How Did Education Change During The Renaissance?


How Did Education Change During The Renaissance
Therefore, the greatest change in education during the Renaissance came from a shift towards secular subjects that Classical societies embraced and away from exclusively religious (Christian) teachings and trades.
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How did the Renaissance influence education?

The Renaissance influenced the curriculum of study in education by instilling the need for a well-balanced, humanist scholars. The Renaissance continued to stress the importance of learning to read, write, and speak in Latin.
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Which movement during the Renaissance increased education?

The Humanism Movement – The Renaissance included an intellectual movement known as Humanism. Among its many principles, humanism promoted the idea that humans are at the center of their own universe and should embrace human achievements in education, classical arts, literature and science.

As part of this philosophy, scholars, authors, political leaders and others sought to revive the study of Greek and Latin classics. “Many humanists began applying these principles to the study of the Bible and consequently to the political, cultural, liturgical and theological principles according to which the hierarchy of the Catholic Church governed its flock,” Tutino says.

“In the process, a few humanists found much to criticize, and some of their criticisms echoed those of (Martin) Luther and other early Protestant leaders.” However, she adds, while the aims and goals of the Humanist and Reformation movements were fundamentally different, “there were also areas in which the two of them met.” According to Ada Palmer, associate professor of early modern European history at the University of Chicago, the Humanism movement broadened the palette of ideas people were thinking about.

The movement began as an interest in reading the texts of ancient Greece and Rome because Europe—especially Italy— had become so war-torn, desperate and unstable that people really wanted a solution,” she says. Because ancient Rome was powerful and stable with long periods of strength and unity, Palmer adds, it was believed that reading ancient books from that period might teach people how to replicate Rome’s success.

“So they started seeking ancient texts and translating, reading and copying them, until having antiques became something that signaled political power and political ambition,” she says. “Soon everyone who’s anyone had to have a classical library as a way of showcasing power.” But while the goal of increasing stability failed, according to Palmer, one of the unintended effects of the movement was a new demand for books, which led Gutenberg to invent the printing press.
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How did the Renaissance impact on knowledge and learning in Europe?

The Influence of the Renaissance | St John’s College, University of Cambridge The historical period known as the Renaissance spans from about the 15th to 17th centuries. ‘Renaissance’ means ‘re-birth’ and during this time Europe left behind the fixed ideas of the Middle Ages and created the beginnings of the modern world as we know it.

The civilisations of ancient Greece and Rome were rediscovered, inspiring an interest in Classical learning which challenged medieval beliefs and ideas. The population was becoming wealthier which led to an increase in trade and travel and the spread of new ideas. The rise in prosperity also generated an interest in education, supported the flourishing of the arts and promoted scientific discoveries and new inventions.

Perhaps the most important of these was the printing press (see image to the right) which enabled books to be printed rather than hand-written, and allowed the distribution of information to a much wider audience than ever before, further fuelling the clamour for more knowledge.

  1. Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
  2. Its importance as a trading centre, with many coastal ports on the Mediterranean Sea, had created a wealthy society whose money helped establish Italy as a place of learning and culture.
  3. Important universities were set up, including one at Padua which had a large medical faculty where anatomy was taught.

Anatomy was also important in Italy due to the many artists who worked there. Employed by wealthy Italians to decorate their houses with paintings and sculpture, they wished to recreate the lifelike images produced 1000 years earlier by the Greeks and the Romans.
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What were the major changes during the Renaissance period?

What is the Renaissance? – Many historians, including U.K.-based historian and writer Robert Wilde, prefer to think of the Renaissance as primarily an intellectual and cultural movement rather than a historical period. Interpreting the Renaissance as a time period, though convenient for historians, “masks the long roots of the Renaissance,” Wilde told Live Science.

During this time, interest in classical antiquity and philosophy grew, with some Renaissance thinkers using it as a way to revitalize their culture, They expanded and interpreted these Classical ideas, creating their own style of art, philosophy and scientific inquiry. Some major developments of the Renaissance include developments in astronomy, humanist philosophy, the printing press, vernacular language in writing, painting and sculpture technique, world exploration and, in the late Renaissance, Shakespeare’s works.

