Education Is What Remains After One?

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Education Is What Remains After One
‘Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school.’ – Albert Einstein | By Gordon Leadership Academy | Facebook.
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What does education is what remains after one has mean?

So education is not all about knowledge its about wisdom. So Education is what remains after one has forgotten everything he learned in school. Because many schools make student just to memorize some facts which will be forgotten through time.
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What is a famous quote about education?

‘ Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.’ —Malcolm X. As this famous quote begins, ‘Education is an important element in the struggle for human rights.
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What did Albert Einstein say about education?

Education is that which remains when one has forgotten everything he learned in school.
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What did Einstein say about knowledge?

1. “Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” – This quote perfectly captures the power of imagination, and the limitations of knowledge. In many ways, knowledge is easy to acquire; but imagination takes bravery and persistence.
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What does Emerson mean about education?

Emerson thought that education should contribute to developing the innate ability that all students have not only to think on their own, but to have the courage to believe in what they have to say and express it clearly.
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What is education as per Plato?

Abstract – Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. In this sense, justice means excellence.

For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue. According to Socrates, virtue is knowledge. Thus, knowledge is required to be just. From this Plato concludes that virtue can be obtained through three stages of development of knowledge: knowledge of one’s own job, self-knowledge, and knowledge of the Idea of the Good.

According to Plato, social justice can be achieved when all social classes in a society, workers, warriors, and rulers are in a harmonious relationship. Plato believes that all people can easily exist in harmony when society gives them equal educational opportunity from an early age to compete fairly with each other.

  • Without equal educational opportunity, an unjust society appears since the political system is run by unqualified people; timocracy, oligarchy, defective democracy, or tyranny will result.
  • Modern education in Japan and other East Asian countries has greatly contributed to developing their societies in economic terms.

Nevertheless, education in those countries has its own problems. In particular the college entrance examination in Japan, Korea, and other East Asian countries caused serious social injustices and problems: unequal educational opportunity, lack of character education, financial burden on parents, and so on.

Thus, to achieve justice, modern society needs the Platonic theory education, for Plato’s philosophy of education will provide a comprehensive vision to solve those problems in education. There is also some controversy about the relationship between education and economics. It is a popular view common in East and West that businesses should indirectly control or even take over education to economically compete with other nations.

However, Plato disagrees with this notion since business is concerned mainly with profit whereas a true education is concerned with the common good based upon the rational principle of individual and social justice. This paper has been withdrawn. : Plato’s philosophy of education: Its implication for current education
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What is the quote Shakespeare said about education?

Posted: Apr 06 2018 With the birthday and death of William Shakespeare on the horizon, there are numerous opportunities to talk about his works in the classroom. Given the extent of the Bard’s work, it’s unsurprising that there are plenty of references to teaching. As a result, we’ve picked out a few of our favourite Shakespeare quotes that relate to learning, in the hope they can encourage discussion and debate over their meaning and the role of teaching A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool.” As You Like It “My love is thine to teach.

Teach it but how, and thou shalt see how apt it is to learn. Any hard lesson that may do thee good.” Much Ado About Nothing “I’ll teach you differences.” King Lear “Is not birth, beauty, good shape, discourse, manhood, learning, gentleness, virtue, youth, liberality, and such like, the spice and salt that season a man?” A Midsummer Night’s Dream “If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men’s cottages princes’ palaces.

It is a good divine that follows his own instructions: I can easier teach twenty what were good to be done, than be one of the twenty to follow mine own teaching.” The Merchant of Venice “And when I am forgotten, as I shall be, and asleep in dull cold marble, where no mention of me must be heard of, say, I taught thee.” Henry VIII “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking make it so” Hamlet “Sir, I am too old to learn” A Midsummer Night’s Dream “The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars but in ourselves.” Julius Caesar “Fall to them as you find your stomach serves you.

  • No profit grows where is no pleasureta ‘en.
  • In brief, sir, study what you most affect.” The Taming of the Shrew “Well, sir, learn to jest in good time; there’s a time for all things.” A Midsummer Night’s Dream As you can see, there are plenty of opportunities to discuss Shakespeare’s views on teaching and learning, and indeed on how it can be tied into other key topics as well.

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What is education Karl Marx quotes?

Freedoom of education shall be enjoyed under the condition fixed by law and under the supreme control of the state’
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What is the educational quote by Elon Musk?

Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Rate this book Clear rating 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars Elon Musk by Elon Musk 2 ratings, 3.00 average rating, 0 reviews Elon Musk Quotes Showing 1-1 of 1 “Don’t confuse schooling with education. I didn’t go to Harvard but the people that work for me did.” ― Elon Musk, Elon Musk tags: elon-musk 6 likes Like
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What was the IQ of Albert Einstein?

Yusuf Shah placed in the top 2% of the population and has been invited to join the exclusive high-IQ society. Education Is What Remains After One Eleven-year-old Yusuf Shah’ Mensa intelligence test score of 162 beats those of physicists Stephen Hawking and Albert Einstein, who were both estimated to have IQs around 160. Bettmann Archive / Getty Images Nov.23, 2022, 10:31 PM UTC Eleven-year-old Yusuf Shah is being hailed as a genius after he made the highest possible score, 162, on a Mensa intelligence test.

  1. His performance beats those of physicists Stephen Hawking and Albert Einstein, who were both estimated to have IQs around 160.
  2. Mensa, an international society open to high-IQ individuals, confirmed Shah’s score to NBC News, saying he placed in the top 2% of the population and “has great potential.” Anyone who places in that 98th percentile is invited to join the organization.

According to Shah’s county newspaper, the Yorkshire Evening Post, his parents encouraged him to take the test with no specific preparation. “Everyone at school thinks I am very smart and I have always wanted to know if I was in the top two per cent of the people who take the test,” the 11-year-old, who lives in the northern English city of Leeds, told the Post.

  • The young mathematician is currently focused on applying to secondary schools, his family said, but in his free time he enjoys solving Rubik’s Cubes and sudokus.
  • It feels special to have a certificate for me and about me,” he said.
  • I also never thought I would be on the news.” Shah’s father, Irfan, told the Post that when his son was 7, he discovered a mathematical phenomenon that he couldn’t explain.

The family contacted a University of Cambridge math professor who provided Shah with a reasoning, and the principle has since been known in their household as “Yusuf’s Square Rule.” But Shah’s parents said they’re teaching him to nurture his work ethic and social life in addition to his natural abilities.
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What is Einstein’s most famous quote?

Albert Einstein quotes about life – “Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” “The important thing is to not stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.” “I believe in one thing—that only a life lived for others is a life worth living.” “Where the world ceases to be the scene of our personal hopes and wishes, where we face it as free beings admiring, asking, observing, there we enter the realm of art and science.” “Although I am a typical loner in daily life, my consciousness of belonging to the invisible community of those who strive for truth, beauty, and justice has preserved me from feeling isolated.” “Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.” “All religions, arts, and sciences are branches of the same tree.” “A table, a chair, a bowl of fruit, and a violin; what else does a man need to be happy?” RD.com, Getty Images “Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.” “He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead; his eyes are closed.” “A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future.” “Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value.” “I speak to everyone in the same way, whether he is the garbage man or the president of the university.” For even more inspiration, don’t miss these life is short quotes that will encourage you to live to the fullest.
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What is Mark Twain most famous quote?

