Emma Hart Willard Made An Important Contribution To Education When She:?


Emma Hart Willard Made An Important Contribution To Education When She:
In honor of Women’s History Month this March, Worlds Revealed is featuring weekly posts about the history of women in geography and cartography. You can click on the ” Women’s History Month ” category see all related posts. Emma Willard statue, Troy, N.Y.1905. Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. In 1800, Americans spent, on average, merely four months and two days in school over the course of their entire life.

By 1840, this length of time had more than doubled, as educational reform and access to schooling increased significantly. Women, in particular, had growing opportunities throughout the 1800s as schools dedicated to female education spread throughout the country. As an early reformer, Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) was a staunch advocate for advancing access to education for women in the middle years of 19th century.

Founding the Troy Female Seminary in 1821, located in Troy, New York, Willard helped educate over 12,000 women who attended the school during its first 50 years. As head of the Troy Female Seminary, Willard was an early promoter for teaching science to young women.

  1. Troy’s curriculum included mathematics, science, philosophy, and geography.
  2. Geography, in particular, played a major role in a student’s education at Troy.
  3. Willard believed that studying geography laid the foundation for solid scholarship, “sound judgement, and an enlarged understanding.” In addition, she found that studying geography “brings into action the powers of comparing and abstracting.” Willard was adamant that it was more important to teach students how to think, rather than what to think and that the study of geography could promote this teaching philosophy.

Willard’s pedagogical approach to geography was groundbreaking many different ways. As opposed to starting with global geography or the composition of the universe, she urged her fellow teachers to start on a more local scale. “Instead of commencing the study of maps with the map of the world, which is the most difficult to understand,” she and her co-author William Woodbridge wrote, “the pupil here begins, in the most simple manner imaginable, to draw a map of his own town.” This pedagogy is reflected not only in the geography textbooks she wrote with Woodbridge, but also in the atlas she published to accompany her “Willard’s History of the United States, or, Republic of America.” Emma Hart Willard Made An Important Contribution To Education When She: Locations and Wanderings of the Aboriginal Tribes,1828. From her “Series of maps to Willard’s History of the United States, or, Republic of America. Designed for schools and private libraries.” Geography & Map Division, Library of Congress. Willard’s historical atlas begins not with the American Revolutionary War, but with a map of indigenous peoples on the eastern coast of North America.

By drawing rough circles around approximate territories and attempting to map territorial movements, she places human geography into an historical context. Trying to capture the dynamism of human movement on a static map is an inherently difficult, perhaps problematic, task, yet her attempts help convey just how populated the continent was prior to European contact.

The maps in her atlas also depict the incursion of Europeans in North America, starting with Spanish, French, and English invasions prior to 1578 and ending with United States territorial claims in 1826. Emma Hart Willard Made An Important Contribution To Education When She: Map of 1826.1828. From her “Series of maps to Willard’s History of the United States, or, Republic of America. Designed for schools and private libraries.” Geography & Map Division, Library of Congress. While Willard promoted a geographical education for women, part of her advocacy had its roots in the notion of “Republican Motherhood.” This idea, stated briefly, is that women should receive an education because they are responsible for the education of future citizens, namely, their own children.

The concept of Republican Motherhood had been around for decades before Willard’s work, but she built upon some of its precepts. Specifically, she called for government funding of women’s colleges and that women should be trained specifically for a profession, not just to teach their own children, but so that they could support themselves without necessarily having to marry.

Emma Hart Willard was among the first Americans to offer educational opportunities to women and was an early proponent of the study of geography. Her pedagogical model at Troy was widely adopted by other colleges (including all-men schools) and her pupils moved throughout the United States establishing a network of schools to educate more women.
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What is the importance of Emma Willard?

Emma Hart Willard A pioneer in women’s education, Emma Hart Willard founded Troy Female Seminary, the first school for young women in the United States. Emma Hart was the sixteenth of seventeen children, born in Berlin, Connecticut, to a family that valued education.

  1. Her mother was literate at a time when very few women in New England could read and write, and her father believed in educating his daughters as well as his sons.
  2. Hart attended local schools and began her teaching career in 1804.
  3. In 1807, she moved to Middlebury, Vermont to manage a women’s academy.
  4. Two years later, she married John Willard and, as was customary, she retired from teaching for a period of time.

In 1814, Willard returned to her profession and opened a girls’ school in her home. Struck by the contrast between the education she could offer her students and the curriculum provided to young men at a nearby college, she wrote A Plan for Improving Female Education,

The document advocated equal education for young women through the academy level. At the encouragement of Governor DeWitt Clinton, Willard moved to New York in 1819 and opened a school in Waterford. In 1821, she relocated again, to Troy, and opened Troy Female Seminary. Renamed the Emma Willard School in her honor in 1895, the school saw thousands of young women pass through its doors during Willard’s lifetime.

In 1838, Willard left daily management of the school to her son and daughter-in-law and spent the last 30 years of her life traveling and writing. She returned often to the school, entertaining students in her house at the edge of the grounds, or even filling the role of principal as needed.
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What does Emma teach us?

6 Lessons From Jane Austen – On Love, Life, & Writing – Here are six universal lessons Jane taught us from each of her novels.

    Emma : Learn to listen and pay attention to everyday matters, The most important things in our lives are the little moments – the conversations, the shared laughter, friendships, and confidences. Emma has to learn that everyone matters, that she is not more important than anyone else, and that moments with her family and friends are precious.

    • She has to learn to stop interfering.
    • Emma does not listen to Harriet Smith who loves Robert Martin.
    • She tries to part them, but luckily they get together in the end.
    • Northanger Abbey : Keep a sense of wonder alive.
    • Life is an adventure.
    • Be curious.
    • The young heroine, Catherine is just learning about herself, her world, and the people she wants in it.

    She has to learn to be open to change and growth. If we don’t, we assume things based on what we have been taught rather than what really is in front of our eyes. Pride and Prejudice : Learn from mistakes. First impressions can be misleading as Elizabeth and Darcy have to find out in the novel. Sometimes we have to go through moments of heartbreak and humiliation before we learn our lesson. Elizabeth has to learn that Wickham is a cad.

    We also have to be prepared to admit when we are wrong and to apologise if necessary. We should not be afraid to show how we feel. Jane almost loses Bingley by being so reserved. Elizabeth almost loses Darcy because her feelings have been hurt. Mansfield Park : Money is not everything. We have to understand the difference between being entertained and being happy.

    Maria Bertram marries Mr Rushworth because of his fortune, and because she just got snubbed by Henry Crawford. Her story does not end well, but our stories are what make us human. Listening to someone’s stories and bearing witness is the highest way of acknowledging our humanity.

    • Poor, quiet, heroine, Fanny Price has to learn that we don’t always get what we want.
    • Persuasion : Be honest.
    • Think for yourself.
    • Unconditional friendship serves no one.
    • Anne Elliot breaks off her engagement with Frederic Wentworth on the advice of her friend, Lady Russel, which results in years of heartache.

    Anne learns about the values of community and friendship, which are harder to find and hold on to as we age. Sense and Sensibility : True love takes time. Sisters, Elinor and Marianne, both fall in love with men they can’t have. To love someone we have to like their characters as well as their looks. Marianne Dashwood finds this out when she learns the truth about Willoughby and gets to know Colonel Brandon. Healthy conflicts keep relationships sound. Marrying someone who helps us to grow is the truest way of knowing and loving ourselves.

I think these universal truths are part of reason why Jane Austen is as popular now as she ever was. If you enjoyed this post, read How did Jane Austen learn to write? by Amanda Patterson If you enjoyed this, you will love: Posted on: 16th December 2014
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What is the importance of social class in Emma?

Emma, like most of Austen’s novels, is a study in 18th Century English society and the significance of propriety. The rich and “well-bred” control the social situations, issuing and initiating invitations and friendships. Those of low social standing depend upon the charity and initiative of those in the higher class.

