How To Study Anatomy And Physiology?


How To Study Anatomy And Physiology
Study Tips to Help You Ace Anatomy & Physiology – 1. Read before you go to class.2. Show up to class and take good notes.3. Rote memorization for definitions. Repeat them over and over, and have someone quiz you. A lot of people find it helpful to re-write the definitions after class.

  • You may even make your own flashcards or buy some to help with this.4,
  • Make sure to repeat them out loud.
  • Hearing yourself repeat make it stick much more than merely repeating it silently in your head.
  • Once heard of a man who memorized the entire New Testament of the Bible because he constantly was reading it out loud.5.

Print diagrams and complete them over and over again. Study the picture first, and then use a scanner to print the diagram from the book. If you don’t have a scanner, you can draw your own. By doing this over and over, you’ll learn the body parts.6. Incorporate things you’ve learned into your daily conversations.

  1. For example, let’s say you worked out at the gym, which is a great thing to do as you learn the muscles by the way.
  2. Talk to your friends and say, “I’m going to work out my biceps and my pectoral muscles today.” Try to use specific names for things in your everyday conversation.7.
  3. Make a joke about it.

“Epidermis is showing.” Epidermis is your outer skin.8. Visual Imagery : Obturator muscle laterally rotates femur with hip extension and abduct the femur with flexion. Smooth Obturator.9. Acrostics : Word or sentence in which the word corresponds to another word.

  1. White blood cells from greatest to least: Never Let a Monkey Eat Bananas= Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophil’s, and Basophils.10.
  2. Acronyms : for chest pain treatment: MONA: Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerin, and Aspirin.11.
  3. Practice Quizzes/Study Guides.
  4. Be sure to check out our,
  5. We also have many on YouTube that you may find helpful.

*Disclosure: The items recommended in this article are recommendations based on our own honest personal opinion and experience. We are an affiliate with, and when you buy the products recommended by us, you help support this site. : Anatomy & Physiology Study Tips
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What is the fastest way to memorize anatomy and physiology?

3. Repetition Repetition Repetition – Notice what we did there? This one is fairly obvious, the more you go over something, the more likely you will remember it. The only way to memorize all the different anatomical structures and their functions is to repeat, repeat, and you guessed it, repeat. Many students find re-writing notes to be helpful.
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Is anatomy harder or physiology?

Research suggests students find physiology content more difficult to learn than anatomy (14, 22), but few studies have investigated the drivers behind student difficulty when learning physiology.
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Is it OK to take anatomy and physiology together?

Students should fully understand anatomy first before moving on to physiology, which builds off the knowledge and understanding of anatomy. Combining two courses into one makes students learn both topics simultaneously, which can be difficult.
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Is anatomy and physiology just memorization?

It is mostly just memorization, but you have to pick out what’s high yield.
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Why is anatomy difficult to learn?

Visualization of Structures The most prominent theme emerged from the data to explain why anatomy learning is challenging was related to issues with visualizing structures. These included the difficulties in identifying structures and the need to translate between different dimensionalities.
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Which method is used to study anatomy?

Zennure SA, Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Please type the correct Captcha word to see email ID. Yunus Emre K, Tania M, Guler KY – Department of Anatomy, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Turkey Correspondence: Zennure Sahin, Department of Anatomy, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Turkey, Tel 902124143057 Received: March 10, 2016 | Published: May 23, 2016 Citation: Zennure SA, Yunus EK, Tania M, et al.

Techniques of research in anatomy. MOJ Anat Physiol,2016;2(4):110–115. DOI: 10.15406/mojap.2016.02.00053 Download PDF Using accurate technique in anatomy research is as important as thoroughly knowledge about the human anatomy. The human anatomy is one of the main sciences in medical studies. Research in anatomy sheds new lights on the other medical sciences.

According to the aim and field of the research, select on the technique is important. Recently, many techniques have been used. In this study we reviewed and compared the most common used techniques to evaluate their use in our exams. In anatomy dissection is a research technique frequently used to observe tissue and the human body and for researches.

Before the dissection, the cadavers are embalmed to disinfect and temporary protect against molder. The embalming technique in today is first of all injection correct amount of the embalming solution in an artery in the inguinal region or the neck. The solution is injected in correct rate by a pump and spread to the entire tissue and cells.

The pumping is carried out until the surface colour changes develop; these changes indicate the spread of the solution exactly. The arterial solution concentration and the injected total volume changes according to some parameters’ such as body weight, degree of the decay and degree of the dehydration.1 The cheaper embalming techniques than the others in today is that the formalin pumping to carotis communis artery 10% in winter and 12-15% in summer.

  1. The solution must have an average of 7-10kg.
  2. It is carried out until practically the sparkling blood comes from the mouth and nose of the cadaver.
  3. Also there is the more expensive technique.
  4. This technique has ½ lt 96% alcohol in the 7.5kg water and 2 lt.
  5. Formalin mix or the other solution is the 1lt.96% alcohol and 2lt.

phenol mix in the 7 kg Pure glycerin. Glycerin provides softness and alcohol provides to liquefy the lipids. The tanks in which the cadavers are steadily in there have 10-15% solutions of the 3% crystallized phenol.2 Different solutions have been used for embalming technique for years.

