How Does Widespread Access To Education Promote The General Welfare?


How Does Widespread Access To Education Promote The General Welfare
Chapter 1- Government Flashcards thomas hobbes English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679) john locke English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract”; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

what is patriotism? love of one’s country what is the difference between a state and a nation? A state is a defined area organized politically with the authority to enforce laws and actions. A nation, however, is referring to races or groups of people. social contract theory The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.

why is a written constitution important? provides a rule book for government How does widespread access to education promote the general welfare? General welfare is when the government provides necessary things for their citizens. Basic education is a good example of that because having an education is mostly required for almost any job out there, so this is providing the first path to having a career.

  • Alexander pope English poet who wrote about government structure and its importance abraham lincoln gave the gettysburg address autocracy a system of government by one person with absolute power.
  • Obligatory a government in which the power is held by a small, usually self appointed elite unitary government A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency.

federal government A form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments. division of power The constitutional provisions by which government powers are divided between the national government and the states confederation A joining of several groups for a common purpose.

Presidential Government features a separation of powers between the executive and the legislative branches of the government parlimentary government A form of government in which the executive branch is made up of the prime minister, or premier, and that official’s cabinet why is geographical distribution of power important to the united states? it ensures that nobody has too much power Why is the relationship between the executive and legislative branches a useful way to classify governments? The Legislative branch is about lawmaking while the Executive branch is about law-executing.

These two branches are similar yet different, and it is useful to classify governments to determine that everyone has a certain role. How does the U.S. constitutional republic compare to authoritarian forms of government? the republic is run primarily by the people while other forms of government are run by either one leader, religious law, several different groups of authority, or tribes.

  • What characteristics does a theocracy have that is missing in the U.S.
  • Constitutional republic form of government? Explain.
  • Theocracy is formed around their religion.
  • While the republic respects all religions, it is not dominated by only one religion.
  • FEDERAL advantages local, state, and federal agencies work together during domestic disasters; many people in charge so all of the power doesn’t rest on one centralized agency FEDERAL disadvantages different governments can have different policies CONFEDERATE advantages the EU is classified as one today; several states can cooperate in matters of common concern while retaining their separate identities CONFEDERATE disadvantages limited powes, no individual laws UNITARY advantages local governments for convenience; one same policy everywhere UNITARY disadvantages powers can be used as a dictatorship; one central organization holds all of the government’s power How are the executive branch and legislative branch related? The executive branch is in charge of executing laws, while the legislative branch is in charge of creating laws.

advantages of parliamentary system makes decisions with the cabinet, avoids prolonged conflict disadvantages of parlimentary system prime minister can stay in office for a long time, no protections against arbitrary government patricians The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.

plebeians the common people of ancient Rome feudalism A system of government based on landowners and tenants Sovereignty supreme power or authority legitimacy Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution divine rights of kings the theory that god appointed all monarchs to rule on his behalf colonialism the control of one nation over lands abroad mercantillism belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.

Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) Impassioned poet, historian, essayist and philosopher who used his sarcasm and sharp wit to criticize French authorities william blackstone (1723-1780) English jurist who explained the common law and who defined the rights of individuals under English law.

what aspects of the government did the roman republic share with a true democracy? it introduced the concept of representation why did serfs accept their place at the bottom of the pyramid how they were treated was worth the return of protection during the war what impact did the black plague have on the rise of mercantillism the black plague caused feudalism to fall, causing mercantilism to rise.

What approaches are used by rulers to gain legitimacy? Tradition (accepting a certain form of government because the society has been long governed in that way), the power of personality (a charismatic person with strong leadership), and when the government binds itself to the rule of law.
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How do they promote the general welfare?

Social Security, Medicare, collective bargain- ing and minimum wage laws, disaster assistance, regulation of the financial markets, and robust initiatives to stabilize the economy comprise large parts of the work we expect our federal and state governments to do.
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Why is the geographical distribution of power important in the United States?

By distributing the power, the federal government will grant the flexibility to make the decision for the state government for the local people and adjust that decision according to the situation that the majority of its people are currently in.
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What aspects of government did the Roman republic share with a true democracy quizlet?

What aspects of government did the Roman Republic share with a true democracy? The Roman Republic introduced the concept of representation, whereby elections were held that allowed a section of the population to choose some public officials.
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How does the US constitutional republic compare to authoritarian forms of government?

How does the u.s constitutional republic compare to authoritarian forms of government? Constitutional is a form of democracy, the people have the power. Authoritarian has no responsibility towards the people.
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What is the difference between common good and general welfare?

In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also Commonwealth, general welfare, or public benefit ) is either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.

The concept of the common good differs significantly among philosophical doctrines, Early conceptions of the common good were set out by Ancient Greek philosophers, including Aristotle and Plato, One understanding of the common good rooted in Aristotle’s philosophy remains in common usage today, referring to what one contemporary scholar calls the “good proper to, and attainable only by, the community, yet individually shared by its members.” The concept of common good developed through the work of political theorists, moral philosophers, and public economists, including Thomas Aquinas, Niccolò Machiavelli, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, James Madison, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, John Maynard Keynes, John Rawls, and many other thinkers.