The term Renaissance was not commonly used to refer to the period until the 19th century, when Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt popularized it in his classic, ” The Civilization of Renaissance Italy (opens in new tab) ” (Dover Publications, 2016).
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How did Renaissance education differ from medieval education?

The mid-fourteenth century marked the beginning of a transition between the medieval and modern worlds. This transition is known as the Renaissance — French for rebirth. The movement began in Italy and encompassed almost all facets of life including politics, intellect, and art.

The main contributors to the Renaissance (such as Petrarch, Da Vinci, and Dante) classified the medieval period as slow and dark, a time of little education or innovation. They viewed the medieval period as an interruption of culture between the classical world of Greece and Rome and themselves. The idea of community distinguished the medieval period.

People faced real threats from famine, disease, and warfare — dangers that fostered dependence on the community in areas such as work and religion. For instance, a medieval craftsman belonged to a guild that dictated all aspects of his business. The idea was that all craftsmen should make a good living, but no one should do substantially better than the rest.

  • The Renaissance, on the other hand, stressed the importance of the individual and individual talents.
  • This idea, known as individualism, is apparent in the philosophy and art of the period.
  • In addition, while medieval scholars had studied ancient Greek and Roman documents to learn about God and Christianity, Renaissance scholars studied them to discover more about human nature.

This new interpretation was known as humanism, Renaissance art also reflects humanism. While medieval art was meant to teach a lesson, perhaps a bible story, Renaissance art glorified the humanity of the individuals being portrayed. Medieval statues tended to be of unnatural-looking saints.
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What are 3 arguments in favor of a Renaissance education?

What are the three arguments in favor of a Renaissance education? – society as a whole would be more commonly educated. -more valued opinions on every subject. -chances for revival of certain subjects.
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Did the Renaissance promote education?

Key Points –

The Humanists of the Renaissance created schools to teach their ideas and wrote books all about education. One of the most profound and important schools was established and created by Vittorino da Feltre in 1423 in Mantua to provide the children of the ruler of Mantua with a Humanist education. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity, thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. Humanist schools combined Christianity and classical texts to produce a model of education for all of Europe.

    During the Renaissance, Humanism played a major role in education. Humanists —proponents or practitioners of Humanism during the Renaissance—believed that human beings could be dramatically changed by education. The Humanists of the Renaissance created schools to teach their ideas and wrote books all about education. Humanists sought to create a citizenry able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity, thus capable of engaging in the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions. This was to be accomplished through the study of the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy. The Humanists believed that it was important to transcend to the afterlife with a perfect mind and body, which could be attained with education. The purpose of Humanism was to create a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in virtually any situation. This ideology was referred to as the uomo universale, an ancient Greco-Roman ideal. Education during the Renaissance was mainly composed of ancient literature and history, as it was thought that the classics provided moral instruction and an intensive understanding of human behavior. The educational curriculum of Humanism spread throughout Europe during the 16th century and became the educational foundation for the schooling of European elites, the functionaries of political administration, the clergy of the various legally recognized churches, and the learned professionals of law and medicine. Philosophia et septem artes liberales A painting symbolizing the liberal arts, depicting individuals representing the seven areas of liberal arts study, all circling around Plato and Socrates. One of the most important Humanist schools was established by Vittorino da Feltre in 1423.

    • The school was in Mantua, which is a small Italian state.
    • The ruler of Mantua had always wanted to provide a Humanist education for his children, and the school was a way to help him.
    • Most of Feltre’s ideas were based on those of previous classical authors, such as Cicero and Quintilian.
    • The main foundation of the school was liberal studies.

    Liberal arts were viewed as the key to freedom, which allowed humans to achieve their goals and reach their full potential. Liberal studies included philosophy, history, rhetoric, letters, mathematics, poetry, music, and astronomy. Based on the Greek idea of a “sound mind,” the school in Mantua offered physical education as well.

    1. This included archery, dance, hunting, and swimming.
    2. The children that attended the schools were generally from upper-class families, though some seats were reserved for poor but talented students.
    3. Females were not usually allowed to attend, but were encouraged to know history, learn dance, and appreciate poetry.