The preparator who Will embalm the cadaver, must have information about the structure will see in that day before start to daily study. The preparator must use tools accurately and as possible as must be attempted to blunt working. The preparator must perform dissection carefully as if it is performed on a living creature. The preparator must not remove the structures from themselves locations unless necessary and while the person goes to the deep levels she/he must give up the superficial structures at the same locations as possible as.

It can be possible that the issues can be cut by a sharp instrument to emerge structure into the issues but especially inexperienced people can cut the important structures. The blunt working means that it is an practice technique with the blunt instruments.1 In the blunt working, we can utilize all of the blunt instruments such as our fingers, closed pen set and tip of the scissors.

This working provides to follow the vessels and nerves either they are uncut or the branches of these vessels can be find out. When we use the sharp instruments we can cut and so lose the thin branches however if we use the blunt instruments these thin branches stick the our blunt instrument and we are taken attention.

So we protect to cut these branches.1 The main instruments of dissection are: scalpel, nippers, scissors, dissecting forceps and channeled sound ( Figure 1 ). The second instruments are tissue forceps, retractor, mayo hager, mosquito forceps, handsaw, mallet, hooks etc., ( #fig2Figure 2 ).2 Figure 1 a. Scalpel, b. Dissecting scissors, c. Channelled sound. Figure 2 d. Dissecting forceps, e. Tissue forceps, f. Retractor, g. Mayo hager, h. Mosquito forceps. A beautiful study of the normal function and the pathological condition of an issue is based upon the precise understanding of the microvascular architecture of that issue.4, 5 Light microscopy cannot provide the three-dimensional organization with adequate resolution.

Therefore, the currently used method in the routine examination of the vascular system is scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of corrosion casts.6, 7 It is a standard method, which allows three-dimensional visualization with good resolution of the micro vessels.7‒9 History of vascular corrosion casting and SEM methods The method of corrosion casting has been known since the 16 th century.

On these days Leonardo da Vinci made the first casts by injecting dissolved wax into bovine cerebral ventricles and heart chambers.10 The modern corrosion casting methods are based on the idea of Jan Schwammerdam in the late 17th century dissolved the surrounding tissues after wax injection into the arteries, veins and ducts.

Ruysch and Bidloo used a low melting point metal alloy to make casts of the bronchial tree before the 19th century.10 In 1950s, an important advance in the corrosion casting technique was made when new generated resin products (acrylic resins, polyester resins and silicone) were used as casting media.10 Von Ardenne M (1938) and Zworykin VK (1942) developed the main principles of scanning electron microscope.

A great image can be have by the SEM has a magnification feature and it gives a grand deepness to the image.9, 11 Takuro Murakami introduced the semi-polymerized methyl methacrylate resin for the SEM study of corrosion casts in 1971. It was a great advance for corrosion casting.15‒17 Steps in the microvascular corrosion casting/SEM method The microvascular corrosion casting/SEM method can be used on excised human materials or experimental animals.

Precasting treatment: Before injecting the casting media into the blood vessels, the complete removal of the blood is necessary in order to fill the complete vascular bed and to acquire endothelial cell imprints on the surface of the cast. So, the target organs are perfused with saline or Ringer solution. Injection of casting medium: Right away after the precasting treatment, the injection medium is prepared by adding to the main reagent (resin) a catalyst/accelerator to begin polymerization. The casting media can be injected into the blood vessels using a syringe or a syringe connected to a perfusion device with a flow meter. It is important to adjust correctly the injection pressure in order to fill the vascular bed. Polymerization of casting medium: The injected specimens must be put in a hot water bath (600C) for 12–24hours to hasten or to complete the polymerization of the perfused casting medium. This immersion decreasesthe corrosion time and keeps the injected specimens in their normal form. Corrosive treatment: The encircling tissues must be removed to observe the vascular cast with the SEM. Therefore, the injected specimen is immersed into a highly concentrated (15–20%) sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution (at 600C, overnight or longer). Cleaning of corrosion casts: Washing the cast in running water is important to take away the white saponified materials resulted from the maceration of tissues. Dissection of corrosion casts: Dissection can be performed before the corrosion or during the corrosion or after the corrosion step. Gross dissection and microdissection must be performed to expose the structures of interest. Drying the casts: Air-drying or freeze-drying can be used. Usually, the vascular casts are dried in air is generally in room temperature. Conductive treatment of casts: Because the SEM uses electrons to produce an image, the cast specimen must be electron conductive. So, the sample is coated with a heavy metal (gold), and then observed in SEM with a hastening voltage of 5–10 kV. SEM observation of casts: Important and detailed information about the organization of blood vascular beds of various organs and tissues of humans or experimental animals can be obtained by SEM observation of corrosion casts. This method allows three-dimensional visualization with good resolution of the normal and abnormal microvessels, including the capillaries of various organs and tissues.10, 18, 19 The improved casting methods and the new casting media used together with advanced imaging technologies enable to obtain essential qualitative and quantitative information regarding complex vascular networks both in healthy and diseased organs which are of great help not only to anatomists but, also, to pathologists and clinicians.7, 10, 14

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History, development and using of the microscope It is admitted that two Dutch people was father and his son discovered the microscope. But, in 1590, Zacharias and Hans Jansen put two lenses into a tube and they discovered first real microscopy. After quarter of a century, Italian scientist Geovanni Faber used term of the microscope for he first time.