In contemporary economic theory, a common good is any good which is rivalrous yet non-excludable, while the common good, by contrast, arises in the subfield of welfare economics and refers to the outcome of a social welfare function, Such a social welfare function, in turn, would be rooted in a moral theory of the good (such as utilitarianism ).
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What is the general welfare clause of the local government code?

SECTION 16. General Welfare. – Every local government unit shall exercise the powers expressly granted, those necessarily implied there from, as well as powers necessary, appropriate, or incidental for its efficient and effective governance, and those which are essential to the promotion of the general welfare.
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How does the United States benefit from its geography?

Real estate is all about location, location, location. It turns out, so is global military supremacy. Sandwiched by two oceans, Great Lakes and vast deserts, the United States is insulated from external aggression. Meanwhile, large, navigable river networks and enormous tracts of arable land have allowed the U.S.

  1. To grow into the arsenal of democracy.
  2. Millions of Americans armed to the teeth with their own private weapons doesn’t hurt, but geography is the real reason for America’s ongoing superpower status.
  3. It’s also the reason it could never be successfully invaded by an outside force.
  4. But also: “WOLVERINES!” (MGM/UA) 1.

Geography allowed the U.S. to grow relatively quickly. How can a country go from a rowdy collection of drunken farmers to the Arsenal of Democracy in less than 200 years? Elbow grease, know-how and a series of geographic blessings. America has it all, abundant natural resources, the world’s largest single tract of arable land and a massive river system that can be used for shipping and transportation.

Capitalism may have its faults, but the strategic and profit-driven use of our resources allowed for massive growth in industry, size and wealth despite the burning of our capital, a civil war, labor riots and waves of civil unrest every.2. Two oceans are great insulation. Once that pesky frontier was gone and the U.S.

stretched from sea to shining sea, it meant that an invader would have to create a full supply chain that crosses an ocean. Nowadays, that invasion and supply chain will also have to deal with the U.S. Navy ‘s 11 nuclear-powered fleet carriers that will see an invasion long before it could actually land.

And for any would-be invader who thinks they have a shot at getting Hawaii, there are 40,000 troops there that would disagree. Between the air and naval assets there, Hawaii could probably go on the offensive against other countries by itself. Japan decided to go with a sucker punch. (Department of Defense) 3.

Crossing land borders isn’t going to be easy. Since crossing the oceans is unlikely, an invasion of the United States would have to come from across the borders of Canada or Mexico. Geography helps the U.S. out here, too. With a large desert in the Southwest, that would force an invader either to head for California or Texas, two states with large military populations and defense industries.

  1. Invading Texas has, historically, been a terrible idea.
  2. In the North, invaders would have to cross the Great Lakes to reach any strong population centers, or at the very least, would need to make significant river crossings.
  3. In most of the other areas along the U.S.-Canada border, potential invaders would find a whole lot of breathtaking natural parks, but little of military value.

And then those parks will probably be full of former military veterans just waiting for a guerrilla war.4. The continental United States is huge. Expanding from sea to shining sea was probably the ultimate national defense power move. Having to cross land borders would limit the capabilities and power of an invading force, Dylan Lehrke, an Armed Forces analyst, suggests that “the combined military capability of the rest of the world would be insufficient to even get a foothold on the continental United States.” Nice try, Britain.

This means that not only does an invader need to be able to move troops and materiel to the invasion, but it also has to move them during the fighting. Other countries’ armed forces can’t really project power outside their slice of the world, let alone bring everything required to move stuff around our slice of the world.5.

The topography is a nightmare for any commander. Successfully invading the United States from any direction will take enemy forces through many kinds of terrain; forests, swamps and mountains are just a few that come to mind. Fighting effectively in any of these conditions might require specific training and equipment, not to mention the logistics of getting troops through them.

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Even if they make it through the swamp, follow-through is still important. Where the fighting occurs will also limit what kinds of forces could be brought to bear, while American forces in the area would be specially adapted to training in those areas. Moving through areas with no obstructions (and also no cover), like deserts and plains, would turn any attacking force into a shooting gallery for American air power.

– Blake Stilwell can be reached at [email protected], He can also be found on Twitter @blakestilwell or on Facebook,
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What is the main reason for sharing of power makes a country more powerful and united?

What Is Power Sharing desirable Class 10 Important Questions – Question 1 After independence, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of which community? Ans. After independence in 1948, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of Sinhala community. Question 2 Do you think that the steps taken by Shri Lankan Government to establish the supremacy of Sinhalas were justified be long lasting? Give your view point.

These steps ignored the interests of a minority community. Even the basic rights were not given to them. Discrimination based on religion and language further deprived other communities in Sri Lanka. Repeated denial of the demands further developed distrust and ignited the situation that resulted in a civil war causing terrible setbacks to Sri Lankan social, cultural and economic life.