Never put off till tomorrow what you can do the day after tomorrow.
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What did Isaac Newton say about knowledge?

Showing 1-30 of 120 “I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” ― Isaac Newton “I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies but not the madness of people.” ― Isaac Newton “Nature is pleased with simplicity.

And nature is no dummy” ― Isaac Newton “What we know is a drop, what we don’t know is an ocean.” ― Isaac Newton “Tact is the knack of making a point without making an enemy.” ― Isaac Newton “Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who sets the planets in motion.” ― Isaac Newton “Truth is ever to be found in the simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.” ― Isaac Newton “No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.” ― Isaac Newton “A man may imagine things that are false, but he can only understand things that are true.” ― Sir Isaac Newton “This most beautiful system of the sun, planets and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.

This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont, to be called Lord God παντοκρατωρ or Universal Ruler.” ― Isaac Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy “If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been due more to patient attention, than to any other talent” ― Isaac Newton “What goes up must come down.” ― Isaac Newton “He who thinks half-heartedly will not believe in God; but he who really thinks has to believe in God.” ― Isaac Newton “and to every action there is always an equal and opposite or contrary, reaction” ― Isaac Newton “Live your life as an Exclamation rather than an Explanation” ― Newton “You have to make the rules, not follow them” ― Sir Isaac Newton “Sir Isaac Newton was asked how he discovered the law of gravity.

He replied, “By thinking about it all the time.” ― Sir Isaac Newton “To myself I am only a child playing on the beach, while vast oceans of truth lie undiscovered before me” ― Isaac Newton “Tact is the art of making a point without making an enemy.” ― Isaac Newton “Trials are medicines which our gracious and wise Physician prescribes because we need them; and he proportions the frequency and weight of them to what the case requires.

Let us trust his skill and thank him for his prescription.” ― Isaac Newton “If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.” ― Isaac Newton “To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age.

Tis much better to do a little with certainty & leave the rest for others that come after than to explain all things by conjecture without making sure of any thing.” ― Isaac Newton “God without dominion, providence, and final causes, is nothing else but Fate and Nature. Blind metaphysical necessity, which is certainly the same always and everywhere, could produce no variety of things.

All that diversity of natural things which we find suited to different times and places could arise from nothing but the ideas and will of a Being necessarily existing.” ― Isaac Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy “Lo que sabemos es una gota de agua; lo que ignoramos es un océano.” ― Isaac Newton “To explain all nature is too difficult a task for any one man or even for any one age” ― Sir Isaac Newton “Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth.” ― Isaac Newton “OUR ORDINATION: Sir Isaac Newton, 1642 – 1747 About the times of the End, a body of men will be raised up who will turn their attention to the prophecies, and insist upon their literal interpretation, in the midst of much clamor and opposition.” ― Sir Issac Newton
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What is Ralph Waldo Emerson’s most famous quote?

‘ To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment.’
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What is Emerson’s ideal education?

ERIC Number: EJ818641 Record Type: Journal Publication Date: 2008 Pages: 12 Abstractor: ERIC ISBN: N/A ISSN: ISSN-1535-0584 EISSN: N/A Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Educational Philosophy as a Foundation for Cooperative Learning Williamson, Amy; Null, J. Wesley American Educational History Journal, v35 n2 p381-392 2008 This article takes a closer look at Ralph Waldo Emerson’s educational philosophy and its relationship to cooperative learning.

  • Emerson believed that human beings should learn to think on their own, rather than solely acquire the craft of imitation or conformity by repeating the speech of their teachers.
  • A liberating education, to Emerson, gives students the ability to challenge those in power when necessary.
  • Cooperative learning and a continued use of creative teaching methods are keys to the kind of true student achievement that motivated Emerson’s writing on education.

Without this realization, the revelation of one’s own ideas or leadership qualities will remain nothing more than a dream. Emerson believed that the core of a liberal education was for students to learn the process of thinking for themselves. Through peer interaction and well-planned cooperative learning activities, students can be developed into the kind of citizens who possess the self-reliant souls that Emerson envisioned.
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What does education mean according to Nelson Mandela?

The importance of education to Madiba – Nelson Mandela Foundation On the 1st of May 1970, Nelson Mandela wrote a letter to his daughter Makaziwe Mandela congratulating her on passing her examinations. Madiba wrote the letter during his imprisonment on Robben Island, and it portrays how Madiba valued education regardless of the situation he was in.

  1. Madiba once mentioned that “It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker can become the head of the mine; that a child of farm workers can become the president of a great nation”.
  2. In this quote, Nelson Mandela emphasises the importance of education in our lives.

Education gives us an opportunity to change our lives for the better. It gives us a chance to have good careers and opportunities of working at any workplace of our choice. By acquiring education, we become valuable sources of knowledge to our societies.

Madiba attended primary school in Qunu. He completed his junior certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went to Healdtown Comprehensive School where he matriculated. He began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree at the University of Fort Hare, although he did not complete the degree.

Madiba completed his BA through the University of South Africa (UNISA) and returned to Fort Hare in 1943 for his graduation. In the meantime, Madiba started studying for an LLB at Wits University but was forced to quit in 1952 when he was unable to pay his fees.

He only began studying again at the University of London in 1962 after his imprisonment. In the last months of his imprisonment, in 1989, Madiba obtained his LLB through UNISA and graduated in absentia in Cape Town. In the 1970s at the height of Apartheid in South Africa, Black people were not allowed to study and pursue careers of their choice, or even jobs of their dreams.

Instead, they dominated a large percentage of the domestic workforce no matter how young they were and how passionate they were to study and pursue careers of their choice. Unlike today, even prisoners were not granted the right to education. All this changed when Madiba signed the 1996 constitution through which education became a constitutional right regardless of who and what a person is.

  1. In democratic South Africa, everyone has the right to acquire qualifications of their choice, and obtain a matric certificate regardless of how old they may be.
  2. Underprivileged people have an opportunity to apply for government funding to study at any educational institution of their choice.
  3. By being educated, we become servants and contribute to the advancement of our communities in building a just society for all.
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: The importance of education to Madiba – Nelson Mandela Foundation
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What did Aristotle say about education?

Managing Director at EBS Sales & Services Pvt Limited – Published Aug 25, 2016 ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.) We are familiar with Aristotle the researcher, the founder of sciences, the logician and the philosopher, ‘the master of those who know’. But we know little of Aristotle the educator.

Historians have not been greatly interested in what he has to say about education. The opinion expressed by H.I. Marrou in his Histoire de l’éducation dans l’Antiquité (History of Education in Antiquity) is indicative: ‘Aristotle’s work on education does not seem to me to be as original and creative as that of Plato or Isocrates.’ Yet Aristotle devoted as much time to teaching as to research.

He is the prototype of the ‘professor’. His teachings and lectures are the part of his work that has been handed down to us over 2,300 years. A pedagogical concern and an educational dimension are present throughout his writings. It is high time a study was made of Aristotle’s approach to education as revealed in his lectures.

This would highlight his characteristic manner of posing a problem and then discussing it by approaching it from different angles, probing it. We can discern here the didactic method of the Socratic and Platonic dialogues. Unfortunately the dialogues that Aristotle wrote to popularize the fruits of his research have all been lost.