Then, Dutch Anton von Leuwenhoek used the lenses were the best lenses in that century and he achieved to magnification the objects 270 times.20 Anton von Leuwenhoek produced more than 500 microscope throughout his life. In the 18th century, Robert Hooke and beginning of the 19th century Jackson Lister significantly contributed to development of the microscope.20 Eventually, in 1848, Dutch technician Karl Zeiss, physicist Ernst Abbe together began to produce the high qulity microscopes.

Also, in 1893, Zeiss firm produced the binocular telescope for the first time.20 When be understood that the microscope can use to exam the anatomic structures for the first time in 1921, ear, nose and throat specialist Carl Nylen in Stokholm University used the surgical microscope for an otitis media operation.

Homogeneously lighted to field of the anatomic structure will exam, Stereoscopic image, As will as can be magnified the anatomic structures and pathologies, Can be wathced colourly else three-dimensional on TV the images obtained by the microscope.20, 23, 24

Neural and vascular structures especially perforant branches can be seen much better by the features of the these advantages. And also, we can reach the deep structures with the lesser brain retraction and injury. We can remove the some structures from the brain and spinal cord credibly.

In addition, we can make vessel anastomoses which might be impossible with a different technique.25, 26 The disadvantages of using the microscope are that they are expensive and need an education.24 History, development and using of the endoscope The endoscope was used in the neuro surgeon in 1910 to allow reaching easier the anatomic structures.

After 1970s flexible endoscopies were developed and they were used more common. Especially development of the flexible endoscopes allowed seeing posterior surface of the anatomic and pathologic structures.26 The endoscope has larger outlook than the microscope but the endoscope don’t allow performing the technique of microsurgery.

  1. It only allows to cutting, drilling, conduct a biopsy and etc.
  2. Some of the advantages of these endoscopes are a highimage quality, ease to use, can be sterilize easy and can easily adapt to stereotaxic systems.
  3. The most important disadvantage is limiting of action in the field of the surgery.
  4. Also the main disadvantage of the pliable endoscopes is the image quality which is lower than the rigid endoscopes.25, 26 The endoscope and microscope are used for researches in anatomy.

Also in a lot of surgical departments are widely used these techniques for better understanding the anatomic structures and easier operations. Radiologıcal anatomy Anatomical information is indispensable to the training of specialists in diagnostic medical imaging.

Ultrasound Computed tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance (MR)

Ultrasound This method is widely used and is based on sound waves, which means that it has no side effects. It is different from other imaging techniques because it allows to dynamic and real time visualization of anatomical structures ( Figure 3 ).28, 29 Figure 3 Abdominal US (The lien is seeing). Computed tomography This is an imaging technique that provides complete anatomical information of a region of the human body since it images the entire region. It offers images in axial plane which can be reformatted into other planes an even turned into three-dimensional images thanks to volumetric data acquisition ( Figure 4 ).28, 30 Figure 4 Contrasty abdominal CT horizontal section. Magnetic resonance This method based on applying radio waves to a magnetic field. It provides an important image of the central nervous system and musculoskeletal soft tissues ( Figure 5 & Figure 6 ).28‒31 Figure 5 The shoulder MR T1 TSE coronal section. Figure 6 The right knee MR T1 TSE sagittal section. Image analysis means to be shared easily and extensively, because the format is common to all medical computer systems.31, 32 Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) These are 2D images reconstructed secondarily from volumetric data had during the study. Figure 7 Coronal MPR multiplanar reconstruction. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) This method is a volume-processing technique. Volume thickness can be chosen and turned in any direction.28 Shaded surface rendering (3D SSR) This technique is a surface representation.

This image is added with colors they are similar to the real structures. This image allows good visualization and compression from any perspective of primarily vascular and bone structures.28 Volume rendering (VR) This technique uses all the volume data represents multiple structures and their relationships.

Volume Rendering provides a three-dimensional view of the structures posterior to the section, facilitating the understanding of the section ( Figure 8 ).28 Figure 8 Thorax CT 3d volume rendering. Virtual endoscopy This technique affords fascinating insights into vascular, bronchial, laryngeal and gastrointestinal anatomy, among others ( Figure 9 ).28 It is obvious that all methods of diagnostic imaging and images they provide must become an absolutely necessary part of the teaching anatomy. Figure 9 Virtual bronchoscopy (Courtesy of Prof. Dr.F. KANTARCI from Istanbul Plastination was invented by Dr Gunther Von Hagens. He is a German anatomist.33 Plastination is an anatomical technique. This is an excellent method for preservation of tissue for a very long period of time.