Question 3 Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united’. Justify the statement. Ans. Sharing of power makes a country more powerful and united because of the following reasons. Power sharing ensures that all people have a stake in government.

Power sharing ensures maximum participation. It upholds the concept of people’s rule. It always brings better outcomes in democracy. It ensures the political stability in democracy. Power sharing accommodates diverse groups. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Question 4 Describe any three ‘majoritarian measures’ taken by the Sri Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy.

Ans. The following are the majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan government to establish Sinhala supremacy.

In the year 1956, an act was passed, which established Sinhala as the official language to be used in Sri Lanka disregarding the minority group of Tamils. The passing of this act created a feeling of alienation among the minority group, i.e. Sri Lankan Tamils and they started to feel left-out from the society. The government then started adopting and formulating government policies that favoured the Sinhala people in government jobs and for university positions, which made the Sri Lankan Tamils feel ousted. The Sri Lankan Government further proclaimed that they shall foster and protect only Buddhism as their State religion and refused to cater to any other religion disregarding the religion of Sri Lankan Tamils.

Question 5 Bring out any two sharp contrasts between Belgium and Sri Lankan democracies. Ans. Sri Lanka and Belgium are both democratic countries yet have a very diverse social set-up. Both the countries have adopted very different approaches when it comes to power sharing.

Belgium produced an ideal example of democratic system. It adopted the policy of accommodation of social and ethics divisions. On the other hand, Sri Lanka also adopted democratic system but followed majoritarian policies. Under the Belgium model of democracy, power was shared among two ethnic groups. Sri Lanka favoured the interests of the majority Sinhala community. In Belgium, both the groups had equal share in working of government but in Sri Lanka the minority community was isolated. To maintain political stability and unity, equal representation was provided to both the groups. Apart from that, community governments of both the ethnic groups also existed at the local level. Sri Lanka, however, had no such arrangement. Belgium’s constitution was amended four times before arriving at a final draft to prevent civil strife. In Sri Lanka, majoritarianism led to civil war for twenty long years.

Question 6 What is the official religion of Sri Lanka? Ans. Buddhism is the official religion of Sri Lanka. Question 7 After independence, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of which community? Ans. Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of the Sinhala community after independence.

  • Question 8 Explain the three ways by which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities. Ans.
  • When the Belgian leaders recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities, they amended their constitution four times in order to accommodate these differences.

The following are the ways in which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities.

Equal number of ministers: The Government of Belgium has an equal number of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers. This has been done to give equal power to the majority and the minority language speaking groups. Setting up of Community Government: A third kind of government, named the community government, is introduced in addition to the Central and the State Government. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and lingual issues. This government comprises members from all the three communities—Dutch-speaking, French-speaking and German-speaking. Fair share of power: Many powers of the Central government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central government but are independent. Equal representation: In the State Government of Brussels—the capital city—both the French- and Dutch-speaking communities have equal representation.

Question 9 Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united. Do you agree with the statement? Why? Ans. Yes, I agree with the statement. Power sharing makes a country more united.

Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as social conflict often leads to violence and political instability. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. The concept of democracy is a system of government of the people, by the people and for the people, which emphasizes on distribution of power among people. It involves sharing powers with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects, so that the people would be consulted on how they are to be governed.

Question 10 Highlight the measures adopted by the Belgium Constitution for the prevention of conflicts in Belgium. Ans. When the Belgian leaders recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities, they amended their constitution four times in order to accommodate these differences.

Equal number of ministers: The Government of Belgium has equal number of Dutch- and French-speaking ministers. This has been done to give equal power to the majority and the minority language speaking groups. Setting up of Community Government: A third kind of government, named the community government, is introduced in addition to the Central and the State Government. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and lingual issues. This government comprises members from all the three communities—Dutch-speaking, French-speaking and German-speaking. Fair share of power: Many powers of the Central government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central government but are independent. Equal representation: In the State Government of Brussels—the capital city—both the French- and Dutch-speaking communities have equal representation.

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How is power distributed in society?

Power is distributed and exercised in the general interests of society as a whole, Although some groups will be more powerful than others, this is necessary (functional) because the achievement of collective goals requires organisation and leadership based on power.
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What are two features of Roman government that influenced the US government?

The United States didn’t simply poof into existence, fully formed, from the brains of the Founders. History guided them as they crafted the American system of governance. This included the European traditions they were partially rejecting, but also elements from an older generation of republics that they wished to copy, especially the Roman Republic.

While our problems today feel distinctly modern, Rome still has lessons that can guide our republic. Polybius, a Greek who saw Rome’s republic conquer the world, believed those statesmen and citizens who knew Roman history could shape the future with wisdom and justice. This is what the Founders did, adapting the lessons of Rome to new problems — and it’s what we must do again today.