    Some important females that were educated during the Renaissance were Isotta Nogarola, Cassandra Fedele of Venice, and Laura Cereta. Overall, Humanist education was thought at the time to be an important factor in the preparation of life. Its main goal was to improve the lives of citizens and help their communities. How Did Education Change During The Renaissance Laura Cereta Laura Cereta (1469–1499) was a Renaissance Humanist and feminist. Most of her writing was in the form of letters to other intellectuals.

: Education and Humanism
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What values did Renaissance education emphasize?

Humanism. This is the most characteristic value of the Renaissance.
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What movement had the greatest impact on the Renaissance?

Humanism. During the 14th century, a cultural movement called humanism began to gain momentum in Italy.
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How did the Renaissance spread knowledge?

The growth of cities and the support of monarchs contributed to the spread of Renaissance ideas. The Northern Renaissance produced many great artists, writers, and scholars. Printing and the use of the vernacular helped to spread Renaissance ideas and increase learning.
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What were the benefits of Renaissance education?

Renaisance Education: Values and Purposes The Renaissance was a time of change. It began in Italy during the 14th century, and spread throughout the North. People all over Europe were affected, for the better and for the worse. Some people finally had a chance to control their own fate.

Others, like upper class women, lost their social status. The values and purposes of Renaissance education were to improve the society, increase the economy, and restore the religious beliefs. The social lives of people were greatly influenced by advancements in education during the Renaissance. More people then ever before were send to schools and educated.

Schools for girls were built, and they were taught sewing, reading, writing, and dancing. Some of these schools even had teachers for singing and playing instruments. Upper class women were taught language, philosophy, theology and mathematics. But their education only prepared them for social life at home.

Women lost political power, access to property and their role in shaping society. People were taught to understand and judge the writings of others. Courtiers, aristocrats and nobles were able to write poetry and text. By being well educated, having good penmanship, knowing how to ride, play, dance, sing, and dress well, men of high status gained respect and reputation.

These skills also helped attain preference and support among princes. Nevertheless, the school system did not teach youth how to behave in daily life situations. They spent too much time on Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic. Those studies that were realistic, enlightened men’s minds, and prepared them for life, were reserved for the Universities.

  1. Therefore, students had a slight understanding of the meaning and the true use of knowledge.
  2. They were only able to write Latin, which no one of judgement would want to read, and when they went to universities, they wasted their friends’ money and their own time.
  3. Afterwards, they would return home again, as unsophisticated and uneducated as they were before.

In addition, many individuals thought that having to many schools was a terrible thing. They believed that only a minority of men should study literature, because more farmers were needed than judges, more soldiers than priests, more merchants than philosophers, and more hard working groups than dreamy and thoughtful individuals.
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How was knowledge spread in the Renaissance?

WHY DID THE RENAISSANCE EVENTUALLY SPREAD OUT OF ITALY? – ​ While the Renaissance was slow to spread at first, for the reasons mentioned above, it eventually did spread to the other regions of Europe. As such, historians have identified several reasons for why and how the Renaissance did reach the other kingdoms of the continent, including: a period of peace, innovations in art and publishing, and migrations of people.

First, the Renaissance ideas spread to Europe more quickly once several of the major conflicts had ended. For example, the Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts in Northern Europe between the kingdoms of France and England that occurred from 1337 to 1453. As stated previously, the war was fought over the control of territory in France and ultimately involved multiple kingdoms in western and northern Europe going to war.

As a result, these regions were not as open to change and new ideas at the time because they were preoccupied with constant conflict. This slowed or prevented the spread of the Renaissance ideas in the earlier years of the Renaissance. However, when the Hundred Years’ War ended in the mid-15th century it allowed the ideas of the Italian Renaissance from the 14th century to extend north and west to other parts of Europe.