When violations of this order occur, they are often met with great indignation by those of genteel-breeding, as when Emma takes offense at Mrs. Elton presuming to nickname Mr. Knightley, Social class also dictates the social obligations between the characters, and the way in which their actions respond to these obligations reveals their character.

The novel, for instance, teases out the nuances of charity regarding class: Emma is charitable towards the poor, but shows little initiative in befriending the orphaned and talented Jane, The characters’ use or abuse of their social standing reveals much about their kindness or cruelty.

For instance, Emma’s exercise of wit at the expense of the silly, but low-standing Miss Bates is condemned as cruel by Mr. Knightley because it is an abuse of her social clout. Humiliating the hapless Miss Bates sets a bad example for those in society who would follow her example. On the other hand, Mr.

Knightley’s asking Harriet to dance after she has been snubbed by Mr. Elton is an act of charity, graciousness, and chivalry because he is of a high social standing in comparison to both her and Mr. Elton. His act socially “saves” Harriet and reprimands the Eltons for their rudeness.

  1. Social class also restricts the actions that characters are able to take in fulfilling their desires, as is most evidently seen in the novel’s drama regarding marriage matches.
  2. Frank must conceal his engagement with Jane because she is an orphan and regarded as an unsuitable social match by his family.

Harriet rejects Robert Martin because Emma advises her that he is “beneath” her. Mr. Elton rejects Harriet by the same calculations, and so on.
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What is the message in the book Emma?

Answer and Explanation: Emma by Jane Austen warns against the perils of pride. Emma Woodhouse has it all: she is pretty, wealthy, and does not need to seek out a husband in order to live comfortably. So she spends her time meddling in the love lives of other people in her small community.
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What are the feminist themes in Emma?

In other words, the main themes in feminist literature are education, marriage, and family, all of which exist in Emma. The novel Emma by Jane Austen is set in Highbury, England, in the early 19th century and the plot is centered around love, marriage, and superiority involving the citizens in the town.
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Why is Emma still relevant today?

Is Austen’s ‘Emma’ still relevant today? – Natasha Ketel in Editor’s Picks Literature on 5 March, 2020. Fans of Austen’s endearing novel have been treated to their fair share of TV and film adaptions of Emma over the years. The BBC developed a popular TV miniseries starring Romola Garai in 2009, Gwyneth Paltrow starred as the not-so-likeable heroine in a major feature film in 1996 and Amy Heckerling’s hilarious modern take, Clueless, is still a teenage sleepover favourite.

Yet, right now, in 2020, Emma has once again returned with a stellar cast and inflated comic edge. Why does this book continue to appear on our TV screens? Emma is certainly a text that all English Literature students here in Durham will be familiar with; having been subjected to reading Austen’s work for the ‘Introduction to Novel’ module in first year.

The tale follows Emma Woodhouse- a wealthy, charming and beautiful yet also narcissistic and sometimes cruel young woman. She sets her sights on the delights of matchmaking and is gradually forced to come to terms with her own self-delusion, falling in and out of love.

However, this storyline does not appear to engross and inspire everyone- with some first years describing the text as “dull”, “boring” and “superficial”. Subsequently, this draws attention to how the book is undoubtedly short on action and often critiqued for being too repetitive. So, as a story first written in 1815, why does Emma remain so easily marketable to cinema audiences today? Emma’s character is decisive: some readers almost religiously adore her and yet, at times, the character is most passionately loathed.

In fact, Austen herself described how “I am going to take a heroine whom no one but myself will much like”. Take, for example, the scene on Box Hill. Miss Bates is a sweet yet plain middle-aged spinster who only has good intentions. She is renowned for her talkative nature, often going off-topic and providing the other characters with an excessive amount of unnecessary information.

Thus, she infuriates Emma whose limited patience triggers this climax of their underlying tensions: “Oh! very well,” exclaimed Miss Bates, “then I need not be uneasy. ‘Three things very dull indeed.’ That will just do for me, you know. I shall be sure to say three dull things as soon as ever I open my mouth, shan’t I? (looking round with the most good-humoured dependence on every body’s assent)—Do not you all think I shall?” Emma could not resist.

“Ah! ma’am, but there may be a difficulty. Pardon me—but you will be limited as to number—only three at once.” Such an insult is the perfect example of Emma’s innate brutality, ensuring that the reader is explicitly aware of her character flaws. Yet, Austen’s use of free indirect discourse in this novel was unprecedented, popularising the trope in such a way that she is fundamentally seen to have transformed the way that writers approach their use of narrational voice in their fiction.

  • Through this clever literary technique, she was able to simultaneously expose the private internal thoughts of a character as well as their exteriority and the manner in which they are viewed by others.
  • Hence, in Chapter 43, the reader later learns how: ‘She felt it at her heart.
  • How could she have been so brutal, so cruel to Miss Bates! How could she have exposed herself to such ill opinion in any one she valued! And how suffer him to leave her without saying one word of gratitude, of concurrence, of common kindness!’ Therefore, it is obvious that Emma’s character has been critically examined in such paramount detail since the novel’s publication due to her transparent emotional complexity, as displayed here.

She makes mistakes and is totally foolish and is consequently so much more human than perhaps any other of Austen’s characters. The novel is ultimately about a young woman coming to terms with the consequences of her actions and learning about her own self-worth and the impact of her privilege.

It is a crucial piece of classic literature because it focuses on a specific time in which every young person is forced to self-examine and reflect. The novel is not just a trivial, simple love story and I think that is perhaps why no one can seem to put it down. Austen’s interrogation of character will never not be relevant because it can’t be denied that we all have a little bit of Emma Woodhouse within us and probably always will.

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Why Emma is feminist?

Emma experiences several major revelations in the novel that fundamentally change her understanding of herself and those around her. Which revelation do you think is most important to Emma’s development, and why? One way to answer this question would be to recognize that Emma undergoes her most decisive transformation when Mr.

Elton proposes to her. At this point, she realizes that she has been completely misguided in her interpretation of Elton’s behavior, and she also realizes that she herself is implicated in the courtship games that she believed she was manipulating from the sidelines. Another possible answer would focus on Emma’s revelation when Mr.

Knightley reprimands her after she has insulted Miss Bates. At this moment, Emma understands that her vain pleasure in Frank’s flirtations and her sense of superiority to others in the community have been wrong. She also realizes how much Knightley’s opinion means to her.

  • One might also argue that Emma’s decisive transformation takes place when she realizes that she loves Knightley, or when she agrees to marry him.
  • A successful answer would consider the intensity of Austen’s language together with plot developments.
  • For example, the episode in which Knightley reprimands Emma for insulting Miss Bates seems relatively unimportant in terms of the plot, but this scene includes some of the most emotional and dramatic language in the book.

In what ways, if at all, might Emma be considered a feminist novel? Emma may be considered a feminist novel because it focuses upon the struggles and development of a strong, intelligent woman. Though Emma’s activities—visits, parties, courtship, and marriage—are limited to the traditional sphere, the novel implicitly -critiques these limitations, and implies that Emma deserves a wider stage on which to exercise her powers.

Furthermore, the novel -criticizes the fact that women must be financially dependent by sympathetically depicting the vulnerability of Jane and Miss Bates. Alternatively, the novel could be considered antifeminist because it seems to suggest that Emma reaches the pinnacle of her development when she accepts the corrections of a man, Mr.

Knightley. Not only does Emma give up her former vow of celibate independence, but she marries an older man who is a father figure. Frank Churchill and Mr. Knightley represent two different sets of values and two different understandings of manhood. Describe the values that each character represents, and explain how the novel judges these values.

Frank Churchill is seen by many of the characters as an ideal man because of his good looks, warmth, and charm. He focuses most of his attention on determining what will please each person, and he makes his compliments with wit and style. However, the novel demonstrates that Frank is also flighty, unstable, and able to put his own wishes above social and moral propriety.