In 509 B.C., leading citizens in Rome overthrew a monarchy and created a republic that slowly took over the Mediterranean. For 500 years, this republic dazzled the world with its hard-working farmers, good laws, shrewd diplomacy and indomitable citizen armies.

  • The Founders knew this history well.
  • They had read Roman historians like Sallust and Livy, reveled in the biographies of Roman statesmen by Plutarch, and were steeped in the orations of Cicero.
  • Thomas Jefferson even tweaked the poems of Horace celebrating Roman farms to describe Virginia agricultural life.

Not surprisingly, then, Rome inspired many features of our own Constitution, including its checks and balances, bicameral legislature, term limits and age requirements. In some cases, the Founders copied terms straight out of the Roman constitution: words like senate, capitol and committee.

They named places in honor of Rome like Tiber Creek and Cincinnati. American coinage and civic architecture are also strikingly Roman. The Founders also preferred Rome’s approach to warfare over Britain’s. This preference explains why they denounced standing armies and made militias and conscription of citizen-soldiers the primary method for national defense.

And citizen-soldiering was only one aspect of the Roman-inspired civic virtue the Founders believed citizens should exhibit. A tour through the artwork of the U.S. Capitol today reveals early Americans saw the Roman ideals of farming, working hard, raising strong families and participating in local government as the building blocks for a strong national republic.

  • In addition to shaping America’s governing structures and virtues, Rome also shaped America’s expectations for its leaders and civic heroes.
  • The best compliment an 18th-century statesman could receive was a comparison to a Roman.
  • Abigail Adams called Elbridge Gerry, who was a leading revolutionary and later vice president under James Madison, a modern Cato.

John Adams liked to think of himself as Cicero. The veneration of all things Roman helps explain why Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay used the shared pen name “Publius” for the Federalist Papers, honoring the founding Roman statesman Publicola.

This Roman influence was crucial, because a very different path presented itself at the time the Founders were designing the United States. The French Revolution took a different course than its American counterpart. It did not simply seek to rebalance power but rather to eradicate all existing power bases.

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The revolutionaries overthrew everything: the monarchy, the church, the nobility, property rights and most of the other things that had held the French people together for centuries. The result was total anarchy fueled by bloody purges of whoever happened to be on the wrong side of the revolution, which was constantly changing in the 1790s.

  1. The situation ended not with a stable republic but with a strongman, Gen.
  2. Napoleon Bonaparte.
  3. The bloodshed of his regime stood in stark contrast to the reign of the former general leading the United States in the 1790s: George Washington stepped aside from the presidency in 1797, personifying self-sacrifice and a peaceful transfer of power.

While Washington propagated these lessons in republican civic virtue, the French Revolution became a model for the brutal communist and fascist takeovers of the 20th century in Russia and Germany. Like the French, Russian and Nazi revolutionaries believed they could ignore the bounds of history and create a new world order from scratch.

These alternatives reveal how differently things might have gone for the United States had Founders like Washington not humbly sought the wisdom of the ancients. By staying rooted in history, America did not descend into France’s revolutionary tyranny or the totalitarian utopianism of the 20th century.

In a broad sense, America was remarkably unoriginal. The way it governed, the virtues it demanded of its citizens and the heroes it celebrated were inspired by the successes of the past. By looking at the republican path hewed by Rome so many centuries earlier, the American founders learned how to move into the future.

  • They knew what humans were capable of, what government could and couldn’t do and what citizens ought to do.
  • That was the brilliance of the Founders: rather than trying to create something never tested, they adapted the lessons of history to their own age.
  • They used older models in innovative ways, like making Rome’s unwritten constitutional norms part of America’s written Constitution and extending a republic across a continent using federalism and representation.

Their legacy challenges us not just to know history, but to understand how it applies to the questions of today. This raises the most pressing and dangerous risk confronting us: A republic can endure many things, but a citizenry ignorant of the past dooms it to failure.
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How did geography affect the development of Rome?

Background Information – The physical geography of the Roman Empire directly contributed to its economic and military strength. In the winter, the snowy Alps blocked the passage from the rest of Europe to Rome, protecting Rome from invasion. The Apennines, an approximately 1,400 kilometer (870 mile) long mountain range that stretches from northern to southern Italy, provided protection and natural resources for Romans.

  • The fertile soil of the Po and Tiber River Valleys allowed Romans to grow a diverse selection of crops, such as olives and grains.
  • This allowed the empire to have a food surplus to feed its population and trade with other societies.
  • The empire also used the resulting wealth to expand its military strength.
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The Mediterranean Sea, on which Rome was centrally located, further heightened Romans’ ability to trade with other societies, increasing Rome’s economic strength as a result. The sheer size of ancient Rome, although a marker of its military success, was also a threat to Rome’s power; leaders at times had difficulty maintaining communication, control, and cohesion across such a vast territory.
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How do you think the Roman Republic government has influenced the government of other countries?