Plastination have more and more important role in the long-term preservation for anatomical teaching. Generally silicon is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates but epoxy resins and polyester-copolymer can use in this method. Plastination involves fixation, dehydration, impregnation and hardening (curing).33, 34 History of the plastination method This method was discovered by Gunther Von Hagens when he worked at the University of Heidelberg Institute of Pathology and Anatomy, plastination method developed in 1978.

Until today various substances was used for example: silicone, epoxyresin, and polyester-copolymer.33, 35 This method have four stages: fixation, dehydration, forced impregnation, hardenin (curing).34 Firstly the specimen to be plastinated is fixed by a fixative 2, 3 and then dissected.

  • Specimens pass through standard formalin fixation process.
  • Fixation provides firmness and good shape to specimens, reduces shrinkage and putrefaction.4 Fixatives often used are 5-20% formalin solution.
  • Several arteries are use in this stage.
  • This process takes approximately 3-4days.33, 34 And than the second stage is dehydration.

At this stage we use acetone. Specimens kept for dehydration in pure acetone bath three times in -25°C freezer plastination. Tissue/acetone rate should be 1.10. The density of the acetone in the acetone bath should be measured everyday. When acetone density does not change for 3 successive days, we finish this stage.

The water content of the final bath should be below 1%. Fat in the tissue during the dehydration is replaced by acetone. This phase lasts 4 weeks. The third stage is impregnation. This is the most important step of plastination. Silicon with acetone in this phase displaces and vacuum pumps are used at this phase.

This phase lasts 2-4weeks.33, 34 The temperature of this phase should be –25 degrees. Ksilol can use this phase. This phase with ksilol lasts fastly and silicon penetrates to tissue more quickly.33, 34 The last phase of the plastination is curing. More polymers in this phase is removed out of the tissue.

This phase early lasts 4-6 weeks. The last step in this phase is a drying gas.33, 34 Advantages of the plastination method The original tissue characteristics are maintained for a long time. We can use plastinates without the need for protective equipment such as masks. Plastinates do not smell formaldehyde.

It is a realeducational material. It looks great and very thin sections can be protected by plastination. The risk of infection is minimal.33, 34, 36, 37 It has been used for identification, for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits.

Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily dimensional descriptors of body size and shape. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections.38 Measurement of body weight: Babies are weighed on scales baby.

Babies should be weighed naked. You have to remove the child from the mother of clothes and shoes. Measurements must be precise.38, 39 Height measuring We use infant meter for height measurement up to 2years. Shoes and socks should be removed. Stadiometer is used to measure the height above the age of 2.

  • Frankfort plane is important above 2years of age.
  • This plane called also eye-ear plane, Frankfort horizontal, Frankfort plan.
  • This is a cephalometric plane joining the anthropometric landmarks of external auditory meatus and orbit.38‒40 Waist measuring The person must be on a flat surface.
  • The tape measure should be in the bending property.
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A tape measure at least 150cm should be used. During the measurement thick clothing should be removed. Firstly, the tape measure should be placed to the top spot of the right pelvis. The measuring is done parallel to the ground as the tape measure passes through the navel.38, 40 Hip circumference measurement This measurement is done during standing relaxed with arms at the sides and wearing at most light clothing.

The level of the measurement should be in a horizontal plane at the level of the greater trochanter of the femur.40 Mid-upper arm circumference We determine midpoint between acromion and olecranon and do the measurement of the circumference of the arm.39, 40 Calf circumference The highest point of the calf is determined and the circumference of the calf is measured parallel to the ground.40 Fathom length measurement This measurement should be done in open arms and with contact of the back against the wall.

The most remote spots of the extending fingers arm marked. The distance between these points is measured.40