Mr. Knightley, conversely, is Frank’s opposite in many ways. Though also polite and affectionate with those he cares for, Knightley is dignified and reserved. When he expresses an opinion, it is always the correct one and is stated with simplicity and firmness.
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What is the social class in Emma?

SOCIAL CLASS – The class structure is basic in Emma, as it is in all Austen’s novels. The responsibilities and behavior of each class are generally known and accepted, Some social mobility is possible, as is illustrated by the Coles, who “were of low origin, in trade, and only moderately genteel” (p.190).

(Whose point of view is being expressed in the quotation, Emma’s and/or the narrator’s?) With the increase of their income, the Coles changed their life style to imitate the classes above them; they employed more servants, enlarged their house, and gave dinner parties to which they invited the “regular and best families” (p.190).

Only Emma regarded their social movement as presumptuous; the Westons and Mr. Knightley were willing to dine with the Coles and to accept their social aspirations. The Coles, be it said, displayed proper attitudes and were neither pretentious nor self-promoting; Mrs.

Coles confessed that no one in her family could play their new grand pianoforte. Moreover, the Coles showed delicacy and consideration in sending to London for a folding-screen “which they hoped might keep Mr. Woodhouse from any draught of air and therefore induce him the more readily to give them the honour of his company” (p.191).

Contrast their behavior and attitudes with the ill-bred impertinence and pretentious bragging of Mrs. Elton, whose father, like Mr. Cole, made his money in trade. In a small community where there are only a few genteel families, there may also be more tolerance at some mixing of the classes than in London or a more populous town.
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What is the irony in Emma?

Definition of Irony Irony is a literary device or event in which how things seem to be is in fact very different from how they actually are. If this seems like a loose definition. read full definition Irony is a literary device or event in which how things seem to be is in fact very different from how they actually are.

  • If this.
  • Read full definition Irony is a literary device or event in which how things seem to be is in fact very different from how.
  • Read full definition Explanation and Analysis—Very Good Lists: Early in the novel, Knightley uses verbal irony in a conversation with Mrs.
  • Weston about Emma’s reading habits: “Emma has been meaning to read more ever since she was twelve years old.

I have seen a great many lists of her drawing up at various times of books that she meant to read regularly through—and very good lists they were—very well chosen, and very neatly arranged—sometimes alphabetically, and sometimes by some other rule.” Though subtle, this is an example of verbal irony, in that Knightley acts as if he is complimenting Emma on the “very good lists” she makes of books she intends to read.

  • In reality, though, he is pointing out the absurdity of how much time she puts into making these lists instead of actually doing any reading.
  • He is highlighting how unread Emma is through the act of complimenting her on list-making.
  • This moment of verbal irony is meant to be humorous but, at the same time, shows how empty Emma’s life is as a woman in this time period.

Were she not limited by her gender, she would have many more options for what she could do with her time besides making lists of books she wants to read. She would be able to work, travel, and just generally do as she pleases outside of her home. As it is, the fact that she doesn’t want to read leaves her with few options: making lists and meddling in other people’s business.

Explanation and Analysis—Shakespeare: Emma alludes to works by Shakespeare multiple times over the course of the novel. For example, in Chapter 9, when divulging to Harriet her theories about Mr. Elton being in love with Harriet, Emma makes a reference to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream : “The course of true love never did run smooth—A Hartfield edition of Shakespeare would have a long note on that passage.” This particular Shakespearean allusion adds to the irony of the situation: the course of true love will not run smooth for Harriet and Elton, but not for the reasons Emma thinks.

Instead of being a tale of romance across social class, Mr. Elton will break Harriet’s heart. Emma later references Romeo and Juliet in Chapter 46, when discussing Jane Fairfax’s behavior during her secret engagement to Frank: “Much, indeed!” cried Emma, feelingly.

If a woman can ever be excused for thinking only of herself, it is in a situation like Jane Fairfax’s.—Of such, one may almost say, that ‘the world is not their’s, nor the world’s law.'” This quote gives more emotional weight to Emma’s maturation through the novel—where she used to judge and misperceive Jane, she now understands her.

In addition to shedding light on particular relationship dynamics in the novel, these Shakespeare quotes also show that Emma is well-read, hinting at her social class and also making her as a character seem like more than a misguided matchmaker. Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Emma and Knightley: Emma and Knightley ending up married is an example of situational irony because, throughout the novel, Emma makes it clear that she sees him more as a friend and also swears that she will never get married, as in this conversation with Harriet: “I have none of the usual inducements of women to marry.

Were I to fall in love, indeed, it would be a different thing! but I never have been in love; it is not my way, or my nature; and I do not think I ever shall.” The irony is heightened by the fact that Emma has speculated and gossiped about Knightley’s potential feelings for both Jane and Harriet and, though she does not consider them good matches, is not (consciously, at least) aware of her feelings for him.

Despite all this, Austen makes sure to foreshadow Emma and Knightley’s eventual nuptials, such as when Knightley says that he prefers women who are not reserved: “Jane Fairfax has feeling,” said Mr. Knightley—”I do not accuse her of want of feeling. Her sensibilities, I suspect, are strong—and her temper excellent in its power of forbearance, patience, self-controul; but it wants openness.

She is reserved, more reserved, I think, than she used to be—And I love an open temper.” Emma, of course, is the woman in his life who best displays this sort of “open temper,” a hint that Austen hopes readers will pick up on so that the eventual reveal and Emma and Knightley’s mutual affection doesn’t come too out of the blue.

Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Mr. Elton’s Feelings: In an example of situational irony early in the novel, Emma believes that Mr. Elton has feelings for Harriet when, it turns out, he has harbored feelings for Emma all along. Not only does Emma believe that he wants to be with Harriet, but she convinced Harriet that he loves her in return and persuaded her to turn down Mr.

  1. Martin’s marriage proposal in the process.
  2. The irony of this situation is heightened as Emma makes excuse after excuse for Mr.
  3. Elton’s behavior that does not align with her misperception of his feelings. After Mr.
  4. Elton is not at all perturbed by Harriet falling ill and not being able to attend a Christmas event, Emma does all sorts of internal twisting to keep her story intact: “Well,” said she to herself, “this is most strange!—After I had got him off so well, to chuse to go into company, and leave Harriet ill behind!—Most strange indeed!—But there is, I believe, in many men, especially single men, such an inclination—such a passion for dining out—a dinner engagement is so high in the class of their pleasures, their employments, their dignities, almost their duties, that anything gives way to it—and this must be the case with Mr.

Elton; a most valuable, amiable, pleasing young man undoubtedly, and very much in love with Harriet; but still, he cannot refuse an invitation, he must dine out wherever he is asked. What a strange thing love is! he can see ready wit in Harriet, but will not dine alone for her.” Rather than believe that Mr.

  • Elton wants to attend the party to spend time with her, Emma decides that he “cannot refuse an invitation” so as not to be rude. When Mr.
  • Elton reveals his feelings for Emma just hours later on the way back from the party, she is shocked, showing the extent of her self-deception.
  • Another layer of irony in this moment is that Emma is upset that Mr.

Elton doesn’t want to be with Harriet because of her social standing (as he puts it, “I need not so totally despair of an equal alliance, as to be addressing myself to Miss Smith!”) when Emma herself encouraged Harriet to reject the farmer Mr. Martin for these same reasons.

  • Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Emma Meddling: After Emma is incorrect about Mr.
  • Elton’s feelings for Harriet (as he actually loves Emma instead), she promises to stop playing matchmaker but then continues to do so—an example of dramatic irony.
  • Emma makes it clear to herself and readers that she has learned her lesson about meddling after reflecting on how wrong she was about Mr.

Elton and how much she hurt Harriet in the process: The first error and the worst lay at her door. It was foolish, it was wrong, to take so active a part in bringing any two people together. It was adventuring too far, assuming too much, making light of what ought to be serious, a trick of what ought to be simple.

