek and Roman culture, literature, and philosophy.

This study began to affect how people saw the world. One major effect was that people began questioning the systems they were living in. Humanists believed people should be educated in classical art, literature, and science. They also believed that God gave humanity great potential and that humans should make the most of it rather than blindly following a religious plan.

Humanism spread through the 14th and 16th centuries inspiring the work of many important artists, scientists, and philosophers.
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What did humanists in the Renaissance begin to focus on?

Later Developments – Many of the concepts of Renaissance Humanism, from its emphasis on the individual to its concept of the genius, the importance of education, the viability of the classics, and its simultaneous pursuit of art and science became foundational to Western culture.

As a result, subsequent artistic eras often defined themselves in comparison or in reaction to the principles, subject matter, and aesthetic values and concepts of Humanism. Mannerist painting, reacting against Renaissance Humanism’s classical ideals of proportion and illusionistic space, created disproportionate figures in flat often-crowded settings with uncertain perspective.

In contrast, the art of the Baroque period returned to classical principles of figuration and perspective, while emphasizing naturalistic rather than idealized treatments. Yet, both Mannerism and Baroque eras built upon the mythological subject matter of Humanism, though further secularizing it, and took individualism as a tenet that drove the movement toward the psychological and the idiosyncratic.

This back and forth continued in subsequent eras, as the Rococo period, known for its light-hearted and pastel depictions of the individual in aristocratic life or in genres focused on ordinary people was followed by the Neoclassical period, which, once again, emphasized the classical principles and heroic subject matter of ancient Rome.

Nevertheless, the concepts of Renaissance Humanism continued to be foundational and were subsequently developed, as the spirit of experimentation, inquiry, and discovery fueled the Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason. Individualism developed into the feeling and imagination of the Romantic era, and, combined with the concept of the republic and civic virtue and public education, informed American independence and the French Revolution.

As historians Hugh Honour and John Fleming noted, Renaissance Humanism advanced “the new idea of self-reliance and civic virtue” among the common people, combined with a belief in the uniqueness, dignity, and value of human life. As historian Charles G. Nauert wrote, “this humanistic philosophy overthrew the social and economic restraints of feudal, pre-capitalist Europe, broke the power of the clergy, and discarded ethical restraints on politics.laid the foundations for the modern absolute, secular state and even for the remarkable growth of natural science.” Artists like Michelangelo, da Vinci, Botticelli, and architects like Brunelleschi, Alberti, and Palladio, were viewed as masters informing subsequent generations of artists, whether reinterpreting their works or challenging them.

For instance, Salvador Dalí revisited both Albrecht Dürer’s iconic Rhinoceros print and da Vinci’s Last Supper in Surrealist configurations. Cindy Sherman photographed herself in the pose of Caravaggio’s Sick Bacchus, while Nat Krate has reconfigured da Vinci’s work in her Vitruvian Woman (1989).
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How did classical texts contribute to the Renaissance?

1.1.1: A revival of classical texts led to new methods of scholarship and new values in both society and religion. – 1.1.1.A: Italian Renaissance humanists, including Petrarch, promoted a revival in classical literature and created new philological approaches to ancient texts. Some Renaissance humanists furthered the values of secularism and individualism,

Petrarch (pre-1450)Lorenzo VallaMarsilio FicinoPico della Mirandola

1.1.1.B: Humanist revival of Greek and Roman texts, spread by the printing press, challenged the institutional power of universities and the Catholic Church. This shifted education away from a primary focus on theological writings toward classical texts and new methods of scientific inquiry. 

Leonardo BruniLeon Battista AlbertiNiccolò Machiavelli

​ ​1.1.1.C: Admiration for Greek and Roman political institutions supported a revival of civic humanist culture in the Italian city-states and produced secular models for individual and political behavior. 

Niccolò MachiavelliJean BodinBaldassare CastiglioneFrancesco Guicciardini

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What is the classical idea of humanism?

The phrase classical humanism combines both of these meanings: it is the cultivation of a certain mentality, sensibility, and vision through the educational use of classical contents and through the traditions, practices, and values that that use has established.
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