Such a study would also point out the way in which he illustrated his lectures with examples, quotations, references and images. On several occasions he declared that ‘it is impossible to think without images’.2 Aristotle was an academic throughout his career.

  1. At the age of 18 he entered one of the most renowned centres of learning of his day, Plato’s Academy, where he became noted for the passion with which he devoted himself to his studies, particularly to reading, a trait which won him the nickname of ‘reader’.
  2. He then built up the first great library which served as a model for the libraries of Alexandria and Pergamon.3 He became a privatdocent in rhetoric and a rebellious one too, openly and passionately criticizing the doctrines of Plato, his master and forerunner, who reportedly said of him: ‘Aristotle has kicked me just as a colt kicks it mother.’4 After Plato’s death, Aristotle left Athens for Assos in Asia Minor and three years later settled at Mytilini on the island of Lesbos.

There he engaged in many types of research, particularly in biology. It is not known for certain whether he established schools or study circles at that period of his life but it is quite probable. In 342, at the age of 41, he was invited by Philip of Macedon to his court to become the tutor of the young Alexander.

Unfortunately, we know practically nothing about the relations between Aristotle the educator and his pupil Alexander. Yet what an extraordinary event it was! Jacob Burckhardt considered that it was through the education of Alexander that Aristotle exerted his greatest influence on history.5 Peter Bamm has described the encounter in the following words: Aristotle, that man who with his thoughts constructed a dwelling so vast that it accommodated Western science for 2,000 years, helped, through the ideas he inculcated in Alexander, to create the conditions necessary in order that the West itself might come into being.

If it had not been for Alexander we should hardly know the name Aristotle. Without Aristotle, Alexander would never have become the Alexander we admire.6 2 Again, we know practically nothing for certain about the education that Alexander received from Aristotle.

  1. It seems likely that Aristotle prepared for his pupil an annotated version of the Iliad which was to accompany the conqueror to the limits of the known world.
  2. Aristotle may conceivably have written for Alexander one book on monarchy and another on the colonies.
  3. None of these works has survived to our times and, surprisingly, there is no mention of Alexander in any of the works that have been preserved except, perhaps, for several very vague allusions when Aristotle speaks of the king who is a perfect man.

It is quite likely that Aristotle introduced the young Alexander to the natural sciences. And it could well have been Aristotle who aroused in Alexander that sense of curiosity, that passion for discovery and new experience which took him as far as India and would most probably have led him to explore Africa had he not died prematurely.

  • Was it the education he received from Aristotle that made Alexander as much an explorer as he was a conqueror? In 334 Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the Lyceum.7 This was a type of university where research was pursued as an extension of higher education.
  • Courses for the enrolled students were held in the morning, while the school was probably open in the afternoon to a wider public and thus performed the function of an open university.

It seems that Aristotle entrusted the running of the Lyceum to the various members of the teaching staff in turn, each assuming this responsibility for ten days at a time.8 Can this be said to foreshadow the democratization of education? Scientific research, philosophical reflection and educational activity were intimately linked in Aristotle’s life and work.

  • It is therefore not surprising that Aristotle, whose passion for methodical analysis extended to whatever attracted his inquiring mind, also analysed the problems posed by education.
  • He refers to the subject in practically all his writings.
  • Unfortunately, the works in which he systematically developed his ideas on education have survived in only fragmentary form.

Of his book On Education there remains only the merest fragment. The exposition of his education system to be found in the Politics terminates abruptly: a good half of it must have been lost. Using these few pieces of mosaic we shall try to sketch an outline of Aristotle’s paideia.

The goal or purpose of education For Aristotle the goal of education is identical with the goal of man. Obviously all forms of education are explicitly or implicitly directed towards a human ideal. But Aristotle considers that education is essential for the complete self-realization of man. The supreme good to which all aspire is happiness.

But for Aristotle the happy man is neither a noble savage, nor man in his natural state, but the educated man. The happy man, the good man, is a virtuous man, but virtue is acquired precisely through education. Ethics and education merge one into the other.

Aristotle’s ethical works are teaching manuals on the art of living. In the first book of The Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle asks in an unequivocal manner ‘whether happiness is to be acquired by learning or by habituation or some other sort of training, or comes in virtue of some divine providence or again by chance’.9 The reply is equally clear: ‘virtuous activities are what constitute happiness’.10 There are two categories of virtue: intellectual and moral.11 ‘Intellectual virtue in the main owes both its birth and its growth to teaching (for which reason it requires experience and time) while moral virtue comes about as a result of habit.

None of the moral virtues arises in us by nature.’12 We shall return to the distinction made here between ‘teaching’ and ‘the result of habit’ when we come to discuss Aristotle’s pedagogy. He concludes: ‘It makes no small difference, then, whether we form habits of one kind or of another from our very youth; it makes a very great difference, or rather all the difference.’13 The point could not be more tersely made.3 Towards the end of The Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle returns to the question in almost identical terms: ‘The man who is to be good must be well trained and habituated.’14 In Book VII of the Politics, where Aristotle discusses the ideal state and, in particular, education in that state, he returns to the question, ‘How does a man become virtuous?’ The reply15 is similar to the one given in The Nichomachean Ethics.

  1. Three things make men good and virtuous: nature, habit and rationality.
  2. Everyone must be born a man as distinct from the brute beasts; and he must have certain qualities both of body and soul.
  3. But there are some qualities with which it is useless to be born, because habit alters them: nature implants them in a form which is susceptible of change, under the impulse of habit, towards good or bad.

Brute beasts live mostly under the guidance of nature, though some are to a small extent influenced by habit as well. Man alone lives by reason, for he alone possesses rationality. In his case, therefore, nature, habit and the rational principle must be brought into harmony with one another; for man is often led by reason to act contrary to habit and nature, if reason persuades him that he ought to do so.

  • We have already determined what natures will be most pliable in the legislator’s hand.
  • All else is the work of education; some things are learned by habit and others by instruction.
  • Hence certain attributes are necessary in order to achieve happiness, the full development of the human being.
  • One must be fortunate enough to possess from birth certain natural gifts, both physical and moral (a healthy and beautiful body, a certain facility, intelligence and a natural disposition towards virtue).

But these are insufficient. It is only through education that potential happiness can become truly accessible. Education is the touchstone of Aristotelian ethics. The virtues, wisdom and happiness are acquired through education. The art of living is something to be learned.

Aristotle’s ethics are based on such concepts as happiness, the mean, leisure and wisdom, which we also encounter in his theory of education. Clearly in Aristotle’s view all forms of education should aim at the mean.16 The eighth and final book of the Politics (following the traditional order of the text) ends abruptly with a reference to this principle.

‘Clearly, then, there are three standards to which musical education should conform. They are the mean, the possible, and the proper.’17 The concept of the mean does not only apply to the ends of education, it is also an instrumentality, a pedagogical imperative to which we shall return later.

The goal of human action is leisure;18 moreover, ‘happiness is thought to depend on leisure’.19 And one of the essential goals of education that should always be borne in mind is precisely leisure20 or schole (which is the etymological root of the word ‘school’). In the Aristotelian philosophy of education a central position is occupied by education for leisure.

This is an essential part of the training for the ‘business of being a man’. Tricot rightly emphasizes that leisure is not to be confused with idling,21 with a kind of dolce farniente. It is the faculty of being able and knowing how to use one’s time freely.