  • She was quite concerned and ashamed, and resolved to do such things no more.
  • The dramatic irony comes in when Emma does not stop playing matchmaker, as seen just a couple paragraphs later when she unconsciously begins to consider other suitors for Harriet: “I am sure I have not an idea of any body else who would be at all desirable for her;—William Cox—Oh! no, I could not endure William Cox—a pert young lawyer.” Because readers have witnessed Emma promise herself (and also Harriet) that she will no longer meddle, they can appreciate the irony in her immediately going back to her old ways.

It hints at how Emma will continue to be trapped by her pride and meddling instincts for much of the book—that it will take more than this moment to make her change her ways. Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Frank and Jane: Throughout most of the novel, Emma believes that Frank wants to be with her and that Jane wants to be with her former employer, Mr.

Dixon. Frank and Jane have been secretly engaged the entire time, however, and this rift between belief and reality is an example of situational irony. While Emma’s misperceptions and incorrect reads of people are somewhat obvious (such as her belief that Mr. Elton has feelings for Harriet rather than for herself), this situation is a surprise to her and to readers.

Frank has consistently acted as if he is not interested in Jane, such as in this conversation with Emma in which he calls Jane “reserved” and implies he would never love such a person: “It is a most repulsive quality, indeed,” said he. “Oftentimes very convenient, no doubt, but never pleasing.

There is safety in reserve, but no attraction. One cannot love a reserved person.” In addition to commenting on Jane’s unlikable personality, Frank has also described how he’s not interested in women with a “deplorable want of complexion,” one of Jane’s physical characteristics. Frank’s engagement to Jane is certainly ironic after all of Frank’s blatant denials of his feelings for Jane, and it’s also quite painful for Emma.

Though she no longer has romantic feelings for Frank at this point, she trusted him as a friend and feels somewhat betrayed. She also feels ashamed about how deeply she misperceived the situation (believing him to have been in love with her) and how her public flirty behavior with Frank must have hurt Jane.

Rather than behaving reactively, however, Emma takes steps to hear Frank out and to apologize to Jane, showing how she has matured over the course of the novel and let go of her pride. Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—No Dancing: Austen’s writing style is full of humor and playful energy.

Near the beginning of the novel, the narrator uses verbal irony to describe how deeply the young adults of Highbury enjoy their social dances: It may be possible to do without dancing entirely. Instances have been known of young people passing many, many months successively, without being at any ball of any description, and no material injury accrue either to body or mind;—but when a beginning is made—when the felicities of rapid motion have once been, though slightly, felt—it must be a very heavy set that does not ask for more.

This is an example of verbal irony because the narrator knows full well that it is “possible to do without dancing”—and that young people of course survive many months without being able to dance (without becoming unhealthy “either to body or mind”). But they use sarcasm to highlight how deeply desperate Emma and her friends are for a ball.

The intensity of the narrator’s love of social dances also mirrors Emma’s love of them and shows how much her life is limited by her gender—unfortunately, she has very little in her life apart from social events like this. Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Emma and Knightley: Emma and Knightley ending up married is an example of situational irony because, throughout the novel, Emma makes it clear that she sees him more as a friend and also swears that she will never get married, as in this conversation with Harriet: “I have none of the usual inducements of women to marry.

Were I to fall in love, indeed, it would be a different thing! but I never have been in love; it is not my way, or my nature; and I do not think I ever shall.” The irony is heightened by the fact that Emma has speculated and gossiped about Knightley’s potential feelings for both Jane and Harriet and, though she does not consider them good matches, is not (consciously, at least) aware of her feelings for him.

Despite all this, Austen makes sure to foreshadow Emma and Knightley’s eventual nuptials, such as when Knightley says that he prefers women who are not reserved: “Jane Fairfax has feeling,” said Mr. Knightley—”I do not accuse her of want of feeling. Her sensibilities, I suspect, are strong—and her temper excellent in its power of forbearance, patience, self-controul; but it wants openness.

She is reserved, more reserved, I think, than she used to be—And I love an open temper.” Emma, of course, is the woman in his life who best displays this sort of “open temper,” a hint that Austen hopes readers will pick up on so that the eventual reveal and Emma and Knightley’s mutual affection doesn’t come too out of the blue.

Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Shakespeare: Emma alludes to works by Shakespeare multiple times over the course of the novel. For example, in Chapter 9, when divulging to Harriet her theories about Mr. Elton being in love with Harriet, Emma makes a reference to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream : “The course of true love never did run smooth—A Hartfield edition of Shakespeare would have a long note on that passage.” This particular Shakespearean allusion adds to the irony of the situation: the course of true love will not run smooth for Harriet and Elton, but not for the reasons Emma thinks.

  • Instead of being a tale of romance across social class, Mr.
  • Elton will break Harriet’s heart.
  • Emma later references Romeo and Juliet in Chapter 46, when discussing Jane Fairfax’s behavior during her secret engagement to Frank: “Much, indeed!” cried Emma, feelingly.
  • If a woman can ever be excused for thinking only of herself, it is in a situation like Jane Fairfax’s.—Of such, one may almost say, that ‘the world is not their’s, nor the world’s law.'” This quote gives more emotional weight to Emma’s maturation through the novel—where she used to judge and misperceive Jane, she now understands her.

In addition to shedding light on particular relationship dynamics in the novel, these Shakespeare quotes also show that Emma is well-read, hinting at her social class and also making her as a character seem like more than a misguided matchmaker. Unlock with LitCharts A + Explanation and Analysis—Harriet’s Crush: In the latter half of the novel, Harriet tells Emma that she has feelings for someone, and Emma assumes she’s talking about Frank when she’s actually referring to Knightley.

This leads to several chapters of miscommunications and situational irony as Emma tries to bring Harriet and Frank together, leading her to fretting over the fact that she will have to tell Harriet about Frank’s secret engagement to Jane: “Harriet, poor Harriet!”—Those were the words; in them lay the tormenting ideas which Emma could not get rid of, and which constituted the real misery of the business to her.

Frank Churchill had behaved very ill by herself—very ill in many ways,—but it was not so much his behaviour as her own, which made her so angry with him. It was the scrape which he had drawn her into on Harriet’s account, that gave the deepest hue to his offence.—Poor Harriet! to be a second time the dupe of her misconceptions and flattery.

Emma’s assumptions are, of course, incorrect, as Harriet explains just a few pages later: “I should not have thought it possible,” she began, “that you could have misunderstood me! I know we agreed never to name him—but considering how infinitely superior he is to every body else, I should not have thought it possible that I could be supposed to mean any other person.

Mr. Frank Churchill, indeed! I do not know who would ever look at him in the company of the other. When Emma finally learns the truth about Harriet’s feelings, her pride takes another blow. Not only was she wrong about Harriet desiring Frank, but this new information—that Harriet likes Knightley and she (incorrectly) believes he likes her, too—threatens Emma’s own desire for a relationship with Knightley.
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What is the main conflict in Emma?

Full title Emma Author Jane Austen Type of work Novel Genre Comedy of manners Language English Time and place written 1814–1815, Chawton, England Date of first publication 1816 Publisher John Murray Narrator The narrator is anonymous and narrates some time after the events of the novel take place.

  1. The novel is narrated using free indirect discourse, which means that the narrator steps into and out of Emma’s thoughts, sometimes using language we would imagine Emma to use without placing it in quotation marks.
  2. Point of view The novel is narrated in the third person by a narrator who tells us what individual characters think and feel, and who also provides insight and commentary.

For the most part, the narrator relates events from Emma’s perspective, but at times she enters into the thoughts of other characters. Chapter 41, for example, is narrated from Mr. Knightley’s perspective. Tone Ironic, satirical, sympathetic Tense Immediate past Setting (Time) Early nineteenth century Setting (Place) Highbury, England Protagonist Emma Woodhouse Major conflict Emma struggles to shed her vanity and her fear of confronting her own feelings, both of which cause her to misunderstand those around her and to meddle harmfully in the lives of others.