The second reason for why the spread of the Renaissance eventually sped up was due to innovations in publishing and art. In terms of publishing, the printing press was one of the most significant innovations in all of world history. German blacksmith, goldsmith and printer Johannes Gutenberg developed the first printing press in the mid-1400s and it quickly had a profound impact on the events of the Renaissance (as well as later events such as the Enlightenment). Prior to the printing press, books and other literature were created through a varied assortment of methods (woodblock press, etc.) which were all labor intensive and slow. Gutenberg’s invention was the development of a hand mold that allowed for precise movable type. This meant that he perfected the process of making movable type pieces for easily and quickly constructing type-font documents. This sped up the printing process and made it extremely affordable, which allowed for an explosion in the publishing and printing of books. For example, the Gutenberg Bible was the first book to be mass produced on the Gutenberg printing press. The invention and use of the printing press in Europe was important for the Renaissance because it allowed new ideas and worldviews to spread across the continent more easily. At its core, the Renaissance was about new ideas (such as humanism) overthrowing old views and customs (such as religious beliefs and practises and feudal traditions). Therefore, the invention of the printing press allowed these new ideas to spread and further enhance the overall Renaissance. Johannes Gutenberg

The next major innovation that caused the Renaissance to spread out of Italy were related to the new art being developed by famous Renaissance artists. Today, the Renaissance is perhaps best known for the famous artists and their famous works of art,

In the Renaissance, European artists were inspired to create paintings and sculptures that focused on the realities of everyday life and real people. This was likely due to the influence of humanism that helped spark the Renaissance. Also, just as scholars such as Petrarch were inspired by earlier Greek and Roman workers, so too were Renaissance artists.

This meant realism and the human form were important and central to the new styles of art. Furthermore, Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo pioneered new skills and techniques, such as linear perspective and sfmuato, that allowed them to portray people and the world in news ways.

Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra from 1544. Leonardo da Vinci Portrait by Francesco Melzi from approximately 1515 to 1517.

The next reason for the spread of the Renaissance out of Italy and into the rest of Europe was the migration of people in the years before and during the Renaissance. While travel in the time of the Middle Ages and Renaissance was difficult and not often carried out by most people it was still necessary.

For example, trade was vitally important to the economy in Europe and many Europeans enjoyed goods from far-away places. The largest and most well known trade network of the time was the Silk Road, It is perhaps one of the earliest and largest trade networks in human history, and played a vital role to many different civilizations throughout Eurasia from approximately 120 BCE to 1450 CE.

At its height, the Silk Road stretched from Japan and China in the east to the Mediterranean area including Italy in the west, which was a span of over 4000 miles. Along the way it travelled through many different regions including: India, Persia, the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe.

There were many different civilizations that participated in the Silk Road over the centuries of its existence. Obviously, Chinese and Mongol traders played an important role in the Silk Road, as many of their goods were highly desired in faraway markets, such as Europe. Therefore, European traders often travelled to areas in the Middle East to secure rare and desirable products, from the far East.

While the Silk Road is generally remembered for the food and goods that were traded along the route, it is important to understand that the Silk Road also involved the exchange of ideas. Furthermore, religious and philosophical beliefs from the time period spread easily along the routes and had a profound impact on later events such as the Renaissance.

Silk Road Map (Click to Enlarge) The plague of Florence in 1348.

While people migrated throughout Europe for trade, they also migrated to find work and to avoid the effects of the spread of the bubonic plague. Major city centers became much more important in the 14th century and caused some people to migrate from the countryside to city centers in search of work.

The best example of this is in the Italian city-states of Florence, Genoa and Venice, Further to this idea, people also fled the cities through Europe during the timeframe of the Black Death to avoid the effects of the bubonic plague. The Black Death is one of the most important events in Western history and is often viewed as a cause of the Renaissance.

The Black Death occurred during the 14th century and ravaged human populations throughout Asia and Europe as it spread along trade routes and through trading ports. The death toll of the Black Death is a debated topic and different historians have offered different views on the issue.

Regardless, the reported death tolls are massive with some suggesting that it resulted in the deaths of between 75 and 200 million people in Europe and Asia. These high numbers suggest that between 30% and 60% of people died due to the infectious disease. Some regions suffered more than others, but in general it is widely accepted that approximately half of Europeans died as a result of the disease.

For example, it has been recorded that both Paris, France and London, England saw half of their populations succumb to the pandemic. As a result of the effects of the Black Death many people migrated out of areas that were heavily impacted and suffering.
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What are the 3 biggest changes the Renaissance brought to the world?

What made the Renaissance Period so significant? – The Renaissance period cultivated a new change in art, knowledge, and culture. It changed the way the citizens thought, with first the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, and art, as well as the new discoveries in travel, invention, and style.
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What four areas greatly changed because of the Renaissance?