  • Freedom is one of the ultimate goals of education, for happiness is impossible without freedom.
  • Such freedom is achieved through contemplation or the philosophical life, that is to say, in the activity of the mind relieved of all material constraints.
  • This is why it is particularly important that education should not have the character of vocational training.

For ‘the meaner sort of artisan is a slave, not for all purposes but for a definite servile task’.22 Furthermore, ‘the good man, therefore, the statesman, and the good citizen certainly should not learn the crafts of their inferiors, except occasionally and for their own advantage’.23 The same remarks also apply to tradesmen.

Aristotle illustrates this point of view in his extremely detailed account of musical education in Book VIII of the Politics. He says, for example, that ‘neither the flute nor any other instrument requiring abnormal skillshould be made part of the curriculum’.24 And he ends with the categorical statement that: 4 accordingly, we reject the professional instruments; and we reject also the professional mode of education (by ‘professional’ I mean such as is employed in musical contests) in which the performer practises his art not for the sake of improving himself, but in order to provide his audience with entertainment—and vulgar entertainment at that.

For this reason we consider that the performance of such music is beneath the dignity of a freeman; it belongs rather to hired instrumentalists, who are degraded thereby.25 Leisure, or schole, which should be the goal of education, is the freedom to apply oneself to essential matters.

  • It is this form of freedom that leads to wisdom: a life devoted to philosophy and contemplation, that is true happiness.
  • Through leisure, which is an indication of freedom, education should lead to man’s ultimate goal, an intellectual life rooted in the mind.
  • That is the true ‘business of man’ which it is the function of education to teach.

And man can only learn it through education. But man is essentially a political animal, according to Aristotle’s celebrated definition. ‘A man who cannot live in society, or who has no need to do so because he is self-sufficient, either a beast or a god; he is no part of a state.’26 Man can only achieve fulfilment in the community of the polis.

Only there can he find happiness. (It should always be borne in mind that in his treatment of politics Aristotle is thinking exclusively of the polis, the city-state with precisely defined limits.) If our thesis is correct and all Aristotle’s practical philosophy rests on his theory of education, then we should find a genuinely political dimension as well as an ethical dimension in his concept of the goal of education.

This is indeed the case. Just as education leads the individual to virtue, which is the essential source of happiness, so also it creates the conditions necessary for the establishment and stability of the virtuous polis, that is to say, the polis that ensures the happiness of its citizens.

It is through education that a community is formed. ‘The state is a plurality; it should be formed into a social unit by means of education.’27 At the beginning of his Politics, Aristotle declares that ‘the state is a creation of nature’.28 But when he describes the ideal state, he emphasizes that ‘a good state, however, is not the work of fortune, but of knowledge and purpose’.29 And this is the sentence with which he introduces his discussion of education in Books VII and VIII of Politics.

But education does not only create society, the community which constitutes the city, it also guarantees its stability: The most powerful factor of all those I have mentioned as contributing to the stability of constitutions, but one which is nowadays universally neglected, is the education of citizens in the spirit of the constitution under which they live.

You may have an unsurpassed legal system, ratified by the whole civic body; but it is of no avail unless the citizens have been trained by force of habit and teaching in the spirit of the constitution.30 Thus education has a conservative role, as Aristotle rightly recognizes. Today’s advocates of social progress tend to criticize education for resisting change.

But in Aristotle’s view change is not desirable in itself as any change may lead to ‘corruption’. What he seeks is an achievable and stable ideal. For each society and each form of government there exists a system of education. There is a system of education that corresponds to democracy, another which is appropriate for an oligarchy.31 It is for that reason that education is the primordial task of the legislator: No one can doubt that it is the legislator’s very special duty to regulate the education of youth, otherwise the constitution of the state will suffer harm.

The citizen should be trained in accordance with the particular form of government under which he is to live; for each type of constitution has a distinctive character which originally formed it and makes possible its continued existence.again some preliminary training and habituation are required for the exercise of any faculty or art; and the same, therefore, obviously applies to the practice of virtue.32 There is one final feature which I wish to include in this sketch of the Aristotelian concept of the goal of education.

If leisure is to be the goal of education for the individual, education at state level must be an education for peace. Just as leisure is the goal of occupation, so peace is the goal of war.33 5 Again, life as a whole is capable of divisions: activity and leisure, war and peace.

  • War must be looked upon simply as a means to peace, action as a means to leisure, acts merely necessary or useful as a means to those which are good in themselves.
  • The statesman should bear all this in mind when he drafts his laws.
  • It is with these ends in view that children, and indeed adolescents at every stage of education, should be trained.34 The education system In view of the essential role which education is required to play in the development of the individual and of society, Aristotle devotes a great deal of space to the development of an education system in his description of the ideal city.

Unfortunately, only a fragment of this description has survived. A good many questions therefore remain unanswered. Aristotle believed that, contrary to the common practice of his day, education was a responsibility of the state. What he works out is therefore a genuine education policy.

  1. Like Plato, Aristotle devises a veritable system of continuing education.
  2. Education is not limited to youth; it is a comprehensive process concerning the whole human person and lasting a lifetime.
  3. This process is organized in periods of seven years (just as in Plato’s system).
  4. The first period is that of pre-school education.

This is the responsibility of parents and more particularly of the father, who is ‘responsible for the existence of his children, which is thought the greatest good, and for their nurture and upbringing’.35 Upbringing begins well before birth: `the legislator must decide how best to mould the infant body to his will’.36 With this end in view, Aristotle indicates the best age for father and mother and even the best period for conception, namely winter.

  • During pregnancy ‘pregnant women also must take care of their bodies’,37 they should ‘take exercise and eat nourishing food keep their minds as tranquil as possible’.
  • The newborn should have ‘food with the highest milk content’ and ‘the less wine the better’.
  • Children must exercise their bodies and become accustomed to the cold from their earliest years.

Up to the age of 5 they should be trained through games, ‘but they must not be vulgar or exhausting or effeminate’.38 All indecent language and improper pictures should be banished completely as children must be protected from all shameful sensations so that all morally blameworthy phenomena are foreign to the spirit of young people.

Between the ages of 5 and 7 they must be spectators of the lessons they will afterwards learn.’39 At the age of 7, the children enter school. Schooling continues up to the age of 21. It is divided into three periods of three years each. As only fragments of Aristotle’s work have reached us we cannot know in detail the features and structure of these three cycles of study.

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Nor do we possess any specific knowledge about adult education. However, the texts tell us explicitly that education is not completed at the age of 21: But it is surely not enough that when they are young they should get the right nurture and attention: since they must, even when they are grown up, practise and be habituated to them, we shall need laws for this as well, and generally speaking to cover the whole of life.40 Aristotle’s education system is thus clearly a system of continuing education.

We should also note that in Aristotle’s view ‘the body reaches maturity between the ages of 30 and 35; the soul by the age of 49′.41 It seems probable that these thresholds also marked stages in the comprehensive system of education devised by Aristotle. When considering Aristotle’s system of continuing education one must not forget that his ideal city—like the Greek polis in general—is an educational city.

Its citizens are required to perform different functions in the course of their lives; they must obey, order and judge. They participate in the service of the gods which is linked to initiation rites. They attend performances of tragedies. These go to make up a set of elements that contribute to continuing education.