The Romans established a form of government — a republic — that was copied by countries for centuries In fact, the government of the United States is based partly on Rome’s model. The ladder to political power in the Roman Senate was different for the wealthy patricians than for the lower-class plebeians. It all began when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan conquerors in 509 B.C.E. Centered north of Rome, the Etruscans had ruled over the Romans for hundreds of years.
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Which type of government has the weakest central government?

Confederate Systems – A confederate system sits at the other extreme in terms of centralization. A confederacy is a loose relationship among a number of smaller political units. The vast majority of political power rests with the local governments; the central federal government has very little power.

Local governments have a great deal of freedom to act as they wish, but this freedom often leads to conflicts between states and the federal government. In some cases, a confederacy is little more than an alliance between independent states. Example: For Americans, the Confederate States of America—which governed the South during the Civil War—is the best-known example of a confederacy, but there have been others.

In fact, the first government of the United States, created by the Articles of Confederation (finished in 1777), was this type of system. Today, Belgium is basically a confederacy between two largely independent states, Flanders in the north and Wallonia in the south.
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Is authoritarianism simply the opposite of democracy?

Authoritarianism and democracy – Authoritarianism and democracy are not necessarily fundamental opposites and may be thought of as poles at opposite ends of a scale, so that it is possible for some democracies to possess authoritarian elements, and for an authoritarian system to have democratic elements.

  1. Authoritarian regimes may also be partly responsive to citizen grievances, although this is generally only regarding grievances that do not undermine the stability of the regime.
  2. An illiberal democracy, or procedural democracy, is distinguished from liberal democracy, or substantive democracy, in that illiberal democracies lack features such as the rule of law, protections for minority groups, an independent judiciary and the real separation of powers,

A further distinction that liberal democracies have rarely made war with one another; research has extended the theory and finds that more democratic countries tend to have few wars (sometimes called militarized interstate disputes ) causing fewer battle deaths with one another and that democracies have far fewer civil wars,

Research shows that the democratic nations have much less democide or murder by government. Those were also moderately developed nations before applying liberal democratic policies. Research by the World Bank suggests that political institutions are extremely important in determining the prevalence of corruption and that parliamentary systems, political stability and freedom of the press are all associated with lower corruption.

A 2006 study by economist Alberto Abadie has concluded that terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom, The nations with the least terrorism are the most and least democratic nations, and that “transitions from an authoritarian regime to a democracy may be accompanied by temporary increases in terrorism.” Studies in 2013 and 2017 similarly found a nonlinear relationship between political freedom and terrorism, with the most terrorist attacks occurring in partial democracies and the fewest in “strict autocracies and full-fledged democracies.” A 2018 study by Amichai Magen demonstrated that liberal democracies and polyarchies not only suffer fewer terrorist attacks as compared to other regime types, but also suffer fewer casualties in terrorist attacks as compared to other regime types, which may be attributed to higher-quality democracies’ responsiveness to their citizens’ demands, including “the desire for physical safety”, resulting in “investment in intelligence, infrastructure protection, first responders, social resilience, and specialized medical care” which averts casualties.
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What is the difference between a democracy and a constitutional republic?

By definition, a republic is a representative form of government that is ruled according to a charter, or constitution, and a democracy is a government that is ruled according to the will of the majority.
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How do we benefit from common good?

The Common Good Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, S.J., and Michael J. Meyer Commenting on the many economic and social problems that American society confronts, Newsweek columnist Robert J. Samuelson once wrote: “We face a choice between a society where people accept modest sacrifices for a common good or a more contentious society where groups selfishly protect their own benefits.” The common good has been an important ethical concept in a society that has encouraged many to “look out for Number 1.” Appeals to the common good have also surfaced in discussions of business’ social responsibilities, discussions of environmental pollution, discussions of our lack of investment in education, and discussions of the problems of crime and poverty.

  • Everywhere, it seems, social commentators are claiming that our most fundamental social problems grow out of a widespread pursuit of individual interests.
  • What exactly is “the common good”, and why has it come to have such a critical place in current discussions of problems in our society? The common good is a notion that originated over two thousand years ago in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero.

More recently, the ethicist John Rawls defined the common good as “certain general conditions that are.equally to everyone’s advantage”. The Catholic religious tradition, which has a long history of struggling to define and promote the common good, defines it as “the sum of those conditions of social life which allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment.” The common good, then, consists primarily of having the social systems, institutions, and environments on which we all depend work in a manner that benefits all people.

Examples of particular common goods or parts of the common good include an accessible and affordable public health care system, an effective system of public safety and security, peace among the nations of the world, a just legal and political system, an unpolluted natural environment, and a flourishing economic system.

Because such systems, institutions, and environments have such a powerful impact on the well-being of members of a society, it is no surprise that virtually every social problem in one way or another is linked to how well these systems and institutions are functioning.

As these examples suggest, the common good does not just happen. Establishing and maintaining the common good require the cooperative efforts of some, often of many, people. Just as keeping a park free of litter depends on each user picking up after himself, so also maintaining the social conditions from which we all benefit requires the cooperative efforts of citizens.