The Renaissance was a time of REBIRTH in creativity in Europe in the 1300s. It brought change in many areas – political (government), social (people), economic (business, trade, money), and cultural (traditions in art, literature, etc.).
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What is school Renaissance?

Renaissance Guidelines/Requirements Renaissance Program Renaissance is a nationwide program that rewards students for showing academic excellence, adhering to attendance guidelines, and displaying appropriate behavior. The goals of this program are to: increase overall grades, increase attendance, and promote a positive learning environment. Students that meet the requirements listed below at the end of each trimester will receive a Renaissance Gold or Blue band/card for the following nine weeks. The Renaissance Cards have the following requirements and potential benefits: Renaissance Intervals and Checkpoints As we have moved to trimesters rather than four marking periods, and in the interest of pushing our students to continually excel in and out of the classroom, we have decided to include four “Renaissance Checkpoints”, roughly at 10 week intervals that will function like the end of the marking period did previously. The exact length of each Interval was determined taking into account the actual school calendar, particularly holidays, shortened weeks, and other extenuating circumstances. This will give us a total of four “Renaissance Intervals”. ***Please note that for the 2019-2020 school year, second and third graders’ Renaissance eligibility for the first Renaissance Interval will be determined on the first school day of October. This will only apply to 2nd graders in all subsequent years. Renaissance Card Requirements GOLD Card Requirements – Grades of 90 and above – 4 TOTAL unexcused latenesses/absences (*unless petitioned) – No disciplinary office referrals. *Student accountability system – student cannot lose an excess of 3 points GOLD Card Benefits – 2 weekly free snacks (Tuesday and Wednesday) – Eligible for all trips/events during a given interval – Allowed to dress down every Friday with the purchase and display of a Renaissance lanyard and their gold card – Eligible for special Gold-Only trips during the current interval provided they have made Gold for two consecutive intervals -If on Renaissance for the entire year (4 consecutive Renaissance Intervals, including the first interval, which is determined using student grades from the last interval of the previous school year), eligible for our yearly trip to a major Amusement Park. -If on Gold Renaissance for the entire year, eligible for our yearly Gold trip near the conclusion of the year. BLUE Card Requirements – Grades of 83 and above – 6 TOTAL unexcused latenesses/absences (*unless petitioned) – No disciplinary office referrals which result in the assignment of a detention or a suspension. *Student accountability system – student cannot lose in excess of 5 points BLUE Card Benefits -Eligible for trips (at least one per marking period) and in-house events -Weekly free snack -If on Renaissance for the entire year (4 consecutive Renaissance Intervals, including the first interval, which is determined using student grades from the last interval of the previous school year), eligible for our yearly trip to a major Amusement Park.  Teachers and the committee reserve the right to withhold Renaissance privileges from any students not displaying appropriate renaissance recognition requirements.  Students – upon being written up for minor infractions lose Renaissance benefits for three weeks and are ineligible for the next event/trip Attendance Petition Policy – Attendance policy is set by the Magnolia Board of Education and is based upon the statutes and codes required by the New Jersey Department of Education. Students who do not receive a Renaissance card because of the attendance policy may petition to waive the attendance requirements. Official documentation must be included with an explanation of the absences to the principal prior to a student’s known absence if possible and within two weeks of the grading period in extenuating circumstances. All petitions must be from a parent or guardian. Petitions do not guarantee acceptance. If a petition is accepted students will have to earn a renaissance card based upon completion of “Renaissance service.” Renaissance service is time given back to the school helping a teacher, or staff member, a student, or the school in general. Examples include: Helping a teacher with a task, helping another student with homework after school, and much more. For each absence over the 3 required to obtain a card, roughly one school period (40 minutes of service time) will be required. Example: 5 unexcused absences would require 2 Renaissance service periods. Disciplinary Issues 1. In order for a student to be eligible for Renaissance during the next Renaissance Interval, students must meet the academic requirements and: 1. Cannot have accrued more than five demerits during the current Renaissance Interval 2. Cannot have received more than one disciplinary referral during the current Renaissance Interval 2. If a student who is currently on Renaissance is written up for any offense, they will lose their Renaissance privileges for a period of one month and will be ineligible for the next Renaissance event for which they would have been otherwise eligible.3. If a student who currently is on Renaissance accrues more than 5 demerits in given Renaissance Interval, they will immediately lose all Renaissance privileges and will be ineligible to re-join Renaissance for a period of 10 weeks from the date of the violation.4. If a student who is currently on Renaissance receives two separate disciplinary referrals during the same Renaissance Interval, they will immediately lose all Renaissance privileges and will be ineligible to re-join Renaissance for a period of 10 calendar weeks from the date of the second violation.2nd Grade Obtaining a Renaissance Card In order to qualify for a Renaissance card in Second Grade, a student’s Class Dojo Behavior percentage must be 75% Positive or higher ***Please note that for the 2019-2020 school year, second and third graders’ Renaissance eligibility for the first Renaissance Interval will be determined on the first school day of October. This will only apply to 2nd graders in all subsequent years. Privileges 1. Free weekly snack 2. Admission to monthly events provided they have maintained a Class Dojo Behavior percentage of 75% Positive or higher for the month. Losing Privileges/Becoming Ineligible for Renaissance “If a student that is on Renaissance (has a card for the current Renaissance Interval) receives a disciplinary referral for any violation involving fighting, physical assault, bullying, or any other major violation at administration’s discretion, they will lose their card and all associated privileges immediately will not be eligible to re-join Renaissance for a period of at least 10 calendar weeks from the date of the violation. *If a student does not have a card and they receive a disciplinary referral for fighting, bullying, or any other major violation at administration’s discretion, they be ineligible for Renaissance for the following Renaissance Interval. *Any other disciplinary referral will result in a student losing their Renaissance privileges for 2 weeks from when they are written up, and any student who receives two or more disciplinary referrals during the same Renaissance Interval will immediately lose any Renaissance privileges (if they are eligible) and will not be eligible to re-join Renaissance for a period of 10 weeks.” If a second grader who is currently on Renaissance (or any Renaissance student) abuses any of the requirements, their card can and will be taken away from them immediately at the discretion of the teacher or administration. If this occurs, they will lose all privileges associated with having a card until the teacher/administrator deems appropriate. Renaissance Interval Opening/Closing Dates for 19-20 Interval 1: 9/4/19-11/6/19 Interval 2: 11/11/19-1/24/20 Interval 3: 1/27/20-3/12/20 Interval 4: 3/13/20-End of the Year