  1. As we have seen, education was for Aristotle the affair of the state.
  2. Schools should be public.
  3. Here Aristotle, like Plato, was far ahead of his time.
  4. For the education of children in the Greek polis 6 was a matter for the family.
  5. With the exception of physical education and military instruction, all forms of tuition were private.

The introduction of public education always indicates a certain democratization of education. ‘Education must be one and the same for all.’42 But up to what age? Twenty-one? The texts do not tell us. But at no point does Aristotle mention selection, though he repeatedly emphasizes that moral and intellectual gifts are unevenly distributed.

It is remarkable that Aristotle seems not to have prescribed any form of selection or competition in his system of education in a Greece which set a high value on all forms of competition. Nevertheless, this democratic form of education has its limits in that it is reserved for the children of citizens.

Although Aristotle does not say so explicitly, this seems obvious if we take into account the whole of the Ethics and the Politics. There is no access for the children of agriculturalists, artisans or retail traders. As for slaves, they are not considered as complete human beings in any case.

  • But it seems probable that Aristotle prescribed some sort of vocational training for tradesmen as he quite frequently refers to the importance of a good apprenticeship for the proper practice of a trade.
  • And in certain conditions he even prescribes a form of education for slaves: ‘Since we observe that education shapes the character of young persons, it is also essential, when one has acquired slaves, to provide education for those who are destined for liberal occupations.’43 The question of education for girls remains an open one.

In Aristotle’s view, women are certainly not the equals of men. By their very nature they are destined to obey and are therefore not free. Their bodily and moral virtues are not the same as those of men. However, ‘individuals and the community should similarly endeavour to develop each of these qualities in boys and girls’.44 It thus seems that Aristotle also envisaged public education for girls.

  1. Such education would be directed towards ‘beauty and greatness, chastity and a liking for work without greed’.45 We conclude, therefore, that education must be regulated by law, and that it must be controlled by the state.
  2. We must now deal with the nature and methods of public education.
  3. At present there is some difference of opinion about the subjects to be taught neither is it clear whether education should be more concerned with intellectual or with moral character!46 Aristotle thus poses the question of the content of education.

Once again his answer has reached us only in fragments. And it appears that the parts which have been lost are precisely those which are the most original. In principle, young people should be instructed in ‘such useful acquirements as are really necessary.

Occupations are divided into liberal and illiberal.’47 By ‘useful acquirements’ Aristotle means such subjects as grammar, arithmetic, drawing and physical training, but certainly not manual work or anything that could lead to paid work, which is described as menial. Furthermore, young people must be taught to fill their leisure time nobly.

Hence: there are branches of learning and education which must be studied simply with a view to leisure spent in cultivating the mind. It is likewise clear that these studies are to be valued for their own sake, while those pursued for the sake of an occupation must be looked upon as no more than necessary means to other ends.48 Aristotle recognizes at least four subjects for instruction: grammar, physical training, music and drawing.

  1. In Politics he elaborates his ideas on physical training and above all on music.
  2. He discusses drawing briefly but the section which should be devoted to grammar is completely absent.
  3. Yet this section must have been particularly interesting in view of the role played by language in Aristotle’s thought.

We may suppose that grammar included the history of literature in addition to reading and writing (bearing in mind that Aristotle prepared a commentary on the Iliad for the young Alexander and that his texts abound in literary references). Did his grammar also contain the fundamentals of logic and mathematics? And what about the teaching of the natural sciences and philosophy? We have no clear answers to any of these questions.

All we 7 know for certain is that he was concerned with the teaching of the sciences, since he mentioned it on several occasions. We shall come back to this point. Aristotle is faithful to his principle of the mean in what he says about physical training. This does not involve over-rigorous training or a brutal upbringing.

Neither is it a matter of paramilitary instruction. For Aristotle physical training is not simply a matter for the body: it must help to form character, that is, courage and a sense of honour. Clearly inspired by Plato, Aristotle deals at length with musical education.

Even more than physical training, music is a means of influencing moral character. For this reason it is essential. Obviously one must be sure to concentrate on good music, for certain musical modes, rhythms and melodies are harmful to character. Like Plato, Aristotle analyses the Greek tonalities in this connection and expresses a preference for the Dorian mode, ‘that is the most solemn and sturdiest of modes’.49 It also stands midway between the other modes.

Musical education is also important as pupils learn thereby to judge the beautiful. And it has a general educational value since it teaches them to listen. But music is the means par excellence of education for leisure. ‘Cultivation of the mind is universally acknowledged to contain an element not only of nobility, but also of pleasure, because felicity is compounded of both.

  • Now all men agree that music is one of the greatest pleasures.’50 Teachers are an essential part of any education system but one about which the Aristotelian texts have nothing to say.
  • It is particularly curious that when Aristotle lists the various public functions of the ideal state he makes no reference to the teacher.

Likewise, when describing the general plan of the city, he has nothing to say about the location of the school. Pedagogy Politics ends abruptly with a remark on education: ‘Clearly, then, there are three standards to which education should conform. They are the mean, the possible, and the proper,’ Like all his practical philosophy, Aristotle’s theory of education is grounded in good sense.

Extremes and excess are above all to be avoided. The purpose of physical training should not be to produce champions at all costs. And musical education should be more concerned with the pleasure of listening to music than with virtuosity. The next point is that pupils should not be asked to do more than their ability permits.

Thus young men should not be given lessons on political science as they have no experience in practical matters.51 In general, it is necessary to take account of the intellectual level of pupils as ‘argument not powerful with all men’.52 Lastly, education should be limited to what is appropriate for the pupil, taking account of his age, character, and so on.

In accordance with man’s nature, which is composed of the body, the soul and reason, education should proceed in stages. ‘Care of the soul should be preceded by that of the body, which must be followed immediately by training of the appetites. This training, however, should be directed to the benefit of the mind, and care of the body to that of the soul.’53 Reason and intellect only begin to develop in the child from a certain age.

Education should therefore begin with physical training, continue with music and conclude with philosophy. Aristotle identifies two complementary educational categories: education through reason and education through habit. For Aristotle ‘education through habit’ does not mean a sort of training involving automatic repetition.

What he understands by this expression is what we today would call ‘active learning’. Moreover, in the Nichomachean Ethics he emphasizes that ‘for the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them, e.g. men become builders by building and lyre-players by playing the lyre’.54 This is also true of moral education: ‘We become just by doing just acts, temperate by doing temperate acts, brave by doing brave acts.’55 It is through habit or active learning that natural dispositions develop.

But education through habit is not limited to the learning of arts and techniques, and to the development of 8 moral attitudes, but also concerns scientific education. ‘It is through the practice of science that the possessor of science becomes learned in actuality.’56 For Aristotle, then, education is not something to which the pupil must passively submit.

  1. On the contrary, it is action that counts.
  2. Here too the theory of education faithfully reflects the main lines of Aristotelian philosophy as a whole.
  3. And this action is a source of pleasure for the pupil.
  4. Aristotle is clearly enough of a realist to see that young people are to be governed not only by pleasure but also by pain.57 There can be no doubt that Aristotle was a rather authoritarian educator! Education through habit is connected with three notions which should be mentioned: imitation, experience and memory.

