Physical Anthropologists Study Only Africa, Where Humans Evolved?


Physical Anthropologists Study Only Africa, Where Humans Evolved
Anth 120 Test 1 Flashcards For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report?Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis.

  1. Your report uses the scientific method.
  2. Your report does not identify past literature on the topic.
  3. Your report uses all four fields of anthropological inquiry.
  4. How can physical anthropologists understand human biological variation?They can investigate genes, as they are the primary determinant of human variation.

They can study health, as most human variation is the result of health differences.they can focus on lifestyle, because an individual’s lifestyle is the main reason why humans vary. They can examine how genes, health, and lifestyle all work together to impact human variation.

Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominin ancestors from apes. Which of the following is a possible reason for this?Physical anthropologists do not study modern humans; they study only ancient hominins.

Human evolution occurs only in Africa and thus cannot help us to understand a range of contemporary people. Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival and day-to-day living. The origin of bipedal walking in our hominin ancestors is more important than variation in genes for disease susceptibility among modern people.
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Do physical anthropologists study only humans?

physical anthropology, branch of anthropology concerned with the origin, evolution, and diversity of people. Physical anthropologists work broadly on three major sets of problems: human and nonhuman primate evolution, human variation and its significance ( see also race ), and the biological bases of human behaviour,

  1. The course that human evolution has taken and the processes that have brought it about are of equal concern.
  2. In order to explain the diversity within and between human populations, physical anthropologists must study past populations of fossil hominins as well as the nonhuman primates,
  3. Much light has been thrown upon the relation to other primates and upon the nature of the transformation to human anatomy and behaviour in the course of evolution from early hominins to modern people—a span of at least four million years.

The processes responsible for the differentiation of people into geographic populations and for the overall unity of Homo sapiens include natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, migration, and genetic recombination, Objective methods of isolating various kinds of traits and dealing mathematically with their frequencies, as well as their functional or phylogenetic significance, make it possible to understand the composition of human populations and to formulate hypotheses concerning their future. Physical Anthropologists Study Only Africa, Where Humans Evolved More From Britannica anthropology: Physical anthropology
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What do physical anthropologists study humans as?

A physical anthropologist is a scientist who studies the biology of human beings. Physical anthropology is one of four subfields of anthropology—the other three being cultural anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics. Physical anthropologists study human evolution and human biological diversity (both past and present) in the context of culture, history, and behavior. Some physical anthropologists also study nonhuman primates, such as chimpanzees. Acknowledgments | Illustration credits | To borrow, cite, or request permission | Please take our survey! Title page for Peoples of the Mesa Verde Region Copyright © 2011, 2014 by Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, All rights reserved.

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Why is Africa so important in the study of anthropology?

Africa has occupied a central place in the making of anthropology as a discipline. Ethnographic studies of African contexts generated leading theories of kinship and society, money and economy, ritual and religion, violence, law, and political order.
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What kind of physical anthropologists specialize in the study of human evolution?

Paleoanthropology. Paleoanthropologists study human ancestors from the distant past to learn how, why, and where they evolved. Because these ancestors lived before there were written records, paleoanthropologists have to rely on various types of physical evidence to come to their conclusions.
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Do biological anthropologists only study in Africa?

All of the choices are correct. Physical anthropologists study only Africa, where humans evolved. Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are equivalent. Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present.
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Does anthropology study non-human species?

Biological anthropology investigates human and nonhuman primate biological evolution and variation by studying biology (especially the skeleton), evolutionary theory, inheritance, the fossil record, and living primates. It looks at interrelationships between behavior, ecology, and biology.

  • Biological anthropologists study human biology and evolution and work in very diverse fields.
  • One field, primatology, studies nonhuman primates (including lemurs, monkeys, and apes) to learn about their behavior and evolution, to place human evolution in context, and to aid conservation efforts.
  • Paleoanthropologists study the fossil record of humans and other bipedal primates (“hominins”) like Neanderthals and “Lucy” to understand how humans evolved.

Forensic anthropologists apply their knowledge of anatomy to help identify human skeletal remains and work in medical and legal fields. Forensic anthropologists also work internationally in human rights cases, helping to give justice to the victims and closure to their families.

  1. Evolutionary medicine seeks to answer questions about why we get the diseases we get, what health issues are more common in certain areas, and what health, nutritional, medical strategies are used in different cultures.
  2. To learn more about careers in these other areas of anthropology, check out the careers page.