But these efforts pay off, for the common good is a good to which all members of society have access, and from whose enjoyment no one can be easily excluded. All persons, for example, enjoy the benefits of clean air or an unpolluted environment, or any of our society’s other common goods.

  1. In fact, something counts as a common good only to the extent that it is a good to which all have access.
  2. It might seem that since all citizens benefit from the common good, we would all willingly respond to urgings that we each cooperate to establish and maintain the common good.
  3. But numerous observers have identified a number of obstacles that hinder us, as a society, from successfully doing so.

First, according to some philosophers, the very idea of a common good is inconsistent with a pluralistic society like ours. Different people have different ideas about what is worthwhile or what constitutes “the good life for human beings”, differences that have increased during the last few decades as the voices of more and more previously silenced groups, such as women and minorities, have been heard.

Given these differences, some people urge, it will be impossible for us to agree on what particular kind of social systems, institutions, and environments we will all pitch in to support. And even if we agreed upon what we all valued, we would certainly disagree about the relative values things have for us.

While all may agree, for example, that an affordable health system, a healthy educational system, and a clean environment are all parts of the common good, some will say that more should be invested in health than in education, while others will favor directing resources to the environment over both health and education.

Such disagreements are bound to undercut our ability to evoke a sustained and widespread commitment to the common good. In the face of such pluralism, efforts to bring about the common good may lead to adopting or promoting the views of some, while excluding others. This has led some to argue the common good is an unachievable goal.

A second problem encountered by proponents of the common good is what is sometimes called the “free-rider problem”. The benefits that a common good provides are, as we noted, available to everyone, including those who choose not to do their part to maintain the common good.

Individuals can become “free riders” by taking the benefits the common good provides while refusing to do their part to support the common good. An adequate water supply, for example, is a common good from which all people benefit. But to maintain an adequate supply of water during a drought, people must conserve water, which entails sacrifices.

Some individuals may be reluctant to do their share, however, since they know that so long as enough other people conserve, they can enjoy the benefits without reducing their own consumption. If enough people become free riders in this way, the common good which depends on their support will be destroyed.

  • Many observers believe that this is exactly what has happened to many of our common goods, such as the environment or education, where the reluctance of all person to support efforts to maintain the health of these systems has led to their virtual collapse.
  • The third problem encountered by attempts to promote the common good is that of individualism.

our historical traditions place a high value on individual freedom, on personal rights, and on allowing each person to “do her own thing”. Our culture views society as comprised of separate independent individuals who are free to pursue their own individual goals and interests without interference from others.

  • In this individualistic culture it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to convince people that they should sacrifice some of their freedom, some of their personal goals, and some of their self-interest, for the sake of the “common good”.
  • American cultural traditions, in fact, reinforce the individual who thinks that she should not have to contribute to the community’s common good, but should be left free to pursue her own personal ends.

Finally, appeals to the common good are confronted by the problem of an unequal sharing of burdens. Maintaining a common good often requires that particular individuals or particular groups bear costs that are much greater than those borne by others. Maintaining an unpolluted environment, for example, may require that particular firms that pollute install costly pollution control devices, undercutting profits.

  1. Making employment opportunities more equal may require that some groups, such as white males, limit for a time their own employment chances.
  2. Making the health system affordable and accessible to all may require that insurers accept lower premiums, that physicians accept lower salaries, or that those with particularly costly diseases or conditions forego the medical treatment on which their live depend.

Forcing particular groups or individuals to carry such unequal burdens “for the sake of the common good”, is, at least arguably, unjust. Moreover, the prospect of having to carry such heavy and unequal burdens leads such groups and individuals to resist any attempts to secure common goods.

  • All of these problems pose considerable obstacles to those who call for an ethic of the common good.
  • Still, appeals to the common good ought not to be dismissed.
  • For they urge us to reflect on broad questions concerning the kind of society we want to become and how we are to achieve that society.
  • They also challenge us to view ourselves as members of the same community and, while respecting and valuing the freedom of individuals to pursue their own goals, to recognize and further those goals we share in common.

This article appeared originally in Issues in Ethics V5, N1 (Spring 1992). It was updated in August 2018. : The Common Good
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What is the promotion of the common good?

Democracy Depends on Promoting the Common Good Have Americans lost their commitment to the common good? Have they ceased to feel responsible for the wellbeing of all the members of their community? Have they lost their commitment to ensuring that disadvantaged groups or individuals share in the benefits of our society? Or are they waiting to rediscover that the wellbeing of our nation depends on citizens’ commitment to the common good? The common good refers to policies, decisions, and actions that are beneficial for most or all members of a given community or society.

In a democracy, citizens are expected to work towards the good of all citizens, rather than trying just to maximize personal gain. Philosophers such as John Locke, David Hume, Niccolo Machiavelli, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Rawls, have stated that democracy will fail if citizens become more concerned with personal benefits than the common good.