Body mass index

Formula; body weight (kilogram)/height*height (meter) Obesity by BMI classification 41 Low weight <18.5 Healthy weight 18.5-24.9 Overweight 25,0-29,9 Obese, class II 30.0-34.9 Obese, class II 35.0-39 Obese class III> 40 Body skin fold thickness measurement: The thickness of skin folds can also be used to estimate the body fat stores. Classical measurements are proposed in four areas: biceps, triceps, subscapularis, suprailiac. Triceps is only used in the elderly people.42, 43 None. Author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Fazıl N. Anatomi Disseksiyon. Doyuran publisher, İstanbul, Turkey; 1993.p.1‒485. Olivier YH, Xavier PN, Stéphane P, et al. New approach to vascular injection in fresh cadaver dissection. J Reconstr Microsurg,2004;20(4):311‒315. Esin Ü, Mehmet KÇ. Formaldehit kullanım alanları, risk grubu, zararlı etkileri ve koruyucu önlemler. YYU Veter Fak D,2010;21(1):71‒75. Charlotte D, Patrick S, Pieter C, et al. Analyzing the human liver vascular architecture by combining vascular corrosion casting and micro-CT scanning: a feasibility study. J Anat,2014;224(4):509‒517. Gaetano S. Microvasculature of the Cerebral Cortex: A Vascular Corrosion Cast and Immunocytochemical Study. Microsc Res Tech.2014;77(4):257‒263. Cantenholz A. Examination of injected specimens by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning Microsc.1995;9(4):1245‒1253. Harmon CB, Gunther VH, Frank MT. An improved method for the presentation of teaching specimens. Arch Pathol Lab Med,1901;105(12):674‒676. Eric PM, Gertrude MB, Axel L, et al. Polyurethane Elastomer: A New Material for the Visualization of Cadaveric Blood Vessels. Clin Anat,2007;20(4):448‒454. Maximilian A, Moritz AK. Vascular casting for the study of vascular morphogenesis. Methods Mol Biol,2015;1214:49‒66. Shea H, Oleksandr D, Richard AD. Vessel painting technique for visualizing the cerebral vascular architecture of the mouse. Methods Mol Biol,2014;1135:127‒138. Joseph ON, Chiburdu EO, Charles UO. A Follow-Up Comparative Study of WOM odes of Learning Human Anatomy: By Dissection and From Prosections. Clin Anat,1996;9(4):258‒262. Thomas K, Alexandra S, Eric PM, et al. Magnetic resonance angiography and vascular corrosion casting as tools in biomedical research: application to transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Res,2004;26(5):507‒516. Da Tren C, Daeho H, Partha S, et al. In vitro and in vivo corrosion, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg–Y–Ca–Zr alloys as implant materials. Acta Biomaterialia.2013;9(10):8518‒8533. Fred EH, John ED. Vascular Corrosion Casting: Review of Advantages and Limitations in the Appli cation of Some Simple Quantitative Methods. Microsc Microanal,2001;7(3):253‒264. Gıuvaraşteanu I. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts-standard method for studying microvessels. Rom J Morphol Embryol,2007;48(3):257‒261. Sangiorgi S, De Benedictis A, Protasoni M, et al. Early-stage microvascular alterations of a new model of controlled cortical traumatic brain injury: 3D morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and corrosion casting. J Neurosurg,2013;118(4):763‒774. Susumu T, Masamichi U, Takae Y. Experimental and Clinical Reconstructive Microsurgery: The History of Microsurgery,1st ed. Japan: Springer; 2003:3‒24. Verli FD, Rossi-Schneider TR, Schneider FL, et al. Vascular corrosion casting technique steps. Scanning,2007;29(3):128‒132. Verli FD, Rossi-Schneider TR, Schneider FL, et al. Vascular corrosion casting technique steps. Scanning.2007;29(3):128‒132. Kutluay U, Gregor CK, Mustafa KB. Operating microscopes: past, present, and future. Neurosurg Focus,2009;27(3):E4. Ender K, Mehmet Z. Temel Nöroşirurji,3rd ed. İstanbul, Turkey: Habitat publisher; 2010.p.1‒2136. Min CH, Chang WK. Cortes Anatomicos Correlacionados con RM y TC. Doyma SA, Barcelona, Spain; 1990. Gazi MY, Yasuhiro Y, Ira D, et al. Experimental intracranial transplantation of autogenic omentum majus. J Neurosurg,1974;40(2):213‒217. Okan B, Servet Ç, Elif B. Plastination of old fixed locomotor system specimens and usage in education. Ege J Medi,2014;53:84‒87. Ilyess Z, Eric F, Wissam EH, et al. How Klingler’s dissection permits exploration of brain structural connectivity? An electron microscopy study of human white matter. Brain Struct Funct,2015;1:1‒10. Tunçalp Ö, Servet İ. Cerrahi Yaklaşımlar ve Ameliyat Sırasında Değerlendirme: Mikronöroşirürji,3rd ed. İstanbul, Turkey, Habitat publisher; 2010.p.485‒491. Ryan JN, Yafei O, Renee K, et al. Preservation of Capillary-beds in Rat Lung Tissue Using Optimized Chemical Decellularization. J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med,2013;1(34):4801‒4808. Tomas S, Diasol V, Montserrat J, et al. Teaching radiological anatomy. Eur J Anat,2011;15:73‒84. Meyers MA. Dynamic Radiology of the abdomen: normal and pathologic anatomy, New York: Springer Verlag; 2000. Tomas S, Diasol V, Montserrat J, et al. Teaching radiological anatomy. Eur J Anat,2011;15:73-84. Amr A, Arthur FD. Atlas de Anatomia de Grant,1st ed. Madrid, Spain: Medica Panamericana; 2007. Antón SC, Snodgrass JJ, Duren D. Integrative measurement protocol for morphological and behavioral research in human and non ‐ human primates,2009. Hardy J, Provost J. Microneurochirurgie. Union Med Can,1969;98:187‒196. Harmon CB. Plastination: A new Technique for Anatomic Pathology and Forensic Science, Pathol Update Series,1984;2:2‒8. Muzaffer HB, Gerbnard JG, Hans K, et al. Bugün plastinasyon 1: Yöntemin geçmişi ve uygulanabilirliği. The Turkish Journal of Pathology,1990;6(2):73‒77. Gunther VH. Emulsifyign Resins for Plastination. Der Praparator,1979;25:43‒50. Otto HW. Whole Body Computed Tomography,2nd ed. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993. Bayram AS. Ergonomi. Ankara: Atılım University publisher; 2001.p.1‒246. Cemil T. İnsan Araç Bağıntısında Ergonomik Tasarım İlkeleri, İstanbul, İstanbul State Academy of Fine Arts; pp.1-263.S. Normal Anatomi Disseksiyon Kılavuzu, İstanbul, Turkey: Ufuk publisher; 1983.p.5‒265. Durnin J, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skin fold thicknessmeasurement in 481 men and women aged 16 to 72years. Br J Nutr,1974;32(1):77‒97. Lawrence JP, Robert PC. The dissecting microscope for intracranial vascular surgery. 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How To Study Anatomy And Physiology ©2016 Zennure, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
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Which science is hardest?