Consult with faculty on elective and minor courses and experiences to help prepare.
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What anthropologists study human evolution?

Biological Anthropology Biological anthropology is the study of human biological variation and evolution. Biological anthropologists seek to document and explain the patterning of biological variation among contemporary human populations, trace the evolution of our lineage through time in the fossil record, and provide a comparative perspective on human uniqueness by placing our species in the context of other living primates.

Students concentrating in biological anthropology are advised to take a course in statistics, as well as one or more advanced courses in biological sciences. ANTH 06 The origin of our species has long been a topic of deep curiosity for humans. In this course, we will look at the scientific evidence for the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens.

This course will use data from evolutionary theory, primatology, comparative anatomy, genetics, and paleontology to understand the latest hypotheses regarding human evolution and modern human behavioral biology. (BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 12.18 Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of anthropology and its subfields, including Biological (physical) Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology (Ethnology), and Archeology, in a legal setting.

  1. Traditionally the forensic anthropologist will assist law enforcement agencies in the retrieval and identification of unidentified human remains.
  2. This course will introduce the student to various anthropological sub-disciplines used in the fields of forensics, including: (1) search for clandestine burials; (2) excavation and retrieval of human remains; (3) identification of human remains (sex, age, race, cause of death, and pathology); (4) handling of evidence; (5) interaction with law enforcement agencies; (6) presentation of data, results and evidence; (7) review of forensic and anthropological case studies; and (8) guest lectures.
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(ARCH, BIOL) Dist: SCI ANTH 20 Humans are primates. The biology of our species cannot be fully understood outside of this context. This course offers a broad survey of living nonhuman primate diversity. The physical, behavioral, and ecological attributes of each of the major groups of primates will be discussed.

  1. Emphasis will be placed on traits relating to diet, locomotion, growth, mating, and social systems.
  2. Students will gain a comparative perspective on humankind.
  3. BIOL) Dist: SCI.
  4. ANTH 25 This course is an introduction to the physical principles and musculoskeletal anatomies that underlie primate behavior, including especially primate locomotion and diet.

We will study basic mechanics, bone biology, soft tissue and skeletal anatomy, primate behavioral diversity, and the primate fossil record in order to address why bones are shaped the way they are, and how scientists reconstruct behavior from fossils.

  1. Emphasis will be on primate locomotion, including the origins and evolution of human bipedalism.
  2. BIOL) Dist: SCI ANTH 38 The human condition is characterized by immense biological and behavioral variation.
  3. The extent to which such variation is adaptive is topic a great importance and controversy.
  4. Current research in the field of human behavioral ecology reflects a growing interaction between the social and biological sciences.

The objectives of this course are to critically examine the origin and development of this discipline and to survey the physiological and behavioral ways that humans interact with their environment. (BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 40 Anatomy is a science of nomenclature; it provides a universal language for understanding how and why form supports function.

Such a biomechanical conceptual framework can inform our understanding of human biology. Yet the anatomical novelties that characterize modern humans are best appreciated when contextualized against living nonhuman primates and the hominin fossil record. Student grades will be based on a mastery of concepts from lectures and labs featuring cadavers, skeletal materials, models, and casts.

(BIOL) Dist: SLA. ANTH 41 The fossil record demonstrates that humans evolved from an extinct ape that lived in Africa more than 5 million years ago. Paleoanthropology is the branch of biological anthropology that seeks to document and explain the evolution of our lineage using paleontological and archaeological data.

This course provides a survey of human evolution in light of current scientific debates in paleoanthropology. Emphasis will be placed on the use of bones and teeth to infer the biology and behavior of prehistoric species. Prerequisite: Anthropology 6 or permission of the instructor. (BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 42 Human anatomy is important for medical professionals, artists, and anthropologists.

This dissection-based course will explore the human body and its many imperfections. The deficiencies of our bodies —clumsy compromises in our teeth, feet, backs, bottoms, and birthings— are chronic clinical concerns that reflect our evolutionary history.

Taking a cue from Wilton Krogman’s 1951 classic, Scars of Human Evolution, this course will demonstrate how and how far the human body fails by the standards of intelligent design. (BIOL) Dist: SLA ANTH 43 Human osteology is an important component of biological anthropology, with applications in archaeology, paleontology, forensics, and medicine.