Man likes to imitate; all the arts are based on an imitation of nature. But imitation is also an essential source of lessons and education. ‘Imitation is a distinctive feature of man from his childhood: imitation separates him from the animals and it is through imitation that he acquires his earliest knowledge.’58 But a good example is needed if imitation is to serve the cause of moral education: ‘Without a good example there can be no good imitation and that is true in all areas.’59 Some virtues and types of knowledge can only be acquired through experience.

  • This applies to prudence, for example, but also to physics: While young men become geometricians and mathematicians and wise in matters like these, it is thought that a young man of practical wisdom cannot be found.
  • The cause is that such wisdom is concerned not only with universals but with particulars, which become familiar from experience, but a young man has no experience.

one might ask this question too, why a boy may become a mathematician, but not a philosopher or a physicist. Is it because the objects of mathematics exist by abstraction, while the first principles of these other subjects come from experience, and because young men have no conviction about the latter, but merely use the proper language, while the essence of mathematical objects is plain enough to them?60 The effect of habit is based on the phenomenon of memory to which Aristotle devotes a text included in the Parva Naturalia.61 He underscores the imaginative nature of memory and the importance of repeated acts of recollection.

  1. Education through reason complements education through habit.
  2. It is education in the proper sense of the term including, specifically, the teaching of the sciences.
  3. Its aim is to impart an understanding of causes: ‘To teach is to indicate the causes of all things.’62 Education through reason is concerned with the universal, which surpasses experience.

‘Men of experience know that a thing is, but they do not know why it is, whereas men of learning know the reason and the cause.’63 Language is the essential instrument of education: ‘Language is the cause of the education which we receive.’64 For that reason, hearing has an important role.

‘The faculty of learning belongs to the person who possesses the sense of hearing as well as memory.’65 One recalls the role which Aristotle attributes to music in education. He draws a curious conclusion from the link between hearing and education, observing that it is for that reason that ‘blind people are more intelligent than the deaf and dumb’.66 The place of the problem of language in Aristotle’s philosophical thinking is well known.

To a large extent his philosophy amounts simply to an analysis of the functions of language. Education through reason is characterized by two methods: epagoge, or learning by induction, and learning by demonstration: ‘Indeed, we learn only through induction or by demonstration.

Demonstration proceeds on the basis of universal principles and induction on the basis of particular cases.’67 Epagoge is the path that leads from experience to knowledge. Examples are particular experiences. Aristotle’s ‘epagogic’ pedagogy is a form of teaching which proceeds from examples to an understanding of causes, as in science, which is always a knowledge of the universal.

For Aristotle ‘all teaching given or received by means of reasoning derives from pre-existing knowledge’.68 But this pre-existing knowledge is quite different from that discussed by Socrates. It is not the result of a prior vision of ideas. It is the perception of a 9 concrete fact or knowledge of the term that signifies that fact: ‘The fore-knowledge required is of two sorts: sometimes what has to be presupposed is that the thing actually exists; sometimes it is the meaning of the term employed, which has to be understood; and sometimes both at once.’69 Education thus consists in learning the meaning of words, that is, of language, and advancing towards knowledge by studying examples.70 The theoretical sciences—mathematics, physics and theology—are chiefly taught by demonstration, that is, not on the basis of examples but starting from universal principles.

That is the highest level of education through reason, which proceeds by means of syllogisms. Thus, to a great extent, education through reason coincides with the scientific approach or theoretical philosophy just as education through habit coincides with ethical action or practical philosophy. But the goal remains the same: happiness, the convergence of virtue and wisdom, the contemplative life of the philosopher or sage.

Conclusion Although Aristotle’s work has reached us in incomplete form and many important texts are missing, his theory of education can be seen to occupy an important place in his philosophical thinking as a whole. If the goal of man is one of his essential concerns, it is only through education that man fulfils himself completely.

Human beings possess specific natural aptitudes but it is only through education that they learn the business of being human and become truly human: ‘It is precisely deficiencies which art and education seek to make good.’71 It is through education that culture is created. Aristotle’s theory of education has lost none of its relevance.

His observations on educational policy and its role in society, his concept of a system of continuing education and education for peace and leisure, and his educational ideas have much in common with the concerns of those responsible for education today.
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What did Socrates say about education?

Student-Inspired Learning: The Socratic Approach – OWIS Singapore Socrates has long been considered the father of modern education. He believed that as self-learners we must first admit to our ignorance and realise that there is a world of knowledge ready to be accessed, but only once we can accept that we don’t already know everything.

  1. We must also accept that what we do ‘know’ might not be as correct as we think.
  2. The Socratic Method of education encourages students to ask questions, think critically and come to their own conclusions.
  3. I believe that modern educational frameworks such as those offered by the IB have been inspired, knowingly or unknowingly, by the Socratic approach.

The educator’s role is to inspire and give students opportunities for the exploration of their skills and knowledge, rather than to lecture. Learning should be led by the learner and students should be able to express what they have learned as an individual and in their own unique way.
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What is education according to Aristotle?

Aristotle’s definition of education is the same as that of his teachers, that is, the ‘ the creation of a sound mind in a sound body ‘. Thus to him the aim of education was the welfare of the individuals so as to bring happiness in their lives.
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What does education mean according to Nelson Mandela?

The importance of education to Madiba – Nelson Mandela Foundation On the 1st of May 1970, Nelson Mandela wrote a letter to his daughter Makaziwe Mandela congratulating her on passing her examinations. Madiba wrote the letter during his imprisonment on Robben Island, and it portrays how Madiba valued education regardless of the situation he was in.

  1. Madiba once mentioned that “It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker can become the head of the mine; that a child of farm workers can become the president of a great nation”.
  2. In this quote, Nelson Mandela emphasises the importance of education in our lives.

Education gives us an opportunity to change our lives for the better. It gives us a chance to have good careers and opportunities of working at any workplace of our choice. By acquiring education, we become valuable sources of knowledge to our societies.

  1. Madiba attended primary school in Qunu.
  2. He completed his junior certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went to Healdtown Comprehensive School where he matriculated.
  3. He began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree at the University of Fort Hare, although he did not complete the degree.

Madiba completed his BA through the University of South Africa (UNISA) and returned to Fort Hare in 1943 for his graduation. In the meantime, Madiba started studying for an LLB at Wits University but was forced to quit in 1952 when he was unable to pay his fees.

  1. He only began studying again at the University of London in 1962 after his imprisonment.
  2. In the last months of his imprisonment, in 1989, Madiba obtained his LLB through UNISA and graduated in absentia in Cape Town.
  3. In the 1970s at the height of Apartheid in South Africa, Black people were not allowed to study and pursue careers of their choice, or even jobs of their dreams.
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Instead, they dominated a large percentage of the domestic workforce no matter how young they were and how passionate they were to study and pursue careers of their choice. Unlike today, even prisoners were not granted the right to education. All this changed when Madiba signed the 1996 constitution through which education became a constitutional right regardless of who and what a person is.

  • In democratic South Africa, everyone has the right to acquire qualifications of their choice, and obtain a matric certificate regardless of how old they may be.
  • Underprivileged people have an opportunity to apply for government funding to study at any educational institution of their choice.
  • By being educated, we become servants and contribute to the advancement of our communities in building a just society for all.

: The importance of education to Madiba – Nelson Mandela Foundation
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What is education according to Tyler?