They agree that the purpose of government is to ensure the wellbeing of all citizens and that no government should serve only special interests, such as the interests of the wealthy and powerful. The nature of the common good, however, has been defined in a variety of ways.

  • Plato viewed the common good as anything that promotes social harmony,, and among citizens.
  • Socrates defined it as citizens feeling pleasure when other citizens succeed and pain when other citizens fail.
  • This increases society’s cohesion and unity.
  • Machiavelli defined the common good as resulting from the virtue of citizens, which is measured by the degree to which citizens put the good of all over their individual benefit.
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Rousseau defined it as the end goal of any society. More recently, Rawls defined the common good as ensuring every citizen has equal liberties and an equal opportunity to achieve, as well as ensuring that social and economic factors favor the least advantaged citizens.

And the common good is not only important in democracies. Adam Smith, in Wealth of Nations, noted that capitalism works only as long as people value the common good above personal profits. Despite the variety of definitions of the common good, philosophers and other social scientists agree that when citizens no longer care about the common good and no longer take responsibility for ensuring a good life for all citizens, then the democracy at best becomes dysfunctional and at worse fails by transitioning into dictatorship or chaos.

There is ample evidence, such as the income gap, flaws in the healthcare and educational systems, and hunger, that the common good is not a high priority for many members of our society. If commitment to the common good is to be increased, there are at least three aspects of democracy that must be emphasized.

First, the common (i.e., positive goal interdependence) among citizens need to be highlighted. The common goals include (as stated in the Constitution of the United States) forming a more unified democracy, establishing equal justice for all citizens, ensuring caring and positive relationships among all citizens, providing for the common defense, promoting the general welfare of all citizens, and securing the blessings of liberty for all citizens and their descendants.

The emphasis of all these goals is that all citizens benefit from their achievement, not just a small percentage of the population. Second, all citizens must understand that they share a common fate. In the long run, either all citizens flourish or no one will flourish.

A democracy cannot survive if the majority of citizens lose faith in the fairness of the political processes and decisions. There is a Cree Indian saying, “The hurt of one is the hurt of all, the honor of one is the honor of all.” It reflects the interdependent, common fate found among members of a society.

If the rich and powerful take control of a country, and government officials focus on providing benefits to the rich at the expense of the non-rich and non-powerful citizens, then the country may not long be an effective democracy. When the common fate of all is recognized, the well-being of all citizens becomes essential.

  • Third, the moral orientation of citizens must include valuing the common good.
  • Ethical values must emphasize the good of all over the good of a privileged few.
  • This includes promoting the success of fellow citizens and taking pride in their achievements.
  • Patriotism, as a moral position, must include a concern for the children, the poor, and the disabled, as they cannot flourish without the active assistance of the majority of their fellow citizens.

Contributing to the common good involves accepting the responsibility to engage in the political and civic processes that will ensure that all citizens benefit from the policies and decisions made by Congress, legislators, judges, and other decision-makers.

Democracy is threatened when partisan, special interest groups, and wealthy contributors influence the decisions so that (a) privileged groups are favored and (b) the needs of the majority are ignored. Perhaps what is needed at this moment in our history is a political party aimed at promoting the common good, the Common Good Party.

More from Psychology Today Get the help you need from a therapist near you–a FREE service from Psychology Today. How Does Widespread Access To Education Promote The General Welfare : Democracy Depends on Promoting the Common Good
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What are 5 examples of common good?

Key Takeaways: The Common Good –

The “common good” refers to those facilities or institutions that benefit all members of a given community.The common good contrasts with those things that benefit only specific individuals or parts of the community.Examples of elements making up the common good include basic rights and freedoms, police and fire departments, national defense, courts of law, highways, public schools, safe food and water, and natural resources.In most cases, providing the elements of the common good requires a degree of individual sacrifice such as the payment of new or higher taxes. Today, many impactful social problems are caused by the lack or failure of essential elements of the common good.

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What are 3 obligations for local government?

Local Government – Local governments generally include two tiers: counties, also known as boroughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana, and municipalities, or cities/towns. In some States, counties are divided into townships. Municipalities can be structured in many ways, as defined by State constitutions, and are called, variously, townships, villages, boroughs, cities, or towns.

  • Various kinds of districts also provide functions in local government outside county or municipal boundaries, such as school districts or fire protection districts.
  • Municipal governments—those defined as cities, towns, boroughs (except in Alaska), villages, and townships—are generally organized around a population center and in most cases correspond to the geographical designations used by the United States Census Bureau for reporting of housing and population statistics.

Municipalities vary greatly in size, from the millions of residents of New York City and Los Angeles to the few hundred people who live in Jenkins, Minnesota. Municipalities generally take responsibility for parks and recreation services, police and fire departments, housing services, emergency medical services, municipal courts, transportation services (including public transportation), and public works (streets, sewers, snow removal, signage, and so forth).
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What is the main objective of the local government code?