This course is designed to acquaint students with the normal anatomy of the human skeleton. Our focus is the identification of isolated and fragmentary skeletal remains. Students are introduced to principles of bone growth and remodeling, biomechanics, morphological variation within and between populations, pathology, ancient DNA, taphonomy, and forensics.

Practical techniques are developed in regular laboratory sessions. Prerequisite: Anthropology 6 or permission of the instructor. (BIOL) Dist: SLA. ANTH 50.30 Human and Comparative Gross Anatomy is a laboratory class that offers undergraduate students the rare opportunity to learn anatomy through anatomical dissection.

Students will work in small teams to dissect human body donors, with various other vertebrate animals also available for dissection and study. Cadaver dissection is the best method by which to learn about the structures of the human body, their integration, and, most importantly, variation among humans.

This is an intensive course, requiring hours of study both in the lab and from texts, but it rewards you for those hours with a strong understanding of anatomy. (BIOL) Dist: SLA ANTH 50.43 This course will introduce students to the impacts of genocide, war, and other forms of structural violence on population, individual, and environmental health.

Students will examine these impacts primarily from public health, life history, and ecosystem perspectives. This course also asks students to think critically about opportunities for scholarly contributions to prevent and/or mitigate these impacts. (CULT or BIOL) Dist: SOC WCult: NW ANTH 50.44 This course explores what we have learned about human evolution, behavior, and biological diversity in the 150 years since Charles Darwin wrote The Descent of Man.

  • The course will coincide with a Winter symposium in which the contributing authors of A Most Interesting Problem: What Darwin’s Descent of Man Got Right and Wrong about Human Evolution will visit campus, give talks, and engage with our students.
  • ANTH 50.44 is designed for anthropology and biology majors.

(BIOL) Dist: SCI ANTH 62 This course explores how principles from biological anthropology can provide insight into human health and disease. This course also asks students to critically analyze prevailing medical concepts of ‘normal’ physiology and illness.

i) human diet and nutrition ii) demography, life history, and reproduction iii) pathogens, parasites, and immunity.

(BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 64 This course examines human universals and cross-cultural variation in pregnancy, birth, and infant development. In the first section, principles of life history theory and human reproductive ecology are introduced, and students will learn how assisted birth evolved in humans.

In the second section, students will analyze expectations and systems of pregnancy, birth, and infant care in a cross-cultural context. Throughout the course, students will evaluate current controversies surrounding medical models of childbirth, breastfeeding, and co-sleeping. (BIOL) Dist: INT or SCI.

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ANTH 66 How do human populations adapt to their local environments? What is more important for influencing human variation—genes or the environment? In this course you will learn about patterns of modern human biological variation as well as research methods employed by biological anthropologists to study these patterns.

You will also learn important skills for all anthropologists, including hypothesis generation, study design, how to write a grant, and how to be an effective reviewer. (BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 70 This course will examine current evidence for human origins and evolution, with a particular emphasis on South Africa.

Students will learn and experience firsthand how fossils, archaeological sites, and living model systems are used collectively to reconstruct and interpret the path and circumstances by which we became human. A course extension in South Africa will be offered to enable direct experience with the sites, organisms, and challenges discussed in class.

(BIOL) Dist: SCI. ANTH 74 Culminating experience. Contemporary foraging peoples are often viewed as ecological relicts and therefore instructive models for understanding the selective pressures that gave rise to the human condition. The objective of this course is to critically evaluate this enduring concept by examining the spectrum of human interactions with tropical habitats.

We will also evaluate the basis of recent popular trends – the paleo diet, raw foodism, barefoot running, parent-child co-sleeping – that emphasize the advantages of a “natural” pre-agricultural lifestyle. (BIOL) Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. ANTH 76 Culminating experience.

This is an advanced course designed to explore in-depth both the historical and current understandings of human bipedalism. This course is reading-intensive, with an average of 5 primary journal papers assigned per meeting. We will investigate hypotheses for why bipedalism evolved, the form of locomotion bipedalism evolved from, and the fossil evidence for early hominin bipedality in the ardipithecines and australopithecines.

(BIOL) Dist: SCI. : Biological Anthropology
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How do physical anthropologists know what they know?

What Is the Difference Between a Physical Anthropologist & a Cultural Anthropologist? By Chron Contributor Updated March 08, 2021 Anthropology is the social science that focuses on the study of human beings, emphasizing their social, cultural and physical development.