  • Rising action Emma realizes that she was horribly wrong to think she could make a match between Mr.
  • Elton and Harriet, because not only are the two ill-suited to one another, but Mr.
  • Elton has had feelings for her all along that she intentionally or unintentionally failed to acknowledge.
  • She decides to be in love with Frank and flirts aggressively with him, though she recognizes that her feelings are not, in fact, very strong.

When she cruelly insults Miss Bates at the Box Hill party, Mr. Knightley reprimands her, and Emma feels extreme remorse about the cruelty of her actions. Climax Emma realizes that she is in love with Mr. Knightley after Harriet discloses the same to Emma.

  • Falling action Emma and Mr.
  • Nightley confess their feelings for one another.
  • Nightley proposes to Emma; the happiness of Harriet, Frank, and Jane, which Emma’s intrusion had endangered, is secured as Harriet accepts Mr.
  • Martin’s proposal and Jane and Frank prepare to marry.
  • Themes Marriage and social status, the confined nature of women’s existence, the blinding power of imagination, the obstacles to open expression Motifs Visits, parties, conversational subtexts Symbols The riddle, the word game, tokens of affection Foreshadowing Almost every chapter includes foreshadowing.

For example, in Chapter 27, we are told that Emma “felt as if the spring would not pass without bringing a crisis, an event, a something to alter her present composed and tranquil state.”
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How does Emma change throughout the novel?

The (Mis)Education of Harriet Smith: Confidence, Perception, and Character Development in Emma Emma in Emma is all about Emma, and because she is both heroine and titular character, the reader’s attention often focuses on Emma’s growth and development.

While readings of the changes in Emma’s character, such as those done by scholars like R.E. Hughes in “The Education of Emma Woodhouse,” provide valuable insight on the way women of Austen’s time interacted with the world around them, close inspection reveals that other characters, such as Harriet Smith, are written with the same consideration.

Though many dismiss her as simply a contributor to Emma’s development, Harriet is much more than a one-dimensional foil; rather, her character development as she moves between social classes, initially as a “natural daughter of somebody” and then a married “daughter of a tradesman,” gives validation to women of all socioeconomic backgrounds, demonstrating the necessity of both confidence and accurate perspective of both self and others to the development of womanhood (Austen 17, 390).

  1. Hughes points out that Emma ‘s “thesis-antithesis-synthesis” education results in Emma’s newfound knowledge of the way the outside world affects her (74).
  2. Yet while Emma’s education leads her to a radically new perspective on love and society, the same cannot be said of Harriet.
  3. The rapid change in Emma’s desires—from wanting to stay single and matchmake others, to craving companionship and detesting matchmaking—is not shared by her young friend.

Rather, Harriet begins and ends with the same desires, pointing to the fact that her character development is not like Emma’s. Hughes contends that for Emma, it is “only when she recognizes that there is something outside” that “is Emma redeemed” (71).

  • Conversely, for Harriet it is instead when she recognizes that there is something of value already in her nature that she can truly grow.
  • Thus, while Emma’s character develops from one point to another, Harriet’s opinions and beliefs are affirmed rather than changed as she ends where she begins—contentedly in love with Robert Martin and at peace with the rest of Highbury.

The change in Harriet’s character, then, is not in her perspective of society, like Emma, but in her perspective of herself. If viewed from Hughes’s analysis of Emma as earning an education in the novel, Harriet can be seen receiving a miseducation that negatively alters her perception and from which she must learn to validate her own beliefs.

Analysis of this miseducation in conjunction with the way Harriet moves between social classes directs attention not only to Harriet’s unique development, but also to the way Austen writes and presents women beyond class structure. Harriet gains a new perspective of herself as her social status transforms with the discovery of her parentage and her marriage, demonstrating the importance of both confidence and correct perception of both self and others to womanhood regardless of class.

Initially, it appears that Harriet has a proper perspective of merit and value—for example, she respects the Martins and finds herself in love with Robert Martin, who Mr. Knightley affirms is “an excellent young man, both as son and brother,” and even Emma, when trying to deny the excellence of his proposal, comments that it is “a better written letter,

than I had expected” (Austen 47, 40). In gaining praise from both Mr. Knightley and Emma, who often are at odds with each other in the novel, Robert Martin proves himself worthy of Harriet who, in turn, returns his affections. Though she is young, Harriet’s desire to marry Robert Martin makes it clear that her judgement is somewhat unclouded at this point, as she is able to recognize the merit in his character that a variety of other characters also see.

Her ability to recognize Robert Martin’s value, however, is hindered by her initial lack of confidence. When Emma first meets her she is described as “so far from pushing, shewing so proper and becoming a deference,” establishing her as a figure of submission (18).

This submission then leads Emma to the idea to befriend Harriet, the narration describing ” she would notice her; she would improve her; she would detach her from her bad acquaintance, and introduce her into good society; she would form her opinions and her manners” (18). Their friendship thus begins with Emma’s total control over Harriet and, correspondingly, Harriet’s eagerness for Emma to take control of her exposes her own uncertainty in herself.

This lack of confidence in her own views thus leads Harriet to allow Emma to contort her perception of others and of herself. Harriet’s submission to Emma’s control of her “opinions and her manners” leads to the warping of her self-perception and, subsequently, her perspective of others.

This is first seen in Harriet’s (or, more accurately, Emma’s) rejection of Robert Martin. It is ultimately Emma’s twisted teachings that lead to this rejection, which she justifies by leading Harriet to see herself in a warped and inaccurate manner. This can be seen, for example, as Emma defends Harriet’s rejection of the proposal by speculating that “there can be no doubt of your being a gentleman’s daughter” (23).

With Emma’s prodding, Harriet learns to accept this misrepresentation of her social status as truth. While Emma’s words may seem encouraging, they ultimately prompt Harriet to see herself and her relationship to society inaccurately, leading to further conflicts within the novel.

Though her initial refusal of Robert Martin is Emma’s doing, Harriet is clearly negatively impacted by her teachings, as it is her guidance that distorts Harriet’s perception. This rejection marks the beginning of Emma’s misguided matchmaking attempts for Harriet, and thus highlights the beginning of Harriet’s miseducation.

Harriet’s misguided self-perception in Emma’s hands is further solidified in her experience of heartbreak with Mr. Elton. Initially, Mr. Elton’s rejection appears to bring Harriet back to a more grounded sense of self. She, for example, accepts the news of his true feelings, “in every thing testifying such an ingenuousness of disposition and lowly opinion of herself,

She never could have deserved him—and nobody but so partial and kind a friend as Miss Woodhouse would have thought it possible” (113). Yet while Harriet learns to see the reality of Mr. Elton’s feelings, she still evidently submits to Emma. The humility that Harriet gains does not give her a proper perspective on Emma’s character or her own; instead, she continues to yield to Emma, thinking her “so partial and kind a friend” rather than recognizing that it was Emma who caused her heartbreak.

Mr. Elton’s rejection of Harriet and the nature of her resulting humility thus affirm her misguided sense of self and others. Her response to his rejection reveals the extreme level of deference Harriet gives to Emma, and subsequently points to the warping of her perception.

It is evident, however, that as events of the novel continue, Harriet learns to see beyond Emma’s teaching and begins to develop her own distorted self-perception. Her actions begin to depart from Emma’s guidance when, for example, Harriet’s recognition of Mr. Knightley’s merit leads her to mistakenly view him as a viable partner.

Harriet’s desire for Mr. Knightley is orchestrated by no one but herself, demonstrating how Emma’s previous teachings that skewed Harriet’s perspective continue to persist even beyond Emma’s control. In fact, she is so miseducated under Emma’s guidance that when she first meets Emma before explaining her love for Mr.

  1. Nightley, her “behaviour” is “so extremely odd, that Emma know how to understand it.
  2. Her character appear absolutely changed” (328).
  3. Emma finally recognizes that her control over Harriet has changed her character to a point where it is unrecognizable.
  4. Her miseducation of Harriet, which originally leads her to view herself and others inaccurately, gives Harriet both the confidence as well as a warped sense of self that leads to her make decisions that go even beyond Emma’s control.