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What were the differences in the Renaissance classes?

Skip to content Social Classes of the Renaissance The people of Renaissance Florence, like most city–states of the era, were composed of four social classes: the nobles, the merchants, the tradesmen and the unskilled workers. The nobles lived on large estates outside the city walls.

They owned most of the city’s land, so the nobles controlled. The nobles served as military officers, royal advisers and as politicians. Baldassare Castiglione described the proper manners of a noble in The Book of the Courtier (1528). Castiglione wrote that a noble must have training to be an able warrior and social talents such as wit, the ability to dance, and “a certain grace that makes all his activities seem effortless and unconscious.” The nobles were disdainful of the merchant class, who gained wealth in industries like wool processing, shipbuilding and banking.

The merchants sought to protect their wealth by controlling the government and marrying into noble families. They became patrons of great artists in order to gain public favor. The tradesmen of Florence were the crafts workers and shopkeepers. Most tradesmen belonged to guilds, organizations that established standards of quality, set rules for membership, and limited outside competition. How Did Education Change During The Renaissance The Peasant Dance is an oil-on-panel by Flemish renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder, painted in c.1569. As difficult as their lives were, however, the unskilled urban workers were better off than the peasants who lived in rural areas. The poorest of the peasants were the sharecroppers who worked on land owned by nobles.
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What was a major characteristic of the Renaissance in Europe?

Characteristics of the Renaissance include a renewed interest in classical antiquity ; a rise in humanist philosophy (a belief in self, human worth, and individual dignity); and radical changes in ideas about religion, politics, and science.
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What was the major aim in Renaissance intellectuals?

WYH2010HF Christianity 843–1648 The Renaissance Links and resources Krista Dowdeswell and Jasmine Shantz’ summary of Erasmus’ Praise of Folly, What’s the Renaissance? As a historical period, the Renaissance overlaps with the late middle ages.