Cultural anthropology and physical anthropology are two of the major fields of anthropology. Although cultural and physical anthropologists strive to understand human beings and society, they emphasize different aspects of human development. Cultural anthropology, as the name suggests, studies human beings by examining the culture of different groups and societies.

Culture refers to the collection of a society’s beliefs, values, customs and traditions, according to the anthropology department at, Cultural anthropologists study all aspects of human society, including family units, political and economic systems, religious beliefs, and even the ways in which societies feed and clothe themselves.

  1. Physical anthropology, in contrast, emphasizes the biological development of humans over time.
  2. Human evolution is a major element of physical anthropology, which is sometimes called biological anthropology.
  3. Physical anthropology includes the study how people adapt to their physical environment, as well as how culture and biology work together to shape human development, according to the The research methods physical and cultural anthropologists employ help define the differences between the two specialties.

explains that cultural anthropology emphasizes participant observation as a research technique. Under this method, researchers immerse themselves for an extended length of time in the society or group they wish to study. An example of cultural anthropology research would be a study of a tribe in a remote part of the world.

Cultural anthropologists immerse themselves in the life of tribe members for months at a time. By participating in the group’s daily life, the researcher gains first-hand knowledge of the culture and how the group contends with the challenges of everyday life. Physical anthropologists employ research techniques similar to those of biologists and paleontologists.

To understand human physical development and evolution, physical anthropologists study prehistoric evidence, fossil records, other primates (such as monkeys and apes), and the biology and genetics of living humans. Although physical anthropologists may conduct field research similar to that of their counterparts in cultural anthropology, much of their work occurs in a laboratory.

  1. Through their study of human cultures and societies, cultural anthropologists can yield valuable insights into the behavior patterns of human societies and help understand how different societies approach such concerns as education, health, power and justice.
  2. Research by cultural anthropologists helps reveal the similarities and differences in the ways human societies approach these and other issues.

Studies are published in professional journals and textbooks. In contrast, physical anthropologists’ work provides greater understanding of human evolution over time, improving knowledge of human responses to disease and other physical challenges. Some physical anthropologists, known as forensic anthropologists, apply their knowledge to assist law enforcement authorities, analyzing skeletal evidence to determine cause of death and even identify unknown remains.
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Is physical anthropology the study of human biology?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an evolutionary perspective.
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Why does the study of Africa matter?

  1. About
  2. Why Study Africa?

Physical Anthropologists Study Only Africa, Where Humans Evolved Africa is a vital region with some of the fastest growing economies in the world; it is a continent of thousands of languages and cultures, unparalleled eco-diversity, and over a billion vibrant and innovative people. The relevance of African issues is apparent in our everyday lives.

  • We use African products, exports, or mineral resources, sometimes unknowingly – and are unaware of the consequences for people and the environment.
  • By the year 2050, at least 25% of the world’s population will be in Africa,
  • Now more than ever is the time to incorporate long-ignored African knowledge into our worldview.

Studying African history and politics gives us a deeper understanding of world history and especially of current events. For example, the profits the United States reaped from the trans-Atlantic slave trade jumpstarted our industrial revolution and laid the economic foundations of this nation.
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What is the most accepted out of Africa model in anthropology?

The Out of Africa model posits that all living humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) descend from a population that first appeared in Africa and subsequently spread throughout that continent and across the remainder of the globe, replacing existing hominin populations such as the Neanderthals.
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What two kinds of human forms do physical anthropologists study?

Abstract – Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy.

  1. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations.
  2. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative.
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Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States.

  • There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases).
  • Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems.
  • The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis.

If supported, these could turn physical anthropology’s search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums.
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What do physical anthropologists include?

Physical anthropology definition is the study of human beings’ biology, evolution, physical variation, and behavior. These areas of study are all included in physical anthropology’s various branches, including the biological and social sciences, human evolution and origins, and genetics and epidemiology.
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Do physical anthropologists study genetics?

Physical Anthropology – Physical Anthropology is also known as Biological Anthropology, so if you see the words, “Biological Anthropology,” somewhere, don’t worry, it’s the same thing as Physical Anthropology. Physical Anthropology is an older term, and Biological Anthropology is a newer term.