Chemistry – Chemistry is famous for being one of the hardest subjects ever, so it’s no surprise that a Chemistry degree is fiercely challenging. Just one topic in Chemistry (for example, organic chemistry) is incredibly complex. As well as involving huge amounts of memorisation, organic chemistry covers more than 15 million compounds, and there are an infinite amount of organic chemical reactions to investigate. How To Study Anatomy And Physiology Then, take the fact that Chemistry has multiple topics as well as organic chemistry, including inorganic chemistry (which involves learning about molecular orbital theory, acids and atomic structure) and physical chemistry (which you need to be a maths whizz to understand), and you get the picture.

  1. If you were to study Chemistry at a top university like the University of Oxford, your weekly schedule would look something like this: 12 hours of labs, 10 hours of lectures, 1 Chemistry tutorial and tutorials in Maths, Biochemistry or Physics, where you’ll learn things you can apply to Chemistry.
  2. Chemistry is one of those subjects where you have to have an advanced knowledge of maths and physics, because these subjects tie so much into Chemistry.

If you struggle with mathematical and logical thinking, Chemistry may be the degree to avoid. Also, there’s a lot of practical learning involved in Chemistry, which means that when you’re not trying to get your head around macromolecules and redox reactions, you’ll be spending the rest of your time in the lab.
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What is the hardest anatomy to learn?

I found embryonic anatomy to be the most difficult section. Our anatomy professor loved to show film clips of sliced embryonic pigs, etc. It was hard to keep track of all the structures that formed and then involuted or changed into other structures. As far as adult anatomy went, neuroanatomy was the hardest.
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Is there math in anatomy?

Mathematics calculations are used in anatomy and physiology to provide additional insight into the information provided by the measurement of physiological quantities. – Examples 1. Rate of urine formation QU : Given that 250ml of urine was produced in 30 minutes. What is the rate of urine formation (in ml/minute)? Ans : The stated rate of 250 ml/30min needs to be converted into a rate per minute = 250 ÷ 30 ml/min = 8.3ml/min 2. Respiratory rate QU : If the number of inhalations in 20 seconds was 5, what is the respiratory rate (in breaths/min)? Ans : The given rate of 5 breaths per 20sec must be converted into a rate per minute. Generally the breaths are counted for 20 or for 30 seconds so that they may be converted into breaths per minute (60sec) easily (by multiplying by 3 or 2 respectively). (5 breaths / 20 secs ) × 3 = 15 breaths / 60sec = 15 bpm 3. Heart rate QU : If the radial pulse is counted for 15 seconds at 14 beats, what is the heart rate (in beats per minute)? Ans : the given rate of 14beats/15sec must be converted into a rate per minute = (14 beats / 15s) × 4 = 56beats/60s = 56bpm 4. Mean arterial pressure Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the “average” of the maximum blood pressure in the aorta (i.e., during systole) and the minimum blood pressure in the aorta (i.e., during diastole). Arterial blood pressure is written with larger number (systolic pressure) first, separated from the lower value (diastolic pressure) by a slash: eg 120/40 in units of millimetres of mercury. MAP = diastolic pressure + ⅓ × (systolic pressure – diastolic pressure) QU : what is the MAP for a blood pressure reading of 124/78? (systolic/diastolic)? Ans : MAP = 78 + ⅓ ×(124 -78) = 78 + ⅓ ×(46) = 78 + 15.3 = 93.3mmHg 5. Total magnification for a microscope Microscopes have two sets of lenses: the eyepiece lens (which you look through) and the objective lens (which is placed just above the specimen being viewed). The eyepiece lenses have a magnification of 10X. The 4 objective lenses have magnifications of 4X, 10X, 40X and 100X Total magnification = eyepiece lens magnification × objective lens magnification QU : What is the total magnification of a microscope with eyepiece lens of 10X and objective lens of 40X? Ans : 10×40 = 400X magnification Examples 6. Normal saline A solution that is infused intravenously is “normal saline”. It has a concentration of dissolved particles that is the same as the concentration of dissolved particles in blood. However saline contains only sodium chloride (Na + Cl – = table salt) dissolved in water. One kilogram of normal saline solution contains 9g of sodium chloride. %conc = mass of solute ÷ mass of solution × 100 QU : what is the percentage concentration of sodium chloride in this solution? Ans : %conc = 9g ÷ 1000g × 100 = 0.009 × 100 = 0.9% 7. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) In many cases persons with extra fat located around the middle (‘apple’ shaped) are at higher risk for diseases such as heart disease and diabetes than those who carry weight around their hips and thighs (‘pear’ shaped). (A waist circumference >88cm for women or >102cm for men defines abdominal obesity). WHR = waist circumference (cm) ÷ hip circumference (cm) (the waist circumference = circumference at or just above the umbilicus while breathing out gently) (the hip circumference = circumference at the widest point ie at greater trochanters which are the bony bits at the side of your hips) QU : determine your WHR using the measured circumference of your waist and your hips 8. Ankle/Brachial index (ABI) Ankle/Brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive test used for assessing the arterial circulation in the lower limbs. Normally the blood systolic pressure measured in the feet is greater than or equal to the blood systolic pressure measured at the wrist. ABI = systolic pressure at radial artery ÷ systolic pressure in posterior tibial artery QU : Determine the ABI for a male when:

  1. Supine (lying on your back)
  2. Standing
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(use typical male values: Brachial artery systolic pressure=119 mmHg; Tibial artery systolic pressure (when supine) = 148 mmHg; Tibial artery systolic pressure (when standing) = 216 mmHg) Ans :

  1. Supine ABI = 119 ÷ 148 = 0.8
  2. Standing ABI = 119 ÷ 216 = 0.55

9. Body Mass Index (BMI) Body mass index (BMI) combines measurements of height and weight to determine whether an individual is the appropriate weight for their height.

  • Underweight: BMI <18.5 kg/m 2
  • Healthy weight: BMI between 18.5 & 24.9 kg/m 2
  • Overweight: BMI between 25 & 29.9 kg/m 2
  • Obesity: BMI > 30 kg/m 2
  • Bariatric: BMI > 40 kg/m 2

QU : Determine the Body Mass index (corrected to 1 decimal place) using your own height and weight. Classify yourself as underweight, of healthy weight, overweight or obese. Ans : (for example) 6. Mosteller formula for total body surface area Pharmacology application: anti-cancer drugs are sometimes administered at a dose depending on the individual’s body surface area (BSA), e.g.200 mg/m 2 (but the practice has been criticised as unscientific). Ans : Examples 11. Percentage of body surface using “rule of 9s” Total body surface area (TBSA) is an assessment of injury to or disease of the skin, such as burns or psoriasis. You can estimate the body surface area on an adult that has been burned by using multiples of 9, as follows: Head = 9% of skin surface Chest (front) = 9% (back = 9%) Abdomen (front) = 9% (buttocks & back 9%) Upper/mid/low back and buttocks = 18% Each arm = 9% (front = 4.5%, back = 4.5%) Groin = 1% Each leg = 18% total (front = 9%, back = 9%) QU : What percentage of the skin surface has been burned if both legs, the groin and the front chest and abdomen were burned? Ans : both legs (18% x 2 = 36%), the groin (1%) and the front chest and abdomen (18%) were burned, hence 36 + 1 + 18 = 55% of the body surface.12.

  1. ECG calculations An ECG measures the variation with time of the voltage produced by the heart muscle as it contracts (see figure below).
  2. The graph is printed on moving graph paper marked in millimetres.
  3. Since the paper speed was 25mm/second, each millimetre (mm) of paper corresponds to a time interval of 0.04 seconds.

Example: If an interval requires 4mm of paper its duration will be: 4mm × 0.04 sec/mm = 0.l6 seconds. Image : QU : Calculate the time duration of: 25mm 5mm 2.5mm Ans : 25mm × 0.04 sec/mm = 1.0 seconds = 1000ms 5mm × 0.04 sec/mm = 0.2 seconds = 200ms; 2.5mm × 0.04 sec/mm = 0.1s = 100ms On the ECG graph, the time from the start of the “P wave” to the start of the “R wave” is called the P-R interval (it is normally less than 0.2 second) QU : calculate the P-R interval (in seconds) if there is 4mm between the two waves.

  1. Ans : P-R interval duration: 4mm × 0.04 sec/mm = 0.16s The QT interval of the ECG graph varies with heart rate – becoming shorter at faster rates.
  2. It is usually corrected (to QTc) by using Bazett’s formula: QTc = QT ÷ √(RR) QU: determine QT c given that QT = 12mm ; RR = 32mm (and convert mm to time using 1mm = 0.04s) Ans: 12mm corresponds to 12×0.04 = 0.48s 13.

GFR (creatinine clearance) in ml/min estimated with Cockroft-Gault formula Creatinine clearance rate (CCR) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time and is a useful measure of how well the kidneys are working (renal function).