It is evident that Harriet’s miseducation builds upon her experiences with Emma and eventually teaches her to develop inaccurate perspectives of herself and of others without Emma’s help. This can be seen, for example, when Harriet claims Mr. Knightley’s mutual affection for her and defends her beliefs with evidence.

  1. Emma’s initial mistake with Mr.
  2. Elton lies in her misreading of his “manners” towards Harriet and herself (107).
  3. Harriet appears to learn from this experience, and only falls in love with Mr.
  4. Nightley when she is confident in supposed proof of his love for her.
  5. Harriet’s confidence in Mr.
  6. Nightley’s returned affection reflects her confidence in herself and her own misguided perceptions; for example, when Harriet admits her affection, Emma asks “have you any idea of Mr.

Knightley’s returning your affection?” to which the narration describes Harriet commenting: “‘Yes,’ replie Harriet modestly, but not fearfully—‘I must say that I have'” (331). Emma’s misunderstanding of Harriet’s feelings demonstrates the way her miseducation has taught her to only fall in love with assurance, yet also to mistakenly read Mr.

Knightley’s actions and words in the same way Emma had previously misread Mr. Elton. Harriet furthermore speaks “not fearfully,” which contrasts with her initial introduction as a submissive, demure girl. This demonstrates the growth of her confidence, despite its misplacement. Thus Harriet, by the revelation of her love for Mr.

Knightley, has learned to make her own mistakes without Emma’s help, surpassing Emma, her teacher of a misguided education, and proving that she has developed confidence in her own misconceptions, leading to self-deception. While Harriet tells Emma “I never should have presumed to think of it at first,

But for you” (333), the misunderstanding between the two clarifies that Harriet’s love for Mr. Knightley is entirely her own idea and the result of her own warped point of view. Harriet’s affection for Mr. Knightley thus reflects the growth of her confidence under Emma’s miseducation, which empowers her to stand firmly beside her own beliefs, yet at the same time also misleads her to believe in inaccuracies.

Thus Harriet’s initial education in Emma’s hands grants her both confidence and warped self-perception; her final growth involves the reworking of the way she perceives others and herself with this new confidence. It is then not Emma, but the knowledge of Mr.

Nightley’s true affections that ultimately leads Harriet to this final proper education. After recognizing that Mr. Knightley does not love Harriet, Emma finds that “Robert Martin had thoroughly supplanted Mr. Knightley, and was now forming all her views of happiness,” and Harriet herself is able to recognize “that she had been presumptuous and silly, and self-deceived” (390).

Harriet’s ability to recognize Robert Martin’s value, despite Emma’s original teaching deeming him to be “illiterate and coarse,” demonstrates how she begins to see society around her in a more accurate way, untainted by her previous miseducation in Emma’s hands (26).

  • Furthermore, her recognition that she had been “presumptuous and silly, and self-deceived” demonstrates how Harriet has developed the ability to perceive herself and her actions accurately, as well as the confidence to admit her offenses.
  • Her acceptance of Robert Martin’s proposal reveals not only the restoration of her sense and perception, but furthermore the continued strength of her confidence in herself, as she is finally able to make her own choices without Emma’s guidance.

Emma’s miseducation thus does ironically help Harriet gain confidence; her recognition of Emma’s misguidance furthermore allows Harriet to teach herself to value her own beliefs and desires. Harriet thus ends the novel married to the man she originally loved, as well as solidified in society as her “parentage become known.

She proved to be the daughter of a tradesman, rich enough to afford her the comfortable maintenance which had ever been her’s, and decent enough to have always wished for concealment” (390). Some may argue that Harriet’s ascendance into society and wealth refutes a reading of her character as affirming the value of lower-class women, yet it is evident that despite Harriet’s newfound wealth and status, she continues to see Robert Martin’s merit and upholds her original decision to choose him as a husband.

The restoration of Harriet to society as well as her marriage to Robert Martin may then be read as reflections of her restored value in herself and others. The affirmation of Harriet’s original desires and her newfound confidence to fulfill them demonstrates the importance of both confidence and perspective to womanhood despite class.

  • Emma is then concerned with education in that both Emma and Harriet must learn: Emma to recognize “something outside Emma” (Hughes 71) and Harriet to see not only others, but also herself, accurately.
  • Harriet’s education under Emma’s teaching, while misguided, does lead her to gain the confidence she originally lacks, though it twists her perception of herself and of others.

Ultimately, Harriet is able to move beyond Emma’s guidance and learn to perceive the value in her own character and others more accurately. Some scholars like Morris perceive Harriet as a purely simple character, reducing her to merely a demure figure: “in whatever context she is finally settled, Harriet will not be renowned for resource and positiveness in reasoning.

Her capacities as displayed in the novel are limited.” Yet analysis of Harriet’s character and the way it develops confidence and affirms value throughout the novel demonstrates that her capacity to reason is not limited—rather, her education takes an unusual turn to bring her right back to her original perception of merit, prompting the idea that Harriet must learn not to conform to an external moral standard, but rather to validate the value she already has.

In this way Harriet’s character may be read as a positive affirmation of women beyond all social classes, and an example of the necessity of both confidence and proper perception to the development of female characters in Emma,

Austen, Jane. Emma, New York: Penguin Books, 2015. Print. Hughes, R.E. “The Education of Emma Woodhouse.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 16.1 (1961): 69-74. MLA International Bibliography. Web.10 May 2016. Morris, Ivor.”.” Persuasions On-Line 26.1 (2005). Web.17 Feb 2016.

: The (Mis)Education of Harriet Smith: Confidence, Perception, and Character Development in Emma
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What is Emma a satire of?

Definition of Satire Satire is the use of humor, irony, sarcasm, or ridicule to criticize something or someone. Public figures, such as politicians, are often the subject of satire, but satirists can take. read full definition Satire is the use of humor, irony, sarcasm, or ridicule to criticize something or someone.

  1. Public figures, such as politicians, are often the subject of.
  2. Read full definition Satire is the use of humor, irony, sarcasm, or ridicule to criticize something or someone.
  3. Public figures, such as politicians.
  4. Read full definition Explanation and Analysis—Mr.
  5. Woodhouse: Among the characters that Austen uses to satirize aspects of British society in the in the early 19th century is Mr.

Woodhouse, Emma’s father. Though he is allowed moments of earnest feelings, he is primarily used to satirize eccentric and controlling British patriarchs. A strong example of this happens near the beginning of the novel, when Emma’s governess Mrs. Weston gets married (requiring her to have a wedding and also to move out) and Mr.

Woodhouse is upset about it: few weeks brought some alleviation to Mr. Woodhouse. The compliments of his neighbours were over; he was no longer teased by being wished joy of so sorrowful an event; and the wedding-cake, which had been a great distress to him, was all eat up. His own stomach could bear nothing rich, and he would never believe other people to be different from himself.

To others, Mrs. Weston’s wedding a joyous occasion, but to Mr. Woodhouse it is only “sorrowful” because it means losing an employee. Though he is not overtly unlikable as a character, Mr. Woodhouse’s grumpy disposition and belief that the world should revolve around him highlights the types of aging wealthy men with whom Austen likely come in contact with in real life.

  • Mr. Woodhouse’s eccentricities—such as his intense hypochondria and fear of change—also contribute to Emma feeling responsible for him.
  • As she is limited by her gender in this society, she cannot choose to work or live on her own and therefore ends up playing the role of dutiful daughter who prioritizes her father above all else.

Even after getting engaged, she persuades Knightley to move in with her and her father so that she can continue to care of him, a very rare occurrence in Austen’s time. Explanation and Analysis—Mrs. Elton: Though Austen satirizes different aspects of most characters included in the novel (such as Emma’s constant misperceptions about people’s romantic intentions and resulting poor matchmaking abilities), there are other characters like Mrs.