This Code establishes the system and defines powers of provincial, city, municipal and barangay governments in the Philippines.
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Why do we give power to the states at all what is the reasoning behind state power?

Reserving powers for state governments helps maintain a balance of power between the states and the federal government. They also allow states the freedom to try out different ideas and programs, which is why states are sometimes called ‘laboratories of democracy.’
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How does the use of rhetorical devices help achieve the purposes of the preamble to the Constitution?

The Preamble to the Constitution as Literature Audio:

  • Modern-day politicians are known for giving speeches.
  • Watch this quick clip from Ronald Reagan’s famous words: “Tear Down this Wall”, courtesy of CNN:
  • Although short, Reagan’s speech was extremely impactful.
  • Before television, radio, and the internet, politicians expressed themselves through the written word.
  • The Preamble to the Constitution is an example of a short but very impactful document.

James Madison James Madison wrote the Constitution of the United States. The United States was originally governed by the Articles of Confederation; however, this document did not establish a strong enough government for the new country. For example, the federal government was not even permitted to collect taxes from the states.

  1. The Founding Fathers developed a new framework for American government in an attempt to combat this chaos.
  2. James Madison, who was extremely well-educated, was tasked with putting all these ideas into writing.
  3. Preamble

How did Madison start this monumental document?

In just 52 words, he laid out the purpose of the U.S. Constitution while referencing the common theme at the time of liberty. Let’s look at the text! We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

What is being said in this text?

The beginning and ending of the Preamble can be read as a single, simple sentence: We the People of the United States do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

  • Is that sentence very enlightening?
  • Does it give the document purpose or meaning for existing?

Not really. Instead, it is what is written in the middle of that statement that gives the document its purpose.

  • Purpose
  • The Preamble explains that the purpose of the Constitution is to modify the current country to create a better government.
  • The goal of the Constitution is to establish a judicial system, ensure peace and negotiation domestically, create a military, ensure the government acts in the interests of all people, and maintain the government to ensure the country’s descendants also benefit.
  • Remember, this document was meant to completely replace an already established government, so it had to have a good reason for existing.
  • Themes

For the new Constitution to become law, nine of the original 13 states had to ratify it.

What themes did Madison utilize in an attempt to persuade those states and the other Founding Fathers to accept it?

The document starts with the phrase “We the people”. This is significant because it represents the idea that the government is of, for, and by the people. The new Constitution may have given more power to the government than the Articles of Confederation, but it would still be a government made up of the citizens.

  1. At the time, all the European governments had strong kings and queens.
  2. The United States was the first instance of a government made up of elected officials.
  3. Another theme present in this Preamble is the idea of liberty.
  4. It can be difficult to establish a single definition because the word means different things to different people.

However, even back in the late 1700s, all Americans wanted liberty even if they did not agree on what that meant.

Do you think if you lived in the 1700s, the Preamble would have persuaded you to ratify the Constitution?

But wait, there is one more characteristic to this text! Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical devices are powerful tools used to enhance one’s writing. Politicians typically use them in speeches by calling others to action, like Ronald Reagan did above.

Do you see any in the Preamble to the Constitution?

The main rhetorical device present in this document is parallelism, You probably recognized it even if you did not know its name. Parallelism is when a text is organized in a “parallel” or repetitive way. In the Preamble, Madison uses parallelism when listing what the country will do to create a more perfect union. The United States will:

  • establish Justice,
  • insure domestic Tranquility,
  • provide for the common defense,
  • promote the general Welfare,
  • and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity,

The verbs are in bold and the nouns are italicized,

Do you think this rhetorical device strengthens the meaning of the Preamble to the Constitution in any way?

Keep this question in mind as you head on to the Got It? section. : The Preamble to the Constitution as Literature
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What is the most important phrase in the Preamble?

Whose Government is it and What is it For? – The Preamble contains what may be the most important three words in our nation’s history: “We the People.” Those three words, along with the brief balance of the Preamble, establish the very basis of our system of ” federalism,” under which the states and central government are granted both shared and exclusive powers, but only with the approval of “We the people.” Compare the Constitution’s Preamble to its counterpart in the Constitution’s predecessor, the Articles of Confederation.
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What does it mean to form a more perfect union?

Form a more perfect union: to help keep the country together as one.2. establish justice: provide laws and punishments in a fair manner.3. insure domestic tranquility: keep peace within the country.
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What is the importance of the Preamble?

What is the importance of preamble? Answer at BYJU’S IAS

The ‘Preamble’ of the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document, and it indicates the source from which the document which derives its authority, meaning, the people. Explore The Ultimate Guide to IAS Exam Preparation Importance of the preamble:

It lays down the main objectives which the legislation intends to achieve. It contains ideals that the Constitution seeks to achieve. It gives direction and purpose to the Constitution. It also enshrines the grand objectives and socio-economic goals which are to be achieved through constitutional processes.

Further Reading: : What is the importance of preamble? Answer at BYJU’S IAS
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