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney. CCR is used for approximating the GFR in order to indicate of the health state of the kidney. (CCR of between 90 and 150 ml/min is healthy) Creatinine clearance= ÷ (Plasma Creatinine × 0.8136) ml/min (Where F = 1 if male, and 0.85 if female, Requires creatinine measurement in umol/L) QU : Use plasma creatinine of 110 umol/L to determine creatinine clearance for a 59yo male of mass 82kg.

QU : Use plasma creatinine of 80 umol/L to determine creatinine clearance for a 36yo female whose weight is 72kg. Ans (for male): CCR = ÷ (110×0.8136) ml/min ÷ 89.5 = 6642 ÷ 89.5 = 74.2 ml/min Ans (for female): CCR = ÷ (80×0.8136) ml/min = 6365 ÷ 98.3 = 64.8 ml/min 14.

  • Lung volumes Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the maximum volume of that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
  • Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) is the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled (with a maximum effort) in 1s.
  • FEV 1 should be greater than 80% of FVC.

QU : given an FVC of 4.93L and an FEV 1 of 4.24 L, what is FEV 1 %? Ans : FEV 1 % = FEV 1 ÷ FVC × 100% = 4.24 ÷ 4.93 × 100% = 86% 15. Lung residual volume calculation Even when you are fully exhaled, your lungs contain some air. This air volume is called the “residual volume” (RV) and is difficult to measure.

However, an estimate of RV can be made using the following formula: For males: RV = (2.29 × height) – (0.012 × weight) – 1.72 litres For females: RV = (2.63 × height) – (0.02 × weight) – 1.78 litres (Note: height = height in metres, e.g.1.76 m; weight = weight in kg, e.g.72 kg) QU : Estimate your lung RV by substituting your height (in m) and your weight (in kg) into the formula.

Ans : if a male ht = 176cm & weight =72kg: RV = (2.29 × 1.76) – (0.012 × 72) – 1.72 litres = 4.03 – 0.864 – 1.72 L = 1.45 L Examples 16. Oxygen transport and haemoglobin Oxygen is transported around your body by blood while attached to the protein called “haemoglobin” (Hb).

  1. Hb is located inside your red blood cells (rbc) of which you have millions.
  2. We will calculate how many you have.
  3. Given that 1 microlitre (1mm 3 ) of blood contains about 5 million (5 ×10 6 ) rbc, each rbc contains about 280 million (280 ×10 6 ) haemoglobin (Hb) molecules) QU : How many molecules of haemoglobin does the 5.5 litres of blood within an average human contain? Ans: Humans have about 5.5 litres of blood and 280 ×10 6 Hb molecules per rbc.5.5 litres = 5500 millilitres = 5 500 000 microlitres = 5.5 × 10 6 microlitres (5.5 × 10 6 ul) × (5 ×10 6 rbc per ul) = 27.5 × 10 12 rbc per human (280 ×10 6 ) Hb molec/rbc × (27.5 × 10 12 ) rbc/human = 7700 × 10 18 = 7.7 × 10 21 Hb molecules/human (= 7 700 000 000 000 000 000 000 molecules of Hb/human) 17.

Anion Gap Anion Gap (IONGP) is a characteristic of blood electrolytes that is routinely determined for diagnostic purposes. It is the difference between measured concentration of cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions) in the serum. (healthy range = 7-17 mmol/L) Anion Gap = (sodium + potassium) – (chloride + bicarbonate) = (Na + + K + ) – (Cl – + HCO 3 – ) QU : Calculate the anion gap for a patient whose electrolytes concentrations (in mmol/L) are: sodium=140, potassium=3.9, chloride=101, bicarbonate=26.

Is it in the normal range ? Ans : = (140 + 3.9) – (101 + 26) = (143.9) – (127) = 16.9 (within normal range) 18. Blood pH The following calculation involves logarithms. You may wish to work through the module on Logarithms first. Blood pH is a way of expressing the concentration of hydronium (that is hydrogen) ions in the blood which gives us a measure of its acidity.

Blood pH is found by calculating the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. Blood pH is strictly regulated by the body to be between 7.35 and 7.45 in healthy people. pH = -log 10 (H + conc in mol/L) QU : Use your calculator’s logarithm function to calculate blood’s pH given that its H + concentration is 4.0 × 10 -8 mol/L Ans : pH = -log(4.0 × 10 -8 ) = -(log (4.0) + log (10 -8 )) = -(0.6026 -8) = -(-7.4) = 7.4 Calculator example: enter: 10, x y, 8, +/-, ×, 4, =, (4 × 10 -8 ) Log, =, (-7.4) So log(4 × 10 -8 ) = -7.4
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How many hours should I study for anatomy and physiology?

As mentioned earlier you should expect to invest 10-12 hours per week studying anatomy outside of class, including weeks after breaks. The Bachelor’s courses in Physiology are usually 3 years long, divided into 6 semesters.
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How long does it take to learn anatomy and physiology?

How long will the anatomy and physiology training take? – Depending on how much time you allocate to your anatomy and physiology course each week, you could be qualified within 4 months of making your first enquiry! We say you should allow 100 hours to complete the course and you have access for a year.
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