Elton whose entire existence in the novel is meant to satirize something. In Mrs. Elton’s case, she is meant to satirize prideful wealthy urbanites who consider themselves more “cultured” than those who live in rural communities like Highbury. Mrs. Elton is introduced as a character after Mr. Elton returns from travels with a wife in tow.

She is from Bath—a larger town than Highbury—and has a wealthy brother-in-law. Emma notices right away that she is a vain, self-important, and rude woman who acts superior to everyone in Highbury: he quarter of an hour quite convinced her that Mrs. Elton was a vain woman, extremely well satisfied with herself, and thinking much of her own importance; that she meant to shine and be very superior, but with manners which had been formed in a bad school, pert and familiar.

  • Emma does try to engage with Mrs.
  • Elton over the course of several balls and outings, but she finds that Mrs.
  • Elton “only wanted to be talking herself.” While Emma matures over the course of the novel, Mrs.
  • Elton does not.
  • That she remains such a flat character who is hyperbolically haughty and rude shows how Mrs.

Elton is Austen’s way of satirizing upper-class, “cultured” city people who considered themselves better than people like Emma from rural areas. Unlock with LitCharts A +
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What is the conclusion of Emma by Jane Austen?

Emma finds out Frank Churchill is secretly engaged to Jane Fairfax. Mr. Knightley tells Emma he is in love with her too. Harriet finally accepts Robert Martin’s proposal – they get married.
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What type of literature is Emma?

Jane Austen began writing Emma in 1814 and the novel was published in 1816. The book can be classed as a bildungsroman: a novel about the education and development of its main character. Emma.

Creator Jane Austen
Forms Prose
Genre Romantic literature
Literary period Romantic

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Why is Emma considered a masterpiece?

Common Questions about Jane Austen’s Emma – Q: When was Emma published? And, why is it considered a masterpiece? Jane Austen’s novel, Emma, was published in 1816. Some consider it to be her masterpiece because of its brilliancy of language, its vivid characterizations, and its complex narration.

  1. Q: How does Jane Austen describe Emma in the beginning? In the opening line of the novel, Emma is described with three adjectives: handsome, clever, and rich.
  2. In these three seemingly positive words, Austen’s narrator telegraphs Emma’s supposed strengths and the supposed ‘blessings’ of her existence.

But these words, at the same time, signal her distinctive weaknesses. Q: What did the word ‘handsome’ mean in the 19th century, when used for women? The word handsome in the early 19th century was used as a compliment for females. It could mean attractive, elegant, and stylish.
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Why is Emma a likeable character?

Excerpt from Term Paper : – ¶ Emma is a likeable character or not. Emma is an interesting and complex character, and she can be quite unlikable, especially when she meddles in the affairs of others and does not recognize the danger of that meddling. However, in the end she shows that she has grown up, can take responsibility for her actions, and is finally ready for true love, so she is a likable character.

  1. Emma is an interesting character, but she does become likable, even though she can be callous, and is truly a snob.
  2. Austen introduces Emma at the beginning of the book by saying, “Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her” (Austen 3).

Immediately many female readers might be put off, simply because Emma does not seem very sympathetic. She has everything, seemingly, and many readers probably do not, so why would they possibly like or sympathize with her? However, Emma does begin to grow on the reader as the book progresses.

  • In fact, she has much to recommend her.
  • She is a caring person, and Austen shows this by the fact that she takes care of her elderly father and clearly loves him.
  • She is patient with him, good-natured, and manages the household, all things he needs, and she is kind with him, even though he is over indulgent to her and cannot see her flaws.

One of the most unlikable things about Emma also reflects society at the time, and that is her attitude about the social classes. She does not think Harriet should marry a farmer who is “beneath” her in class, and Mr. Elton, a reverend, would not consider Harriet for a wife because she was “beneath” him in social status,

England was extremely class conscious at the time, as this illustrates, and that Emma subscribed to this class-consciousness is not an attractive trait. It makes her a snob – unwilling to simply see the good in people, rather than their cultural status and circumstances. Emma also ignores evidence around her, and tends not to understand the results of her actions, which makes her seem rather shallow and naive.

She uses her class to break up the romance between Mr. Martin and Harriet, showing that she does not understand these two people at all, while she prides herself that she does. She says, “Indeed, Harriet, it would have been a severe pang to lose you; but it must have been.

You would have thrown yourself out of all good society. I must have given you up'” (Jane Austen 48). This illustrates what a snob she is, but it shows how she can be quite callous and even rude at times, certainly things that do not endear her to others. Emma forms quick opinions of others, too, like the insufferable Mrs.

Elton. Once she makes up her mind she is not easily swayed, and that is one reason her matchmaking is so ineffective. She sees only what she wants to see, not the truth. That is one reason she is so often surprised when men say they love her. She really does not understand the nature of people.

  • This makes for some funny results in the book, but it makes her more vulnerable, and that makes her a more likeable character in some ways.
  • It is easy to see why Jane Austen said that Emma is “a heroine whom no one but myself will much like?” Austen published this novel in 1815, and Emma certainly did not fit the mold of women at that time.

In fact, Emma did not fit in with Austen’s other characters, either. They were women who needed financial security and wanted to get married, while Emma is wealthy and does not need a man to take care of her. She does not want one, either, which is certainly not representative of what women were supposed to want at the time.

Women were supposed to grow up and get married, (always within their class), so Emma does not represent what society thought about women at the time. That is one reason that Austen might have said that people would not like Emma. It was not just her personality, it was the fact that she represented freedom for women, and many people were uncomfortable with that idea.

In addition, Emma displays some negative character traits, such as her meddling nature and her inability to recognize traits in others, that might put off some readers. She is not the epitome of womanhood that English society expected at the time, she is free, does not need a man, does not want to get married, and has a circle of friends.

Some readers might be jealous of her, while others might just think she was nothing more than a spoiled and willful child. However, in reality, Emma grows more charming as the novel progresses, and she grows up, as well. For example, she is very contrite when Mr. Knightly points out that she has been ignoring Jane Fairfax.

She thinks to herself, “This is very true,’ said she, ‘at least as far as relates to me, which was all that was meant – and it is very shameful. -Of the same age – and always knowing her – I ought to have been more her friend'” (Austen 262). This shows she has a good heart, and is not afraid to change her ways, and that makes her more endearing.

  • Emma is likable because she does not like some of the meaner characters in the book, like Mrs. Elton.
  • She is also fiercely loyal to her friends, like Harriet and Jane, and she recognizes vanity and arrogance when she sees them in others.
  • As her character develops throughout the book, her personality becomes more engaging, and that makes her more likable.

Austen may have thought her readers would not like Emma, but she did a good job of balancing her character to make her more charming, and that makes her easier to like as the book progresses. She is perhaps the most engaging and likable when she realizes that she is in love with Mr.

Knightley, but that Harriet loves him, too. She allows Harriet to talk about her feelings, even while she inspects her own growing awareness of how she really feels. She does not interrupt or tell her friend the truth, which is a kind and caring thing to do, and she makes a sacrifice, which is a strong thing for her to do.

She really matures as a woman at this point, and it makes sense that Mr. Knightley loves her, because she is now ready and suitable for marriage, She was a young girl at the beginning of the book, but now, she has matured, and she is far more likeable as a result.

  1. The reader can see her progress through the book, and how she grows from a girl to a woman, and they begin to identify with her, and see her as a fully formed character, rather than a one-dimensional girl at the beginning of the book.
  2. No, it is not necessary to like a work of art to appreciate the work that went into creating it.

Even if you do not enjoy a particular type of art, you can still appreciate the artist and their creativity, You do not have to love a work of art to understand its meaning and importance, even if you do not like its subject matter or theme, However, to truly appreciate the art, no matter what type it is, from a book to a painting, the viewer has to be involved in it somehow, and in the case of a book, be concerned about the outcome.