In southern Europe, especially Italy, it begins in 1350 or 1400. Some date the origins earlier, but it’s agreed that it flowers in the 1400s (the quattrocento ). It declines around 1500 or 1525. North of the Alps, the Renaissance begins about 1500. Its flowering in England comes during the Elizabethan period (1558-1603), the “age of Shakespeare.”

“Renaissance” means “rebirth,” and what was reborn in this period was classicism : Greek and Roman literature, art, and architecture. Renaissance thinkers, writers, and artists aimed to transfer the “glory of Rome” to Christian western Europe. In art, a good early example is Donatello, the greatest sculptor of his time; here is his bronze David, triumphant over Goliath (ca.1425).

  1. This probably stood in Cosimo de Medici’s garden in Florence (it’s now in a Florence museum).
  2. It’s “the first freestanding lifesize nude statue” since antiquity (Janson, History of Art, 6th ed.).
  3. Its form is classical, its substance is Scriptural, and its subtext is probably political: little Florence had just beaten off the goliath Milan when Donatello sculpted this.

For Renaissance sensibilities, the big problem was that people felt separated from the classical age. It seemed deeply regrettable that medieval history had moved in its own directions, abandoning the classical heritage. The Italian writer Petrarch (1304-1374), the father of Renaissance humanism, was the first to call the middle ages “the dark age”.

The task of the Renaissance, therefore, was to rediscover what classicism was all about. This task required going ad fontes, “to the sources” — reading classical literature and appreciating classical art afresh. Ad fontes was the watchword of the Renaissance. Retrieving classical sources (so that they could be transferred into modern culture) involved an effort of critical historical scholarship.

Philology and history were important Renaissance disciplines. The characteristic sensibility of the Renaissance was humanism, This partly meant the study of the humanities, but it also meant focusing on human beings, their “freedom, power, uniqueness, and individuality” (Bard Thompson, Humanists and reformers ). Some say that the Renaissance began in 1336 when Petrarch climbed the tallest mountain in southern France, not as a metaphor for spiritual ascent, not to build a monastery or to commune with God, but to see the view — and write about it.

the great schism; conciliarism; the success of several papal states in throwing off papal authority; the commercial development of Venice, Florence, and Milan without concern for the Church’s interests; the increasing power of England and France, which sought to limit papal authority; a public image of weakness and poverty, symbolized by deteriorating and rotting buildings in Rome, including the Constantinian basilica of St. Peter’s.

After Martin V was elected pope by the Council of Constance in 1417, he decided to move his administration to Rome (the French wanted him in Avignon, and the Germans wanted him in a German city). He found the Lateran Palace in such bad repair that he moved the papal administration to Vatican Hill, where it remains today.

repairing old buildings, and constructing splendid new ones; commissioning impressive works of art; winning back the papal states, which might involve political intrigue and military force; increasing papal authority relative to the powers of European national governments, which might involve canny diplomacy; strengthening revenues and improving the papal treasury.

Nicholas V (1447-1455) was the first clear Renaissance pope; his best-known project was the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica, which began during his reign. Julius II (1503-1513) was the most successful of the Renaissance popes; posterity particularly recalls his commissioning of Michelangelo to decorate the Sistine Chapel (pictured here).

  1. The Renaissance popes, drawn from important Italian families, weres known for their sponsorship of the arts, their expensive entertainments, their political machinations, and their intrigues, but not for their ecclesiastical policies, theology, morality, or spirituality.
  2. The symbolic end of the Renaissance papacy is the invasion of Rome by the armies of the Emperor Charles V in 1527, who probably did more damage than even the barbarians of 410.

The Renaissance and reform Erasmus (1466-1536), pictured here. This influential Dutch humanist priest, scholar, and teacher critiqued the ecclesiastical power structure, promoted an accessible lay theology free of scholastic subtleties, and published the first scholarly edition of the New Testament in Greek.

  • He wrote Praise of Folly.
  • Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (c.1450-1536) was a French humanist priest and teacher at the University of Paris, a commentator on Paul, and the first translator of the Bible into French (1530).
  • John Colet (c.1467-1519) was a humanist priest and teacher at Oxford, and then dean of St.