Ralph W. Tyler (1902–1994)- Curriculum Development Model Dr.V.K.Maheshwari, M.A(Socio, Phil) B.Sc.M. Ed, Ph.D Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G) College, Roorkee, India Ralph W. Tyler’s(1902–1994) illustrious career in education resulted in major contributions to the policy and practice of American schooling.

  • His influence was especially felt in the field of testing, where he transformed the idea of measurement into a grander concept that he called evaluation; in the field of curriculum, where he designed a rationale for curriculum planning in the realm of educational policy.
  • Ralph Winfred Tyler was born April 22, 1902, in Chicago, Illinois, and soon thereafter (1904) moved to Nebraska.

In 1921, at the age of 19, Tyler received the A.B. degree from Doane College in Crete, Nebraska, and began teaching high school in Pierre, South Dakota. He obtained the A.M. degree from the University of Nebraska (1923) while working there as assistant supervisor of sciences (1922-1927).

In 1927 Tyler received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago. After starting his career in education as a science teacher in South Dakota, Tyler went to the University of Chicago to pursue a doctorate in educational psychology. His training with Charles Judd and W.W. Charters at Chicago led to a research focus on teaching and testing.

Upon graduation in 1927, Tyler took an appointment at the University of North Carolina, where he worked with teachers in the state on improving curricula. In 1929 Tyler followed W.W. Charters to the Ohio State University (OSU). He joined a team of scholars directed by Charters at the university’s Bureau of Educational Research, taking the position of director of accomplishment testing in the bureau.

He was hired to assist OSU faculty with the task of improving their teaching and increasing student retention at the university. In this capacity, he designed a number of path-breaking service studies. Tyler first coined the term evaluation as it pertained to schooling. Because of his early insistence on looking at evaluation as a matter of evidence tied to fundamental school purposes, Tyler could very well be considered one of the first proponents of what is now popularly known as portfolio assessment.

After serving as associate professor of education at the University of North Carolina (1927-1929), Tyler went to Ohio State University where he attained the rank of professor of education (1929-1938). It was around 1938 that he became nationally prominent due to his involvement in the Progressive Education related Eight Year Study (1933-1941), an investigation into secondary school curriculum requirements and their relationship to subsequent college success.

In 1938 Tyler continued work on the Eight Year Study at the University of Chicago, where he was employed as chairman of the Department of Education (1938-1948), dean of social sciences (1948-1953), and university examiner (1938-1953). In 1953 Tyler became the first director of the Stanford, California-based Centre for Advanced Study in the Behavioural Sciences, a position he held until his retirement in 1966.

Tyler’s reputation as an education expert grew with the publication of Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Because of the value Tyler placed on linking objectives to experience (instruction) and evaluation, he became known as the father of behavioural objectives.

  1. Often called the grandfather of curriculum design, Ralph W.
  2. Tyler was heavily influenced by Edward Thorndike, John Dewey, and the Progressive Education movement of the 1920s.
  3. Thorndike turned curriculum inquiry away from the relative values of different subjects to empirical studies of contemporary life,Dewey promoted the idea of incorporating student interests when designing learning objectives and activities.

Tyler targeted the student’s emotions, feelings and beliefs as well as the intellect. Tyler also exercised enormous influence as an educational adviser. Tyler also started his career as an education adviser in the White House. In 1952 he offered U.S. President Harry Truman advice on reforming the curriculum at the service academies.

Under Eisenhower, he chaired the President’s Conference on Children and Youth. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration used Tyler to help shape its education bills, most notably the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, in which he was given the responsibility of writing the section on the development of regional educational research laboratories.

In the late 1960s Tyler took on the job of designing the assessment measures for the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), which are federally mandated criterion-reference tests used to gauge national achievement in various disciplines and skill domains.

  • The curriculum rationale
  • Ralph Tyler’s most useful works is Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, a course syllabus used by generations of college students as a basic reference for curriculum and instruction development.
  • Tyler stated his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions published in 1949 Tyler his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions that, he argued, must be answered in developing any curriculum plan of instruction

1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that will likely attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether the purposes are being attained? These questions may be reformulated into a four-step process: stating objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing learning experiences, and evaluating the curriculum.

  1. The rationale also highlighted an important set of factors to be weighed against the questions. Tyler believed that the structure of the school curriculum also had to be responsive to three central factors that represent the main elements of an educative experience:
  2. (1) the nature of the learner (developmental factors, learner interests and needs, life experiences, etc.);
  3. (2) the values and aims of society (democratizing principles, values and attitudes); and
  4. (3) knowledge of subject matter (what is believed to be worthy and usable knowledge).
  5. In answering the four questions and in designing school experience for children, curriculum developers had to screen their judgments through the three factors.

This reasoning reveals the cryptic distinction between learning specific bits and pieces of information and understanding the unifying concepts that underlie the information. Tyler asserted that this is the process through which meaningful education occurs, his caveat being that one should not confuse “being educated” with simply “knowing facts.

Indeed, learning involves not just talking about subjects but a demonstration of what one can do with those subjects. A truly educated person, Tyler seems to say, has not only acquired certain factual information but has also modified his/her behaviour patterns as a result. (Thus, many educators identify him with the concept of behavioural objectives.) These behaviour patterns enable the educated person to adequately cope with many situations, not just those under which the learning took place.

Tyler’s rationale has been criticized for being overtly managerial and linear in its position on the school curriculum. Some critics have characterized it as outdated and a theoretical, suitable only to administrators keen on controlling the school curriculum in ways that are unresponsive to teachers and learners.

  • The most well-known criticism of the rationale makes the argument that the rationale is historically wedded to social efficiency traditions.
  • Tylor’s Curriculum Development Model Ralph W.
  • Tyler: Behavioural Model Probably the most frequently quoted theoretical formulation in the field of curriculum has been that published by Ralph Tyler in 1949.Tyler model is deductive; it proceed from the general (e.g., examining the needs of society) to the specific (e.g., specifying instructional objectives).

Furthermore, the model is linear; it involve a certain order or sequence of steps from beginning to end. Linear models need not be immutable sequences of steps, however. Curriculum makers can exercise judgment as to entry points and interrelationships of components of the model.

Moreover, the model is prescriptive; it suggest what ought to be done and what is done by many curriculum developers. It is also unlike the curriculum of social reconstruction, it is more “society cantered.” This model positioned the school curriculum as a tool for improving community life. Therefore, the needs and problems of the social-issue is the source of the main curriculum.

Tyler (1990) holds that there are three forms of resources that can be used to formulate the purpose of education, i.e. individuals (children as students), contemporary life, and expert consideration of field of study. This development curriculum model means more of how to design a curriculum in accordance with the goals and the mission of an educational institution.

According to Taylor (1990) there are four fundamental things that are considered to develop a curriculum, which is the purpose of education who wants to be achieved, learning experience to achieve the goals, learning organizing experiences, and evaluation. Defining Objectives of the Learning Experience Tyler remarks, “The progressive emphasizes the importance of studying the child to find out what kinds of interests he has, what problems he encounters, what purposes he has in mind.

The progressive sees this information as providing the basic source for selecting objectives”, Tyler was interested in how learning related to the issues of society, and believed studies of contemporary life provided information for learning objectives.

He defines the learning objectives in terms of knowledge, communication skills, social and ethical perspective, quantitative and analytical skills, and cognitive/taxonomy. He proposes that educational objectives originate from three sources: studies of society, studies of learners, and subject-matter specialists.