  • I was taught under the term, “Physical Anthropology,” so that’s what I use.
  • Physical Anthropology is the study of the human body.
  • This includes a study of genetics, anatomy, the skeleton, adaptation to diseases, adaptations to the environment, growth, nutrition, human origins and evolution, human variation, primates, and more.

That seems like a lot, right? But it all boils down to 4 general topics: First, genetics & evolution. Second, human adaptation and variation. Third, the primates. And fourth, the human fossil record. There are many subfields within Physical Anthropology, including:

OsteologyPaleopathologyBioarchaeologyForensic AnthropologyPaleoanthropologyMolecular anthropologyNutritional AnthropologyHuman BiologyPrimatology

Here’s a brief description of what each of these subfields involves.
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Do anthropologists only study other cultures not their own?

Anthropologists only study other cultures, not their own. Most contemporary anthropologists believe that societies ‘progress’ through the same stages of development, often referred to as savagery, barbarism, and civilization.
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What are out of Africa models in anthropology?

The Out of Africa hypothesis is a model for the origin and dispersal of modern humans. The hypothesis contends that humans evolved in East Africa, dispersing to populate the rest of the world from c.70,000 years ago, replacing, rather than interbreeding with, the archaic hominins that were resident outside of Africa.
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Does anthropology study human origin?

Anthropology is the study of the origin and development of human societies and cultures.
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Why do physical anthropologists study non-human primates?

Non-Human Primates Monkeys and apes, our closest living relatives, provide essential clues about the origin and nature of human behavior. Non-human primates alert us to the many, often uncanny similarities between humans and other animals, and the behaviors that define human distinctiveness.

Studies of monkeys and apes in their natural settings in particular help us to model the ecological and social circumstances under which novel human behaviors arose. Projects CHES primatologists are conducting field studies of monkeys and apes in Indonesia and Kenya to learn more about the roots of human social behavior by examining the variety of ways in which these relatively large-bodied, brainy, and omnivorous mammals can make a living.

The world of our researchers is also central to the conservation of our closest relatives and their natural habitats, many of which are threatened by human encroachment.
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Why do anthropologists study non-human primates?

Because both humans and most nonhuman primates live in groups, biological anthropologists study primates to better understand the evolution of social behavior and its costs and benefits.
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Does anthropology include the study of animals?

Animals, however, have long been cen- tral to anthropological inquiry. Whether investigating the evolution of humans as a species or attempting to understand humans’ relationships with other humans and with their environments, anthropologists often have paid close attention to animals.
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Why do physical anthropologists study non human primates?

Answer and Explanation: Physical anthropologists study non-human primates because they provide a window into the past, allowing us to imagine what life was like for our earliest human ancestors. Researchers can see how primates’ behaviours and anatomy changed by analyzing their behaviours and body structures.
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What is considered physical anthropology?

Introduction – Biological anthropology, often referred to as physical anthropology, is one of the traditional subfields within anthropology joining with cultural anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology to form the multifaceted core of what constitutes anthropology in the United States.

  1. Outside of the United States, anthropology is oftentimes defined differently and is composed exclusively by the tenets of biological anthropology, with the separate field of ethnography capturing the dimensions of what is cultural anthropology in the United States.
  2. The academic discipline of anthropology is positioned as a social science, but in reality the work of anthropologists today ranges across the broad continuum of humanities, social science, and biological science, with biological anthropology moving toward the science end of this spectrum.

Physical and biological anthropologists are united in the study of humans from what is usually termed the biocultural perspective. Although biological anthropologists are generally trained in all fields of anthropological endeavor, most students focus early and develop the skills, methodologies, and instructional paradigms of their core sub-disciplinary area of interest.

The field is also firmly placed as a science with evolutionary theory as its explanatory core. Because anthropology is united in the study of human culture, biological anthropology is also defined as a social science. Thus, physical and biological study is best described by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists as “a biological science that deals with the adaptations, variability, and evolution of human beings and their living and fossil relatives.

Because it studies human biology in the context of human culture and behavior, physical anthropology is also a social science.” This description, as well as others reproduced in textbooks, underscores the diversity of studies encompassed within the field, a diversity that makes it difficult to synthesize the entire range of research that falls under the umbrella of biological anthropology.
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Why do anthropologists study non human primates?

Because both humans and most nonhuman primates live in groups, biological anthropologists study primates to better understand the evolution of social behavior and its costs and benefits.
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