  1. Usually, it is the characters that create this emotional response to a book, and so, it is better to like the characters than to dislike them if you really want to enjoy the book.
  2. Emma is not really a totally unlikable character, and so, it is easier to read this book than if she was more unlikable.
  3. She is charming, witty, and as the book progresses it becomes clear she does have the best interests of those around her at heart, even if she is really not a very good matchmaker.

So, it becomes easy to appreciate Emma and her quirks while reading the book. The happy ending would not be so satisfying if you did not like the character, either, so Austen had to make her likable, of only a few people would have read and appreciated her work.
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Why is Mary Lyon famous?

Mary Lyon Mary Lyon founded the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now College) in 1837 at South Hadley, Massachusetts, the model for institutions of higher education for women in the United States. A teacher herself, Lyon struggled to finance her education – and determined to create a new form for women’s education based on principles of sound financial endowment, the inclusion of all economic groups, an advanced curriculum equivalent to that available to men, and the preparation of women for more than homemaking and teaching.

Defying conventional behavior, Lyon traveled and fundraised in the public eye to win support for her ideas. In 1837 Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary opened with 80 students. It was an immediate success, besieged by more students than could be accommodated. Lyon headed the organization for twelve years. For more than 150 years, Mt.

Holyoke has empowered women for serious intellectual pursuits, public leadership and service to humanity, as its founder envisioned through her words “Go where no one else will go, do what no one else will do.” : Mary Lyon
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Did Jane Fonda attend Emma Willard School?

Serving and Shaping Her World: Jane Fonda ’55 Honored Suzanne Romero Dewey Jane Fonda ’55 was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame on September 14, 2019. She accepted the honor with grace and passion while demonstrating that she is a true alumna of Emma Willard School.

Whether you think of her as an actor, or an activist, an author, or an entrepreneur, It’s hard to encompass the totality of Jane Fonda in one word.except perhaps icon.” Aimee Mullens (NWHoF 2017 Inductee) The cheering subsided, the medal symbolizing her as an inductee into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (NWhoF) newly hung on her neck, Jane Fonda ʼ 55 thanked Aimee Mullens for her introduction and she began her acceptance speech in true Emma Willard fashion, gracefully acknowledging the honor and her desire to stand up to the accolade.

“I will do my best to deserve being honored with,” Addressing an audience of women and men and hundreds of school children, Jane took on historical context and identified herself as an Emma Willard alumna: In 1814, the very first woman was inducted into the Hall of Fame.

It wasn’t the Women’s Hall of Fame, it was the Hall of Fame. Maybe it didn’t occur to men back then that there could be enough women to fill a hall of their own. She was, Emma Willard believed that young women had the right to an education commensurate with that of young men. One that wasn’t just focused on etiquette and homemaking but that included math, science, history, philosophy.

And so she founded the Emma Willard School for girls in Troy, NY. By the way, was also a graduate of Emma Willard School. And so am I. As I stand here today, I feel the presence of those two women. Both held the firm belief that the female half of the population possessed every bit as much talent, smarts, and potential as men do.

In the two centuries since they devoted their lives to helping realize this potential, the women’s movement of which they were pioneers has helped all of us realize the power we have and grow less afraid of using it.and we need to use it now like never before. Honored with eleven others including United States (U.S.) Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor, Women’s Right’s attorney, Gloria Allred, activist and professor Angela Davis, Diane von Furstenberg (designer and philanthropist) and the late U.S.

Congresswoman Louise Slaughter, Jane Fonda joins five decades of women who have been inducted since the inception of the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1969. Nominations for inductees are open to the public and to be chosen, the nominee’s selection is based on the national or global impact of her work and her contribution’s enduring value.

The National Women’s Hall of Fame website relates that the organization is “the nation’s oldest membership organization dedicated to recognizing and celebrating the achievements of great American women” selecting women who “influence and shape the arts, athletics, business, education, government, humanities, philanthropy and science.” As Jane stated in her opening remarks, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a graduate of Emma Willard’s Troy Female Seminary in 1832, likely best known for her work for women’s rights, was inducted in 1973.

Our founder, Emma Hart Willard joined the inductees in 2013, just one year prior to Emma Willard School’s bicentennial. In her remarks, Jane Fonda demonstrated that she is a woman who serves our world. Referencing a book she recently read and encouraged the audience to read (Naomi Klein’s On Fire: The (Burning) Case for a Green New Deal ), Jane challenged the audience to take action: We are living at the last possible moment in human history when we can do something about climate change or fail to do so, thereby denying hundreds of millions of people and so many species a livable future.

  • This is not hyperbole.
  • I have this book with me which I hope you will read.
  • There’ve been lots of books, lots of evidence from experts but this is a very accessible, practical read that shows what we’re up against, and, more importantly, what we can do about it During her speech, Jane also referenced and encouraged the school students in the audience to take part in the Global Climate Strike on September 20.

She shared information about Greta Thunberg, the 16-year-old Swedish activist who is bringing attention to climate change concerns and helping to mount pressure on our policy makers and politicians. Jane again used her passion and conviction stating, “We do not stand a chance at changing course in time without profound, systemic economic and social change.” Jane finished her empowering speech by adding that we are also in the midst of an empathy crisis: It isn’t only earth’s life-support systems that are unraveling.

So too is our social fabric and since we have to take everything apart, we have the once-in-a-century opportunity to put it back together again in a way that closes deep inequalities, strengthens and transforms the public sphere, generates plentiful, dignified jobs, radically reins in corporate power and elevates the low-carbon, empathy-rich professions in the public sector like teaching, nursing, caregiving.you know, women’s work! As she finished her remarks and joined the other inductees, the audience, invigorated by her passion and knowledge, might have indeed considered the many decades of Jane Fonda’s work.

They may have considered that she was someone who employed many by her curiosity, her love of learning, and her impassioned desire to serve and shape our world. In her introductory comments, Aimee Mullens shared that Jane’s curiosity was infectious and once Jane is interested in something, “she goes as deep as she can in her quest to understand it.

  • And that desire for understanding comes from another quality that Jane embodies – empathy.
  • This force of nature that is Jane Fonda is born of this passionate curiosity and fueled by profound empathy.” That force of nature demonstrated that she is indeed an Emma Willard School graduate.- UPDATE: Jane Fonda was honored with the at the Golden Globes on February 28, 2021.

: Serving and Shaping Her World: Jane Fonda ’55 Honored
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Where was Emma educated?

Answer and Explanation: The protagonist of Madame Bovary is Emma Rouault, educated in a convent from the age of thirteen.
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Who opened Mount Holyoke Seminary?

Mount Holyoke College, private institution of higher education for women, situated in South Hadley, Massachusetts, U.S. It is one of the Seven Sisters schools. Its curriculum is based on the liberal arts and sciences, and baccalaureate courses are taught in the humanities, science and mathematics, and social sciences; a Master of Arts degree is granted in four fields.

Campus facilities include the Ciruti Center for Foreign Languages, the Gorse Child Study Center, and the Joseph Allen Skinner Museum complex. The Frances Perkins Program, named for a Mount Holyoke alumna who was the first woman to hold a U.S. cabinet post, is for older women attending the college, Mount Holyoke is part of the Five Colleges consortium—an educational cooperative with Amherst, Hampshire, and Smith colleges and the University of Massachusetts,

It also belongs to a cooperative exchange program that includes 12 New England colleges and universities. Approximately 2,000 women are enrolled in the college. Mount Holyoke College was one of the first institutions of higher education for women in the United States,

Educator Mary Lyon founded it as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1837 and served as its first principal until her death in 1849. Though it was never owned by a religious group, the school was early associated with New England Congregationalism. The Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, founded in 1876, is one of the oldest collegiate art museums in the nation.

In addition to Frances Perkins, former students of note include the poet Emily Dickinson and the astronomer Helen Battles Sawyer Hogg-Priestly.
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