These data systematically collected and analyzed form the basis of initial objectives to be tested for their attainability and their efforts in real curriculum situations. The tentative objectives from the three sources are filtered through two screens: the school’s educational philosophy and knowledge of the psychology of learning, which results in a final set of educational objectives Defining learning experience.

  • Once the first step of stating and refining objectives is accomplished, the rationale proceeds through the steps of selection and organization of learning experiences as the means for achieving outcomes, and, finally, evaluating in terms of those learning outcomes.
  • The term “learning experience” refers to the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can react.

Tyler argues that the term “learning experience” is not the same as the content with a course which deals nor activities performed by the teacher. Learning takes place through the active behaviour of the student; it is what he does that he learns not what the teacher does.

So, the learning experience of students refers to activities in the learning process. What should be asked in this experience is “what will be done and have been done by the students” not “what will be done and have been done by teachers.” Tyler recognizes a problem in connection with the selection of learning experiences by a teacher,

The problem is that by definition a learning experience is the interaction between a student and her environment. That is, a learning experience is to some degree a function of the perceptions, interests, and previous experiences of the student. Thus, a learning experience is not totally within the power of the teacher to select.

  1. Nevertheless, Tyler maintains that the teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, resulting in stimulating situations sufficient to evoke the desired kind of learning outcomes.
  2. There are several principles in determining student learning experiences, which are: (a) students experience must be appropriate to the goals you want to achieve, (b) each learning experience must satisfy the students, (c) each design of student learning experience should involve students, and (d) in one learning experience, students can reach different objectives.

“The most difficult problem is setting up learning experiences to try to make interesting a type of activity which has become boring or distasteful to the student”, He stresses, “Students learn through exploration”. Tyler’s mentor, John Dewey, also advocated that teachers should encourage children to become actively engaged in discovering what the world is like,

  1. No single learning experience has a very profound influence upon the learner,” remarks Tyler,
  2. Organizing of Learning Activities for Attaining the Defined Objectives.
  3. Organization is seen as an important problem in curriculum development because it greatly influences the efficiency of instruction and the degree to which major educational changes are brought about in the learners,” asserts Tyler.

He believes three major criteria are required in building organized learning experiences: Continuity, sequence, and integration. Students need concrete experiences to which the readings are meaningfully connected Tyler maintains that there are two types of organizing learning experiences, which is organizing it vertically and horizontally.

  • Organizing vertically, when the learning experience in a similar study in a different level.
  • There are three criteria, according to Tyler in organizing learning experiences, which are: continuity, sequence, and integration.
  • The principle of continuity means that the learning experience given should have continuity and it is needed to learning experience in advance.

Principles of content sequence means that the learning experience provided to students should pay attention to the level of student’s development. Learning experience given in class five should be different with learning experiences in the next class.

  • The principle of integration means that the learning experience provided to students must have a function and useful to obtain learning experience in other sectors.
  • For example, learning experience in Arabic language must be able to get help learning experience in the field of other studies.
  • Evaluation and Assessment of the Learning Experiences Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized by the curriculum.

Stated another way, the statement of objectives not only serves as the basis for selecting and organizing the learning experiences, but also serves as a standard against which the program of curriculum and instruction is appraised. Thus, according to Tyler, curriculum evaluation is the process of matching initial expectations in the form of behavioural objectives with outcomes achieved by the learner.

  • There are two functions of evaluation.
  • First, the evaluation used to obtain data on the educational goals achievement by the students (called the summative function).
  • Second, the evaluation used to measure the effectiveness of the learning process (called the formative function).
  • The process of assessment is critical to Tyler’s Model and begins with the objectives of the educational program.

Curriculum evaluation is the process of matching initial expectations in the form of behavioural objectives with outcomes achieved by the learner. There are two aspects that need to be concerned with evaluation, namely: the evaluation should assess whether there have been changes in student behaviour in accordance with the goals of education which have been formulated, and evaluation ideally use more than one assessment tool in a certain time.

  1. Tyler asserts, “The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction”,
  2. Furthermore, he states, “Curriculum planning is a continuous process and that as materials and procedures are developed they are tried out, their results are appraised, their inadequacies identified, and suggested improvements indicated”,

With his emphasis on the individual student Tyler believes that all evaluation must be guided by a purpose and be sensitive to the uniqueness of the individual being assessed. Tyler largely determine what he attends to, and frequently what he does, Tyler states, “Education is a process of changing the behaviour patterns of people”,
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What is education according to Dead Poets Society?

As its boarding school setting would suggest, Dead Poets Society is in large part a novel about education. The book articulates two competing theories about how young people should be educated: first, the process of rote memorization and blind obedience practiced by most teachers at Welton Academy (the “Welton way”); second, the process of training students to think for themselves (the “Keating way”).

  1. At Welton, students are trained to obey authorities and internalize whatever knowledge their teachers deem fit to pass on to them.
  2. According to the “Welton way,” education consists of an older, more experienced teacher passing on specific information to a classroom of younger, relatively inexperienced students.

Therefore, the ideal Welton student will obey authority without question, memorizing Latin, trigonometry, history, etc. But although the Welton way defines education as the internalization of specific pieces of information, education itself is just a means to an end: i.e., a way for Welton students to go to a good college and later get a good job.

  • The Welton way isn’t designed to foster any real passion for knowledge whatsoever; rather, it’s designed to produce graduates who will go on to make lots of money.
  • The “Keating way” of educating students, by contrast, is designed to get young people to think for themselves.
  • Content-wise, Keating’s classes stress the idea that a “good life” must be structured around one’s unique passions, not society’s rules.

Similarly, Keating’s theatrical, sometimes over-the-top methods push students to think originally and independently. He lets his students stand on desks, walk around the schoolyard, yell in class, and generally break out of their old, familiar habits at school.

  • The goal of these seemingly frivolous exercises is to train students to “un-learn” their blind obedience to Welton, and to authority in general.
  • Eating believes that students have innate passions and talents—his job, then, isn’t to pass on information to his students, but rather to help them cultivate the abilities they already have.

As many critics have pointed out, however, it’s not clear that Keating really trains his students to think for themselves at all. He tries to use humor, performance, and wit to train his students to think freely, but it seems likely that he’s just training his students to worship him.

  1. It’s telling that the novel shows Keating analyzing specific poems only once—he claims that he wants his students to love poetry, but in fact, he seems to want his students to love him,
  2. In short, one could argue, Keating’s students become blindly loyal to Keating where before they were blindly loyal to Welton.

While such an interpretation of Dead Poets Society may be beyond Kleinbaum’s authorial intent, it’s important to keep in mind. There is a potential contradiction in the notion of teaching students to think originally (how can you teach originality?), and at times, Keating seems to fall prey to such a contradiction, his theatricality as much of a barrier to free thought as the other Welton teachers’ dullness.
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What is education according to John Milton?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The tractate Of Education was published in 1644, first appearing anonymously as a single eight-page quarto sheet (Ainsworth 6). Presented as a letter, written in response to a request from the Puritan educational reformer Samuel Hartlib, it represents John Milton ‘s most comprehensive statement on educational reform (Viswanathan 352), and gives voice to his views “concerning the best and noblest way of education” (Milton 63).
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