Paul’s Cathedral, London. His sermon preached in 1512 to the convocation of the Church of England satirized the wealth and laziness of the clergy, and called for serious reform; it caused a controversy, and was immediately published. The Renaissance had several influences on the Protestant and Catholic reformations.

The attitude ad fontes was applied to Christianity too. Christian leaders returned to Scripture, which they re-edited and re-translated according to up-to-date philological principles, and which they interpreted afresh. Medieval legends and superstitions were exploded by Renaissance historians armed with new critical methods. The best example is the exposure of the fraudulent Donation of Constantine by Lorenzo da Valla (1405-1457). Renaissance sensibilities of freedom collided with authoritarian social structures, such as the Church. Writers sharply satirized ecclesiastical corruption and hypocrisy. Renaissance writers (Petrarch and Erasmus are examples) despised scholastic theology, as did Protestant and Catholic reformers. A general goal of the Renaissance, to connect classical form with Christian faith, helped people see Christianity afresh. Classical literature was used to strengthen the faith, and critique ecclesiastical abuses. An educational task of the Renaissance was to promote reading and study among the laity. Protestant and Catholic reformers recognized the value of improving Christian education.

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How did the ideas of the Renaissance influence art and education?

How did the ideas of the renaissance influence art and education? The humanist idea changing human beings the education was invoked. This influenced education to introduce the concept of liberal studies. It changed the way people saw education, from knowledge to preparation for life.
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What is the importance of Renaissance to the development of knowledge?

What made the Renaissance Period so significant? – The Renaissance period cultivated a new change in art, knowledge, and culture. It changed the way the citizens thought, with first the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, and art, as well as the new discoveries in travel, invention, and style.
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What values did Renaissance education emphasize?

Humanism. This is the most characteristic value of the Renaissance.
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What was the Renaissance explained for students?

Back to History for Kids The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word “Renaissance” means “rebirth”. Coming out of the Dark The Middle Ages began with the fall of the Roman Empire,

  1. Much of the advances in science, art, and government that had been made by the Greeks and Romans were lost during this time.
  2. Part of the Middle Ages is actually called the Dark Ages because so much of what was learned earlier was lost.
  3. The Renaissance was a time of “coming out of the dark”.
  4. It was a rebirth of education, science, art, literature, music, and a better life for people in general.

A Cultural Movement A big part of the Renaissance was a cultural movement called humanism. Humanism was a philosophy that all people should strive to be educated and learned in the classical arts, literature, and science. It looked for realism and human emotion in art. The Mona Lisa – perhaps the world’s most famous painting – was painted during the Renaissance by Leonardo da Vinci It began in Italy The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy. Part of the reason it began in Italy was because of the history of Rome and the Roman Empire.

  • Another reason it began in Italy was because Italy had become very wealthy and the wealthy were willing to spend their money supporting artists and geniuses.
  • City-states played a big role in the rule of Italy at the time.
  • They were often ruled by a powerful family.
  • Some important city-states included Florence, Milan, Venice, and Ferrara.

The Renaissance Man The term Renaissance Man refers to a person that is an expert and talented in many areas. The true geniuses of the Renaissance were great examples of this. Leonardo da Vinci was a master painter, sculptor, scientist, inventor, architect, engineer, and writer.

One of the most popular Greek philosophers was Plato. Many men studied Plato’s writings at the Academy in Florence. Venice was famous for its glass work, while Milan was famous for its iron smiths. Francis I, King of France, was patron of the arts and helped Renaissance art spread from Italy to France. Artists were initially thought of as craftsmen. They worked in workshops and belonged to a guild. Two of the biggest changes to art from the Middle Ages were the concepts of proportion and perspective. Michelangelo and Leonardo became rivals when Michelangelo mocked da Vinci for not finishing a statue of a horse. Hunting was a popular form of entertainment for the wealthy. Artists and architects would often compete for a job, or commission, to create a piece of art.

Books for reference and further reading: Everyday Life in the Renaissance By Kathryn Hinds.2004. Renaissance: Eyewitness Books by Andrew Langley.1999. Life and Times: Leonardo and the Renaissance by Nathaniel Harris.1987. Your Travel Guide to Renaissance Europe by Nancy Day.2001.
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